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56 Accepted by M. R. de Carvalho: 20 Apr. 2012; published: 17 Jul.
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 3390: 56–64 (2012)
A new species of Parotocinclus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the upper
Rio São Francisco, Brazil
PABLO LEHMANN A.¹ & ROBERTO E. REIS²
¹Laboratório de Ictiologia,Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos. Av. Unisinos, 950, 93022-000 São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil.
²Laboratório de Sistemática de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, P. O. Box 1429, 90619-900
Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A new species of the hypoptopomatine loricariid Parotocinclus is described based on material from three rivers belonging
to the upper and middle Rio São Francico basin, the Rio das Velhas and Rio Jequitaí on the right margin and the Rio
Paracatu on the left margin. The new species is readily distinguished from all congeners by having the abdomen
completely devoid of dermal plates between the pectoral girdle and the anus, by differences in rostral and postrostral
plates, and by having the pectoral girdle covered by skin medially and exposed and supporting odontodes only laterally.
Key words: Catfishes, Hypoptopomatinae, Neotropical, taxonomy, biogeography, systematics
Despite being entirely located on the of the Brazilian Shield, a region with the highest diversity of neoplecotomine
and hypoptopomatine loricariids, the Rio São Francisco basin harbours only a few, rather unrelated species of both
subfamilies. Of the neoplecostomines only Pareiorhaphis mutuca and Neoplecostomus franciscoensis are currently
known and among the hypoptopomatines four species are presently recorded for the entire basin: Otocinclus
xakryaba, Parotocinclus jumbo, P. pr ata and Plesioptopoma curvidens. During the course of an expedition
conducted in the Rio São Francisco basin in 1993 by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP), the
Museum of Sciences and Technology (MCP), and the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), specimens of a
remarkable new species of Parotocinclus were obtained. Two subsequent expedition (in May 2004 and October
2008) were organized to the area where the first specimens were collected, yielding several new specimens that
allow us to describe the new taxon.
Measurements and counts follow Carvalho & Reis (2009). Measurements were taken as point-to-point linear
distances with digital calipers under a dissecting scope on the left side of specimens, and recorded to the nearest 0.1
mm. Morphometric data are expressed as percents of standard length (SL), except for subunits of the head, which
are expressed as percents of head length (HL). Plate counts and nomenclature follow the schemes of serial
homology of Schaefer (1997). Vertebral counts include all vertebrae including the five centra modified into the
Weberian apparatus, with the compound caudal centrum (PU1+U1) counted as one element. Vertebral elements
were counted in cleared and stained specimens only. Osteological examinations were performed in specimens
cleared and double stained for bones and cartilages (c&s) prepared according to the technique of Taylor & Van
The specimens examined for this study are deposited in the following institutions: American Museum of
Natural History, New York (AMNH); Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (ANSP); Auburn
Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 57
NEW SPECIES OF PAROTOCINCLUS
University Museum, Auburn (AUM); Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (FMNH); Illinois Natural History
Survey, Urbana-Champaign (INHS); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus (INPA); Museo de
Biologia de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (MBUCV); Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Guanare
(MCNG); Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre
(MCP); Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge (MCZ); Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ); Museu
de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZUSP); Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien (NMW); and
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (UFRGS).
Parotocinclus robustus, new species
Fig. 1, Table 1
Holotype: MCP 46689, 42.0 mm SL, male, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Bocaiúva, Rio São Francisco basin, creek 45 km
S of Montes Claros on highway BR-135 towards Bocaiuva, Rio Jequitaí basin (17°05’31”S 043°49’48”W), 20 July
1993, R. Reis, J. Silva, E. Pereira & S. Schaefer.
