Diagnosis, Evaluation and Follow-Up of Asymptomatic Microhematuria (AMH) in Adults: AUA Guideline

American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc., Linthicum, Maryland.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 10/2012; 188(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.078
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria.

Materials and methods:
A systematic literature review using the MEDLINE® database was conducted to identify peer reviewed publications relevant to the definition, diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up for AMH. The review yielded 191 evidence-based articles, and these publications were used to create the majority of the guideline statements. There was insufficient evidence-based data for certain concepts; therefore, clinical principles and consensus expert opinions were used for portions of the guideline statements.

Guideline statements are provided for diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up. The panel identified multiphasic computed tomography as the preferred imaging technique and developed guideline statements for persistent or recurrent AMH as well as follow-up.

AMH is only diagnosed by microscopy; a dipstick reading suggestive of hematuria should not lead to imaging or further investigation without confirmation of three or greater red blood cells per high power field. The evaluation and follow-up algorithm and guidelines provide a systematic approach to the patient with AMH. All patients 35 years or older should undergo cystoscopy, and upper urinary tract imaging is indicated in all adults with AMH in the absence of known benign causation. The imaging modalities and physical evaluation techniques are evolving, and these guidelines will need to be updated as the effectiveness of these become available. Please visit the AUA website at to view this guideline in its entirety.

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    • "External Validation of a Clinical Scoring System for Hematuria Seung Bae Lee 1 , Hyung Suk Kim 2 , Myong Kim 2 , Ja Hyeon Ku 2 * 2007; Davis et al., 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new scoring system in Korean patients with hematuria at high risk of bladder cancer. Materials and methods: A total of 319 consecutive patients presenting with painless hematuria without a history of bladder cancer were analyzed, from the period of August 2012 to February 2014. All patients underwent clinical examination, and 22 patients with incomplete data were excluded from the final validation data set. The scoring system included four clinical parameters: age (≥50 = 2 vs. <50 =1), gender (male = 2 vs. female = 1), history of smoking (smoker/ex-smoker = 4 vs. non-smoker = 2) and nature of the hematuria (gross = 6 vs. microscopic = 2). Results: The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) of the scoring system was 0.718 (0.655-0.777). The calibration plot demonstrated a slight underestimation of bladder cancer probability, but the model had reasonable calibration. Decision curve analysis revealed that the use of model was associated with net benefit gains over the treat-all strategy. The scoring system performed well across a wide range of threshold probabilities (15%-45%). Conclusions: The scoring system developed is a highly accurate predictive tool for patients with hematuria. Although further improvements are needed, utilization of this system may assist primary care physicians and other healthcare practitioners in determining a patient's risk of bladder cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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    • "Haematuria can be microscopic or macroscopic (visible to the naked eye) in nature, but both forms may be the sole manifestation of underlying serious pathology. Haematuria is most accurately defined as the presence of three or more red blood cells per high-powered field in two of three properly collected urinalysis specimens [1] [2]. It may be symptomatic or asymptomatic and occur in isolation or in association with other urinary tract abnormalities [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the current status of imaging in the investigation of patients with haematuria. The physician must rationalize imaging so that serious causes such as malignancy are promptly diagnosed while at the same time not exposing patients to unnecessary investigations. There is currently no universal agreement about the optimal imaging work up of haematuria. The choice of modality to image the urinary tract will depend on individual patient factors such as age, the presence of risk factors for malignancy, renal function, a history of calculus disease and pregnancy, and other factors, such as local policy and practice, cost effectiveness and availability of resources. The role of all modalities, including conventional radiography, intravenous urography/excretory urography, ultrasonography, retrograde pyelography, multidetector computed tomography urography (MDCTU), and magnetic resonance urography, is discussed. This paper highlights the pivotal role of MDCTU in the imaging of the patient with haematuria and discusses issues specific to this modality including protocol design, imaging of the urothelium, and radiation dose. Examination protocols should be tailored to the patient while all the while optimizing radiation dose.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Advances in Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Bladder cancer is frequently diagnosed during a workup for hematuria. However, most patients with microscopic hematuria and many with gross hematuria are not appropriately referred to urologists. We hypothesized that in patients presenting with asymptomatic hematuria the risk of having bladder cancer can be predicted with high accuracy. Toward this end, we analyzed risk factors in patients with asymptomatic hematuria and developed a nomogram for the prediction of bladder cancer presence. Methods: Data from 1,182 consecutive subjects without a history of bladder cancer undergoing initial evaluation for asymptomatic hematuria were collected at three centers. Clinical risk factors including age, gender, smoking status, and degree of hematuria were recorded. All subjects underwent standard workup including voided cytology, upper tract imaging, and cystourethroscopy. Factors associated with the presence of bladder cancer were evaluated by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. The multivariable analysis was used to construct a nomogram. Internal validation was performed using 200 bootstrap samples. Results: Of the 1,182 subjects who presented with asymptomatic hematuria, 245 (20.7 %) had bladder cancer. Increasing age (OR = 1.03, p < 0.0001), smoking history (OR = 3.72, p < 0.0001), gross hematuria (OR = 1.71, p = 0.002), and positive cytology (OR = 14.71, p < 0.0001) were independent predictors of bladder cancer presence. The multivariable model achieved 83.1 % accuracy for predicting the presence of bladder cancer. Conclusions: Bladder cancer presence can be predicted with high accuracy in patients who present with asymptomatic hematuria. We developed a nomogram to help optimize referral patterns (i.e., timing and prioritization) of patients with asymptomatic hematuria.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · World Journal of Urology
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