Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Signaling during Early Organogenesis

Burnham Institute for Medical Research, Development and Aging Program, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 10/2008; 134(6):921-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.002
Source: PubMed


Retinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A, is an essential component of cell-cell signaling during vertebrate organogenesis. In early development, retinoic acid organizes the trunk by providing an instructive signal for posterior neuroectoderm and foregut endoderm and a permissive signal for trunk mesoderm differentiation. At later stages, retinoic acid contributes to the development of the eye and other organs. Recent studies suggest that retinoic acid may act primarily in a paracrine manner and provide insight into the cell-cell signaling networks that control differentiation of pluripotent cells.

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    • "O): Distilled water. (CH activity of retinoic acid during the development of the vertebrate embryo (Duester, 2008). A similar finding of pyridoxal oxidase has been made in detailed studies of the enzyme purified from rabbit liver, which had higher activity (Choi et al., 1983). "
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    • "During embryogenesis vitamin A signaling through its bioactive metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) is indispensable for development of the body axis as well as most organs, including the kidney (Duester, 2008; Rhinn and Doll e, 2012). RA functions as a ligand for nuclear receptor (RAR) which binds with retinoid- X receptor (RXR) to RA response element (RARE) to modulate transcription of RA target genes. "
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