Paratypes: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Rio São Francisco drainage: MCP 16746, 7, 26.5−30.7 mm SL + 1 c&s, 39.3
mm SL (5, 26.5−30.7 mm SL), and ANSP 192455, 3, 29.7−33.9 mm SL, collected with the holotype. MCP 36847,
8, 22.7−29.5 mm SL + 2 c&s, 24.2−29.2 mm SL (8, 22.7−29.5 mm SL), Francisco Dumont, Córrego Diamante on
road from Buriti Grande and the highway BR-135, Rio Jequitaí basin (17°25’53”S 044°07’17”W), 11 October
2004, R. Reis, P. Lehmann & E. Pereira. MCP 23645, 2, 22.3−28.2 mm SL + 1 c&s, 26.2 mm SL (2, 22.3−28.2 mm
SL), Santana do Riacho, Rio Cipó on road from Jabuticatubas to Santana do Riacho, Rio das Velhas basin (approx.
19°12’S 043°43’W), August 1994, F. Vieira, C. B. M. Alves & G. B. Santos. UFRGS 9881, 8, 21.2−30.2 mm SL
(4, 26.7−30.2 mm SL), João Pinheiro, Rio Santo Antônio on highway BR-040 from Canoeiros to João Pinheiros,
Rio Paracatu basin (17°57’37”S 045°42’17”W), 24 May 2008, T. Carvalho & F. Jerep.
Diagnosis. Parotocinclus robustus differs from all its congeners, except P. prata, by having the abdomen
completely devoid of dermal plates between the pectoral girdle and the anus (vs. abdomen varying from fully
covered with dermal plates to just a few plateles near the pectoral-fin axilla or anterior to the anus). From P. prata
it is readily distinguished by having the ventral surface of the head behind the lower lip smooth, without rugosities
in adults (vs. ventral surface of the head behind the lower lip highly rugose in adult specimens; Fig. 2), and by
having the postrostral plate 4 contacting the infraorbitals 3 and 4 (vs. postrostral plate 4 not contacting the
infraorbital series). The new species is also distinguished from most congeners, except P. arandai, P. bahiensis, P.
prata, and P. s pi lu ru s, by having the rostral plate not visible ventrally on the snout tip (vs. rostral plate visible
ventrally on the snout tip). Parotocinclus robustus is further distinguished from most congeners, except P. spilurus,
P. cearensis, P. prata, P. jumbo, P. spilosoma, and P. cesarpintoi, by having the pectoral girdle covered by skin
medially and exposed and supporting odontodes only laterally (vs. pectoral girdle exposed and supporting
odontodes both medially and laterally).
Description. Proportional measurements and counts in Table 1. Adult size medium for members of this genus
(maximum size 42.0 mm in SL). Body stocky, without conspicuous keels. Caudal peduncle vertically oval in cross
section. Dorsal profile of body convex anteriorly, rising from snout to supraoccipital tip, approximately straight
from that point to dorsal-fin origin, slightly concave from dorsal-fin origin to adipose-fin origin, and then
descending to end of caudal peduncle. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin. Least body depth at shallowest part
of caudal peduncle. Ventral profile slightly concave from snout tip to gill opening, slightly elevating posteriorly
along anal-fin base, almost straight along caudal peduncle. Lateral-line canal with pored tube visible from
compound pterotic to penultimate or antepenultimate plate in middle lateral series. Lateral line complete or with
small gap of 1−3 plates after the first 8 pored plates. Mid-dorsal and mid-ventral series of lateral plates incomplete,
terminating 3−5 plates before caudal fin. Dorsal surface of body covered by plates except for small naked area at
opening of swimbladder capsule posteroventrally to compound pterotic. Ventral surface of head and abdomen
naked. Lateral abdominal plates absent between pectoral-fin axilla and pelvic-fin origin. Pectoral girdle covered by
thick skin medially, exposed and supporting odontodes only laterally. Arrector fossa widely open medially, with
ventral expansion of cleithum and coracoid present only laterally.
