Difference in Hip Prosthesis Femoral Offset Affects Hip Abductor Strength and Gait Characteristics During Obstacle Crossing

Department of Physical Therapy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50230, Thailand.
Orthopedic Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.25). 11/2012; 43(5):e48-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocl.2012.07.008
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this article is to determine if individuals with high rather than low femoral offset of a total hip arthroplasty achieve improved hip abductor muscle strength and thus improved their ability to step over an obstacle safely. These outcomes will help surgeons decide whether increasing the femoral offset helps a patient's physical function.

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    ABSTRACT: Limb-length discrepancy (LLD) arising from hip subluxation or dislocation and accompanied by insufficiency of hip abductor in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) can be corrected partially or completely with total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, information about post-THA changes in abductor strength related to preoperative LLD in patients with DDH is lacking. We aimed to explore the post-THA recovery course of abductor muscle strength and its related factors in patients with DDH. A cohort of 45 patients with unilateral DDH was divided into two groups according to their Crowe classification: patients with class I or II DDH formed Group M, and patients in class III and IV DDH formed Group S. The following parameters were measured on standardized antero-posterior hip radiographs taken in the supine position pre- and post-THA: abductor muscle length, abductor lever arm, LLD, and femoral offset (FO). Abductor strength was evaluated quantitatively with the Isomed 2000 isokinetic test system (1 week before the operation and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the operation). The contralateral normal hip joint served as a within-patient control. The affected side:healthy side ratios of the parameters above were calculated. Abductor strength ratio evaluated at the five follow-up time points was larger in Group M than that in Group S (p < 0.001). The average abductor strength ratio reached 78.5, 85.4, and 89.2 % at the 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative exams, respectively, in Group M, and reached 50.3, 63.2, and 72.9 % in Group S. The abductor muscle length ratio, the abductor muscle level arm ratio, and the FO ratio were significantly increased postoperatively, relative to preoperative assessment, in the two groups. LLD was reduced significantly postoperatively, relative to preoperative values, in both groups. Both preoperative LLD (r = -0.791, p < 0.001) and the change in abductor muscle length ratio (r = -0.659, p < 0.001) correlated with abductor strength recovery. Patients showed the greatest improvement in abductor strength within the first 6 months after THA, especially during the first 3 months. Abductor strength was consistently greater in patients with mild dysplasia than in patients with severe dysplasia. The extent of preoperative LLD and the increase in abductor length were related with post-THA abductor strength recovery in patients with DDH.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Differences in the performance of gait and gait-related activities of daily living are known to persist after total hip arthroplasty compared to healthy controls, but the specific underlying deficits (spatiotemporal, kinematics and kinetics) are not completely understood. This review aimed to map the differences between patients and controls, and between the operated and non-operated limb during various activities of daily living. Methods A computerized search with broad search terms was performed in the MEDLINE database. Primary inclusion criteria were: primary osteoarthritis as indication, comparison with healthy controls or comparison between the operated and the non-operated limb, and follow-up period at least six months after surgery. Findings The literature search yielded 2177 citations, of which 35 articles were included. Compared to controls, reductions were identified in the operated hip in sagittal range of motion, peak extension, sagittal power generation, abduction moment and external rotation moment. During stair ascent, these reductions did not become more apparent, although deficits in hip kinetics in all three planes were found. Walking speed and step length were reduced compared to controls at longer-term follow-up, but not at short-term follow-up. Interpretation The hip abduction moment deficit was present both in level walking and in stair ascent in total hip arthroplasty patients compared to controls. Reduced sagittal hip power generation and external rotation moment were also found, of which the clinical relevance remains to be established. Due to a low number of studies, many of the longer-term effects of THA on gait and gait-related ADL are not yet accurately known.
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