Propuesta para la creación de un bosque modelo en la subcuenca del río Mucujún, Mérida, Venezuela, utilizando el enfoque de manejo de paisajes

Revista Forestal Venezolana 01/2008; Vol 52:159-171.


RESUMEN: Los nuevos paradigmas del manejo de recursos naturales basados en el enfoque de paisajes toman en cuenta la multifuncionalidad y complejidad de los ecosistemas. Se analiza aquí cómo la subcuenca del río Mucujún, siendo un área de importancia estratégica para cubrir la demanda de agua potable para uso local y para casi un 70% de la ciudad de Mérida, un área natural donde el uso de la tierra está regulado por dos áreas protegidas y con importantes superficies de bosques naturales y plantaciones forestales, puede ser manejada con base en el enfoque de paisajes para el desarrollo de un Bosque Modelo. A partir de un análisis integral de los servicios ambientales, aspectos políticos y socioeconómicos se concluye que los actores locales y regionales con influencia en el Mucujún pueden establecer una asociación apoyada, tanto por la Red Internacional como por la Iberoamericana de Bosques Modelo para desarrollar un nuevo proceso de manejo participativo en esta zona andina de Venezuela. Sin embargo, la falta de una respuesta apropiada a problemas sociales básicos como la pobreza, la integración local y la ausencia de un proceso sincero de diálogo y consenso, pueden afectar en conjunto el bienestar de las comunidades y al mismo tiempo comprometer el futuro y estabilidad de los ecosistemas representados en la subcuenca. A partir de estas consideraciones, se discute un nuevo modelo de gobernabilidad basado en la descentralización y se incluyen recomendaciones de política para el fortalecimiento institucional y aspectos de planificación para el desarrollo del Bosque Modelo Mucujún.
ABSTRACT: New paradigms for natural resources management, based on landscape management take multi-functionality and complexity of ecosystems into account. Here, it is analyzed how Mucujún River Watershed, being of strategic importance as a water supplier for local inhabitants as well as to near 70% of Mérida city, and also a natural area where land use is regulated by two protected areas with an important natural forest and plantations area, can be managed based on landscape approach for the development of a Model Forest in the area. Based on a detailed analysis of the main environmental services of Mucujún river watershed and political-socioeconomic factors as well, it is believed that local and regional stakeholders can establish a partnership supported by both International and Iberoamerican Model Forest networks to develop a new participative management process in this important area of the Venezuelan Andes. However, the lack of an appropriate answer to poverty reduction, strong emphasis on local integration, and sincere dialogue and consensus, may affect the improvement of communities’ livelihoods and future stability of natural systems. On behalf of these considerations, a new model of governance based on decentralization is proposed. Finally, several policy recommendations for an institutional strengthening and planning are discussed in order to achieve maintenance of ecosystem services and to create adequate circumstances for local development.

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