LEHMANN & REIS
58 · Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press
TABLE 1. Morphometrics and meristics of Parotocinclus robustus. SD = Standard deviation, n = number of specimens, H =
Head deep; broadly round in dorsal view. Interorbital space flat to slightly convex; superior margin of orbit
slightly elevated. Parieto-supraoccipital slightly elevated posterior to orbit. Smaller individuals with two slightly
elevated crests on posterior portion of parieto-supraoccipital and few enlarged, slightly raised odontodes at its
posterior tip; crests and raised odontodes absent in larger specimens. Snout tip with small area of naked skin,
usually connected ventrally to the upper lip. Rostral and anterior postrostral plates without enlarged odontodes; all
odontodes similar in size and shape to those on remaining of head. Preopercle exposed and supporting odontodes
laterally, in front of opercle; canal-bearing lateral cheek plate moderately expanded mesially in triangular tip and
with unbranched canal. Eye small, dorsolaterally placed. Iris with dorsal operculum. Nostrils at posterior terminus
of pair of shallow depressions beginning close to snout tip, ovoid, slightly longer than wide, positioned closer to
anterior margin of orbit than to snout tip. Internareal area slightly elevated. Oral disk roughly circular; lips well
developed, occupying most of ventral surface of head. Lower lip short, not reaching to almost reaching line
between mesial tips of contralateral canal-bearing cheek plates. Both lips densely covered by papillae; lower lip
with larger papillae immediately posterior to dentaries and decreasing in size towards edge. Posterior edge of lower
lip deeply fringed. Maxillary barbel short, mostly adnate to lower lip and with free distal portion smaller than pupil
H n Low High Mean SD
Standard length (mm) 42.0 23 22.3 42.0 28.4 -
Percent of Standard Length
Head length 27.6 23 26.4 29.8 28.4 0.97
Predorsal Length 44.8 23 43.8 48.5 45.9 1.20
Dorsal-fin spine length 22.6 23 19.8 26.2 22.4 1.93
Anal-fin unbranched ray length 18.6 23 14.3 22.0 18.1 1.91
Pectoral-fin spine length 22.6 23 18.8 26.9 22.4 1.76
Pelvic-fin unbranched ray length 18.6 23 15.5 20.6 18.3 1.39
Cleithral width 30.5 23 25.9 31.6 29.1 1.91
Thoracic length 16.7 23 14.5 18.0 16.9 0.91
Abdominal length 21.7 23 17.0 24.6 21.7 1.45
Body depth at dorsal-fin origin 18.8 23 15.2 20.0 18.0 1.29
Caudal-peduncle length 32.4 23 29.0 33.5 31.3 1.09
Caudal-peduncle depth 10.7 23 9.1 10.8 9.9 0.56
Percent of Head Length
Snout Length 68.1 23 61.5 68.1 65.3 1.72
Orbital diameter 17.2 23 17.2 24.3 20.6 1.59
Interorbital width 49.1 23 43.3 51.4 47.2 2.31
Head depth 67.2 23 54.3 67.2 59.5 4.16
Suborbital depth 32.8 23 25.4 32.8 28.7 2.41
Mandibular ramus 13.8 23 13.4 18.6 14.5 1.18
Left premaxillary teeth 22 23 18 26 22.1 2.04
Right premaxillary teeth 23 23 18 28 22.3 2.16
Left dentary teeth 2423192622.22.03
Right dentary teeth 2323192521.61.90
Left lateral scutes 27 23 24 27 25.0 0.67
Right lateral scutes 27 23 24 27 25.2 0.71
Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 59
NEW SPECIES OF PAROTOCINCLUS
diameter. Teeth small and delicate; asymmetrically bifid. Medial cusp large and wide, rounded, lateral cusp small
and pointed, reaching approximately one-third to half-length of medial cusp. Accessory patch of unicuspid teeth on
both premaxilla and dentary bones absent.
FIGURE 1. Holotype of Parotocinclus robustus, MCP 46689, 42.0 mm SL, male. Brazil, Minas Gerais, Bocaiúva, Rio São
Francisco basin, creek 45 km S of Montes Claros on highway BR-135 towards Bocaiuva, Rio Jequitaí basin.
