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Evaluation of dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract and vitamins

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Abstract

Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SCE) is used in cosmetics since it can act in oxidative stress and improve skin conditions. This study investigated dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing SCE and/or vitamins A, C and E. The formulation studied was supplemented or not (F1: vehicle) with vitamins A, C and E esters (F2) or with SCE (F3) or with the combination of vitamins and SCE (F4). Formulations were patch tested on back skin of volunteers. For efficacy studies, formulations were applied on volunteers and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin moisture (SM), skin microrelief (SMR) and free radicals protection were analysed after 3h, 15 and 30 days of application. Volunteers were also asked about efficacy perception. It was observed that F4 provoked a slight erythema in one volunteer. All formulations enhanced forearm SM. Only F3 and F4 presented long term effects on SMR and showed higher texture values; F3 had the highest brightness values. Our results suggest that vitamins and SCE showed effects in SM and SMR. Only formulations containing SC had long term effects in the improvement of SMR. Thus, these kinds of evaluations are very important in cosmetics development to evaluate the best risk and benefit correlation.

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Hyperpigmentation, such as melasma, postinflammatory melanoderma and dermatitis caused by increased production and accumulation of melanin are the major problems today. Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP) and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP), derivatives of ascorbic acid, having the inhibitory effect on skin melanin production and also has anti-inflammatory activity. Aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate loaded in three multiple emulsion formulations i.e. ME 1 , ME 2 , and ME 3 on facial skin melanin and erythema contents of Asian human females over 12-week treatment course. Thirty three female volunteers were enrolled to single-blinded, placebo-controlled, split-face trial, 3 groups of 11 volunteers each were treated with active treatments versus control/placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Evaluation was performed with non-invasive bioengineering techniques. Patch testing showed no side effects. Control multiple emulsion showed insignificant results while active multiple emulsion formulations showed a significant decrease in skin melanin and erythema content after statistically applied ANOVA (p <0.05). Ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are potent antioxidants. Treatments of human skin with active formulations; ME 1 , ME 2 , and ME 3 containing Ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate significantly reduces facial skin melanin and erythema thus could be explored further for the treatment of pigmentation disorders and dermatitis.
... Patch testing is a widely used procedure to evaluate acute irritant reactions of any formulation [11]. No erythema was observed after the application of ME 1 , ME 2 and ME 3 . ...
Article
Hyperpigmentation, such as melasma, postinflammatory melanoderma and dermatitis caused by increased production and accumulation of melanin are the major problems today. Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP) and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP), derivatives of ascorbic acid, having the inhibitory effect on skin melanin production and also has anti-inflammatory activity. Aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate loaded in three multiple emulsion formulations i.e. ME1, ME2, and ME3 on facial skin melanin and erythema contents of Asian human females over 12-week treatment course. Thirty three female volunteers were enrolled to singleblinded, placebo-controlled, split-face trial, 3 groups of 11 volunteers each were treated with active treatments versus control/placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Evaluation was performed with non-invasive bioengineering techniques. Patch testing showed no side effects. Control multiple emulsion showed insignificant results while active multiple emulsion formulations showed a significant decrease in skin melanin and erythema content after statistically applied ANOVA (p <0.05). Ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are potent antioxidants. Treatments of human skin with active formulations; ME1, ME2, and ME3 containing Ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate significantly reduces facial skin melanin and erythema thus could be explored further for the treatment of pigmentation disorders and dermatitis.
... In the brewing process, serial repitching of Saccharomyces biomass is usual; thus, yeast is reused four to six times before its disposal (Vieira et al., 2012). Yeast presents adaptive response to oxidative stress similar to that of human cells, consequently vitamins, namely B6 and B12, and minerals (enzyme co-factors), such as zinc, copper and manganese can accumulate in yeast (Gaspar et al., 2008). Moreover, Saccharomyces adsorb phenolic compounds from exterior medium, increasing its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content (Rizzo et al., 2006). ...
