Opiate-induced Changes in Brain Adenosine Levels and Narcotic Drug Responses.

Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford CA 94305.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.36). 10/2012; 228. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.10.031
Source: PubMed


We have very little information about the metabolomic changes that mediate neurobehavioral responses, including addiction. It was possible that opioid-induced metabolomic changes in brain could mediate some of the pharmacodynamic effects of opioids. To investigate this, opiate-induced brain metabolomic responses were profiled using a semi-targeted method in C57BL/6 and 129Sv1 mice, which exhibit extreme differences in their tendency to become opiate dependent. Escalating morphine doses (10-40 mg/kg) administered over a 4-day period selectively induced a two-fold decrease (p<0.00005) in adenosine abundance in the brainstem of C57BL/6 mice, which exhibited symptoms of narcotic drug dependence; but did not decrease adenosine abundance in 129Sv1 mice, which do not exhibit symptoms of dependence. Based on this finding, the effect of adenosine on dependence was investigated in genetically engineered mice with alterations in adenosine tone in the brain and in pharmacologic experiments. Morphine withdrawal behaviors were significantly diminished (P<0.0004) in genetically engineered mice with reduced adenosine tone in the brainstem, and by treatment with an adenosine receptor(1) (A(1)) agonist (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, 0.5 mg/kg) or an A(2a) receptor (A(2a)) antagonist (SCH 58261 1 mg/kg). These results indicate that adenosine homeostasis plays a crucial role in narcotic drug responses. Opiate-induced changes in brain adenosine levels may explain many important neurobehavioral features associated with opiate addiction and withdrawal.

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Available from: Manhong Wu, Feb 25, 2015
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    • "This adaptation might change the release of adenosine or change responsiveness to it. Many reports indicate an important role for adenosine as a metamodulator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity (de Mendonca and Ribeiro, 1994; Fujii et al., 1997, 1999, 2000a; Huang et al., 1999; Lu et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2013 "
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