Dorsal fin originating at or slightly anterior to vertical line passing through end of pelvic-fin base. Dorsal fin
short, reaching 5−6 plates behind its base when adpressed. Nuchal plate exposed, not covered by skin. Dorsal-fin
spinelet platelike, trapezoidal in shape, wider than base of dorsal spine. Dorsal-fin locking mechanism non-
functional. Dorsal-fin spine moderately flexible, followed by seven branched rays. Adipose fin present and
LEHMANN & REIS
60 · Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press
preceeded by 1−2 middorsal, azigous plates. Pectoral fin moderate in size, with slightly curved and flattened spine
and six branched rays, first longest; subsequent branched rays decrease gradually in size. Posterior margin of
pectoral fin straight to slightly round, overlapping one third to half-lenght of pelvic-fin when adpressed. Pectoral-
fin axillary slit absent. Pelvic fin with one unbranched and five branched rays, almost reaching to just passing anal-
fin origin when adpressed. Pelvic-fin unbranched ray slightly depressed and curved, covered with minute
odontodes ventrally and laterally; odontodes on ventral margin strongly turned mesially. Males with low dermal
flap along posterodorsal margin of thickened first pelvic-fin unbranched ray, more conspicuous near base of ray;
absent in females. Anal fin with one unbranched and five branched rays, reaching five plates behind its base when
adpressed. Caudal fin forked to slightly concave; lower lobe slightly longer than upper; one upper unbranched, 14
branched, and one lower unbranched rays. Vertebral centra 28−30 (3 c&s).
Color in alcohol. Ground color of dorsal and lateral surfaces yellowish tan to light brown. Dorsolateral region
of head, snout, predorsal area and most of dorsal and lateral surface of trunk with many dark brown dots, conspicu-
ous in larger specimen (Fig. 1); absent in smaller (Fig. 3). Four irregular and variably conspicuous saddles; first
crossing anterior dorsal-fin base; second immediately posterior to dorsal-fin base; third immediately anterior to
adipose fin, and and fourth between adipose and caudal fins. Saddles broadly conneted laterally to dark brown
stripe that spans from above pectoral-fin base to before end of caudal peduncle. Light stripe from snout tip to each
nostril. Ventral surfaces whitish tan, with scattered patches of dark chromatophores, most concentrated on cheek
and caudal peduncle. Fins mostly unpigmented, except for dark transverse bands; 3−4 in dorsal, 2−3 in pectoral
and 1−2 in pelvic; 1−2 in anal fins. Caudal fin with vertically elongate, squarish dark blotch at base of rays, pre-
ceeded by conspicuous light transverse band at end of caudal peduncle. One of two irregular, sometimes oblicuous,
dark bands on caudal fin, connected to each other by dark pigmentation in central caudal-fin rays.
FIGURE 2. Ventral surface of head of Parotocinclus prata, MCP 28303, 47.7 mm SL, male.
Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 61
NEW SPECIES OF PAROTOCINCLUS
FIGURE 3. Color variation in Parotocinclus robustus, MCP 16746. A—27.0 mm SL, female; and B—28.6 mm SL, female.
FIGURE 4. Drainage map of eastern Brazil showing the distribution of Parotocinclus robustus (dots) and P. p ra ta (squares) in
the upper Rio São Francisco basin. Some symbols represent more than one collecting locality. Open symbol represent the type
LEHMANN & REIS
62 · Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press
Sexual dimorphism. Males possess the characteristic conical urogenital papilla, positioned just behind the
anal opening. Adult males also possess a low fleshy flap along the dorsal margin of the first thickened pelvic-fin
ray, that is absent in females. The flap is slightly deeper basally and progressively narrows distally. Flap is absent in
juvenile males and females.
Distribution and habitat. Parotocinclus robustus is known from three rivers belonging to the upper and
middle Rio São Francico basin, the Rio das Velhas and Rio Jequitaí on the right margin and the Rio Paracatu on the
left margin, suggesting that the species is widely distributed across the basin (Fig. 4). The type-locality and other
streams where the species was found are small to median-sized rivers with shallow water (0.4−1.5 m depth) and
slow to median-speed waterflow. The streams had clear to slightly turbid water running over a mixed bottom
composed of stones, gravel, sand and sometimes mud. Specimens were mostly collected on the marginal
Etymology. The species epithet robustus is from the Latin, meaning robust, referring to the strong and robust
appearance of the fish. An adjective.
The Rio São Francisco basin has only four species of the hypoptopomatines, two of which belonging to
Parotocinclus. Parotocinclus prata is known from the Rio da Prata, a tributary to the left margin of the upper Rio
São Francisco, and P. ju mb o, originally described from several smaller coastal basins in northeastern Brazil, but
also present in the Rio São Francisco basin (see comparative material examined). The new species is apparently
more closely related and chiefly resembles P. prata, both species being probably basal among Parotocinclus and
sister-species to each other. They share a unique feature among all Parotocinclus species of having the abdomen
completely devoid of dermal plates between the pectoral girdle and the anus. On the other hand, they are clearly
distinguished by the ventral surface of head behind the lower lip, which is smooth and without rugosities in adults
of the new species and highly rugose in P. p ra ta (Fig. 2); and by the postrostral plate 4 contacting the infraorbitals
3 and 4 in P. ro bustus and not contacting P. pr at a. In addition, P. prata is a larger species, attaining a maximum size
of 48.7 mm SL (MCP 28303), while the largest adult known of the new species has 42.0 mm SL. Parotocinclus
bahiensis also has the abdomen mostly naked, but as shown by Soares-Sarmento et al. (2009, fig. 2) it has small
platelets on the abdomen surface behind the exposed portion of the pectoral girdle and in the pre-anal region.
A subclade within what is currently know as Parotocinclus is formed by those species inhabiting the Guyana
Shield and the Amazonas and Orinoco basins, that are usually dark colored, small sized, and have a rather pointed
snout. Species in this clade, which is currently being described as a new genus by ourselves (Reis & Lehmann,
2011), are easily distinguished from P. ro bu st us by having (except P. collinsae) a triangular patch of dark
pigmentation on the anterior dorsal-fin base, among other synapomorphies. Parotocinclus collinsae, conversely, is
easily distinguished by having a patch of unicuspid accessory teeth on both the dentary and premaxilla, absent in P.
Further on Parotocinclus the Rio São Francisco basin has two additional members of the Hypoptopomatinae,
Otocinclus xakryaba and the recently described (Reis et al., 2012) Plesioptopoma curvidens. The new species is
easily distinguished from both species by having the abdomen completely naked and by possessing an adipose fin,
versus abdomen covered with plates and adipose fin absent in both species.
Comparative material examined. Parotocinclus arandai: MNRJ 28296 (holotype), MCP 43934 (3), MCP
43935 (1 c&s). Parotocinclus aripuanensis: MZUSP 36899 (holotype), MZUSP 36900 (1 paratype), MZUSP
36901 (1 paratype), MZUSP 36902 (1 paratype), MZUSP 36903 (1 paratype) , MZUSP 36904 (1 paratype),
MZUSP 36905 (1 paratype), MZUSP 36906 (1 paratype), MCP 35879 (50 + 4 c&s), MCP 35883(1), MCP 35884
(1), INPA 837 (3), INPA 1134 (2), INPA 1143 (7), INPA 4590 (10), INPA 6674 (4). Parotocinclus bahiesis: MBML
2124 (8), MBML 2147 (2 c&s). Parotocinclus britskii: INHS 31733 (10 + 2 c&s), INHS 49369 (1), ANSP 168171
(13), ANSP 168172 (16), ANSP 179130 (1), ANSP 179131 (5), ANSP 179132 (1), ANSP 179133 (3), ANSP
179134 (1), ANSP 179135 (1), ANSP 179137 (1), ANSP 179138 (15), ANSP 179139 (27), ANSP 179210 (3),
ANSP 179498 (6), AUM 35721 (1), AUM 35722 (4), AUM 35723 (2), AUM 35724 (4), AUM 35725 (20), AUM
35730 (37), AUM 36607 (21), MCNG 43374 (2), MCNG 29463 (12), MCNG 29427 (1), MCNG 29527 (1),
MCNG 16658 (1), MCNG 16476 (13), MCNG 16656 (2), MCNG 929 (1), MCNG 16041 (1), MCP 34708 (5),
Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 63
NEW SPECIES OF PAROTOCINCLUS
MCP 34709 (10). Parotocinclus cearensis: MNRJ 8689 (8 + 2 c&s paratypes), ANSP 69414 (1 paratype).
Parotocinclus cesarpintoi: MNRJ 1022 (3 syntypes), MNRJ 1024 (1 syntype), MNRJ (2 syntypes), MNRJ 1154 (8
+ 2 c&s syntypes), MCP 30562 (11), MCP 31462 (4 + 1 c&s), MCP 31464 (10 + 2 c&s). Parotocinclus collinsae:
AMNH 55433 (holotype), AMNH 55434 (2 of 4 paratypes), ANSP 175923 (1 c&s), ANSP 175927 (1), ANSP
179140 (4), AUM 35577 (10 + 1 c&s), MCP 34710 (3). Parotocinclus cristatus: MNRJ 10132 (holotype), MNRJ
10120-10126 (4 paratypes), MCP 17827 (2 + 1 c&s), MCP 18087 (15), MCP 18091 (20), MCP 18116 (31 + 2
c&s), MCP 19091 (20), MCP 34659 (5), MCP 34660 (2), MCP 34670 (2), MCP 36813 (10 + 2 c&s), ANSP
174135 (25). Parotocinclus doceanus: MZUSP 2698 (1 paratype), MZUSP 8059 (1 paratype), MZUSP 8060 (1
paratype), ANSP 174126 (12), ANSP 174127 (10 + 2 c&s), MCP 18084 (16 + 2 c&s), 18088 (3), 17828 (1).
Parotocinclus eppleyi: ANSP 160700 (5 + 1 c&s paratypes), ANSP 165845 (11 + 2 c&s paratypes), ANSP 165846
(1 paratype), ANSP 169470 (8 paratypes), MCP 33313 (10 paraypes, formerly MBUCV-V-22524), AUM
22338(2), AUM 22635 (6), FMNH 85863 (1), FMNH 103541 (40 of 162), FMNH 108763 (1), MCNG 3010 (3 of
4), MCNG 6957 (15 of 111), MCNG 21655 (1), MCNG 21698(3), MCNG 22184 (1), MCNG 22306 (1), MCNG
23323 (3), MCNG 23591 (2), MCNG 25886 (1), MCNG 26630 (20 of 30), MCNG 33131 (4 + 1 c&s), MCNG
34147 (2), MCNG 39512 (13), MCNG 41450 (3), MCNG 41460 (3), MCNG 44274 (3). Parotocinclus haroldoi:
MNRJ 10536 (1 paratype), MNRJ 10535 (1 paratype), MNRJ 11383 (5 + 3 c&s paratypes), FMNH 71345 (3).
Parotocinclus jimi: MZUSP 12133 (holotype), MZUSP 12134, 12135, 12141, 12144, 12153 (5 paratypes),
MZUSP 12154 (17 + 2 c&s paratypes), MCP 17876 (2), MCP 33329 (3 + 1 c&s), MCP 36830 (3), MCP 36934 (8).
Parotocinclus jumbo: MCP 12829 (2 + 1c&s), MCP 30563 (42), MCP 30688 (1), MCP 30914 (107 + 2 c&s), MCP
31107 (87 + 4 c&s). Parotocinclus longirostris: MZUSP 36891 (holotype), MZUSP 36892 (1 paratype), MZUSP
36893 (1 paratype), MZUSP 36894 (1 paratype). Parotocinclus maculicauda: NMW 45380 (1 paralectotype),
NMW 45381(1 paralectotype), MCZ 89082 (2 paralectotypes), MCP 10990 (35 + 2 c&s), MCP 17605 (3 + 2 c&s),
MCP 20075 (4 + 2 c&s), MCP 20077 (11), MCP 29086 (17 + 2 c&s), MCP 31591 (50 + 4 c&s), MCP 11544 (6),
MCP 11549 (4), MCP 12550 (1), MCP 16501 (2), MCP 16524 (2), MCP 16539 (1), MCP 16571 (1), MCP 16573
(3), MCP 16600 (3), MCP 17605 (5), MCP 17525 (5), MCP 17613 (18), MCP 20074 (5), MCP 20087 (17), MCP
20088 (2), MCP 20089 (1), MCP 20091 (1), MCP 20104 (18), MCP 20106 (5), MCP 20119 (3), MCP 22334 (4),
MCP 22335 (51), MCP 26133 (1), MCP 29086 (19), MCP 29094 (17), MCP 31589 (1), MCP 34455 (1), MNRJ
13745 (18 + 2 c&s), MNRJ 14845(20), MNRJ 13736 (10). Parotocinclus minutus: MNRJ 10135 (holotype), MNRJ
10133, 10134 (2 paratypes), MCP 40034 (8 + 2 c&s). Parotocinclus prata: MCP 28322 (17 + 1 c&s), MCP 27381
(4 paratypes), MCP 28303 (44 + 2 c&s), MCP 28320 (7), MCP 28322 (19), MCP 28325 (1), MCP 28326 (2), MCP
28327 (1), MCP 28335 (11), MCP 28341 (11), MCP 28346 (16), MCP 34234 (11), MZUSP 42205 (27 + 3 c&s).
Parotocinclus planicauda: MCP 27321 (1 + 1 c&s), MCP 27342 (1), MCP 31313 (1), MCP 31317 (8 + 2 c&s),
MCP 31341 (1), MCP 31342 (15), MCP 34370 (8), MCP 34397 (21). Parotocinclus polyochrus: AMNH 74482
(holotype), AMNH 77520 (1 paratype), INPA 15885 (1 + 1 c&s). Parotocinclus spilosoma: ANSP 69410
(holotype), ANSP 69417 (24 paratypes), AUM 20581 (26 + 2 c&s), AUM 28636 (1), AUM 28663 (1).
Parotocinclus spilurus: ANSP 69403 (holotype), ANSP 69404 (4 + 1 c&s paratypes).
We would like to thank Edson H. L. Pereira, Tiago P. Carvalho and Fernando C. Jerep for helping in the field and
collecting specimens of the new species. We also thank Fábio Vieira, Carlos B. M. Alves and G. B. Santos for the
long term collaborations in sending us specimens of loricariids. We are grateful to M. Lucena and C. Lucena for
support at the MCP fish collection and Vivianne B. Sant´Anna for helping with the map. This paper was financially
supported by the “All Catfishes Species Inventory” Project (NSF DEB 0315963) that provided funding fieldwork.
RER is partially funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq (process
LEHMANN & REIS
64 · Zootaxa 3390 © 2012 Magnolia Press
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southeastern South America, with a review of the genus in the rio Uruguay basin. Zootaxa, 2113, 1–40.
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(Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from northern South America. Abstracts of the 2011 meetings of the American Society of
Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Minneapolis, USA.
Reis, R.E., Pereira, E.H.L. & Lehmann, P. (2012) A new genus and species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes,
Loricariidae), from the upper Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Copeia, 2012(1), 6–11.
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Loricariidae). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 148, 1–120.
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