... Studies have shown that it reduces oxidative stress and maintains integrity of the mucosal barrier in mice and may be beneficial in gastrointestinal mucositis, a serious side effect of cancer therapy (Jumanah et al., 2017;Bastos et al., 2016;Ognjenovic et al., 2013). It is used in the formulation of cosmetics (Gaspar et al., 2008). ...
... Consequently, human skin needs additional UV protection via Appl Microbiol Biotechnol externally applied sunscreens. However, current chemical UVR protection is not adequate because commercially available sunscreens lack photostability and can produce free radicals leading to further skin damage, irritation, and allergic reactions (Gaspar et al. 2008;Gaspar and Maia Campos 2006;Greenspoon et al. 2013;Kawakami and Gaspar 2015). In addition, the UV-filter compounds (i.e., oxybenzone and benzophenone-3) used in cosmetic products (within sunscreens) and in the packaging industry, usually reach wastewater and groundwater, resulting in the destruction of ecosystems and environmental pollution (Chaves Sánchez-Quiles et al. 2020;Sharifan et al. 2016). ...
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... Mushroom-derived glucan was found to augment skin reaction induced by bradykinins, suggesting activation of endothelium via generation of vasoreactants and increase in sensitivity to vasoreactants [60]. In addition to wound healing, glucan is also used in cosmetic formulation, where it can act in oxidative stress and in improvement of various skin conditions, particularly skin moisture and skin microrelief [61]. A long-term use of glucan showed reduction of wrinkle depth, height and overall roughness [62], which is probably caused by stimulation of fibroblast and increase production of collagen. ...
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Glucans are part of a group of biologically active natural molecules and are steadily gaining strong attention not only as an important food supplement, but also as an immunostimulant and potential drug. This paper represents an up-to-date review of glucans (β-1,3-glucans) and their role in various immune reactions and the treatment of cancer. With more than 80 clinical trials evaluating their biological effects, the question is not if glucans will move from food supplement to widely accepted drug, but how soon.
... The safety of sunscreen filters is being widely studied since there is evidence that synthetic organic filters are associated with allergic reactions or photo-toxicity [18][19][20], endocrine disruption [21], skin penetration [22], low photo-stability and biodegradability and a lack of effectiveness in skin protection [23,24]. Dibenzoilmethane, benzophenone, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and their derivatives have been implicated as the cause of photoallergic dermatitis and the generation of oxygen radicals after solar exposition [25,26]. ...
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The safety and stability of synthetic UV-filters and the procedures for evaluating the photoprotective capability of commercial sunscreens are under continuous review. The influence of pH and temperature stressors on the stability of certain Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) isolated at high purity levels was examined. MAAs were highly stable at room temperature during 24 h at pH 4.5–8.5. At 50 °C, MAAs showed instability at pH 10.5 while at 85 °C, progressive disappearances were observed for MAAs through the studied pH range. In alkaline conditions, their degradation was much faster. Mycosporine-serinol and porphyra-334 (+shinorine) were the most stable MAAs under the conditions tested. They were included in four cosmetically stable topical sunscreens, of which the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and other Biological Effective Protection Factors (BEPFs) were calculated. The formulation containing these MAAs showed similar SPF and UVB-BEPFs values as those of the reference sunscreen, composed of synthetic UV absorbing filters in similar percentages, while UVA-BEPFs values were slightly lower. Current in vitro data strongly suggest that MAAs, as natural and safe UV-absorbing and antioxidant compounds, have high potential for protection against the diverse harmful effects of solar UV radiation. In addition, novel complementary in vitro tests for evaluation of commercial sunscreens efficacy are proposed.
... Mushroom-derived glucan was found to augment skin reaction induced by bradykinins, suggesting activation of endothelium via generation of vasoreactants and increase in sensitivity to vasoreactants [60]. In addition to wound healing, glucan is also used in cosmetic formulation, where it can act in oxidative stress and in improvement of various skin conditions, particularly skin moisture and skin microrelief [61]. A long-term use of glucan showed reduction of wrinkle depth, height and overall roughness [62], which is probably caused by stimulation of fibroblast and increase production of collagen. ...
... Kompleksitas pemilihan bahan-bahan penyusun produk gel facial wash baik bahan aktif maupun eksipien membuat produk-produk tersebut bersaing di pasaran dari segi efektivitas dan harga yang tawarkan. Untuk itu, diperlukan penelitian terkait pengembangan formula sediaan gel facial wash yang dapat memenuhi karakteristik aman, efektif, dan stabil [6]. ...
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Kesambi (Schleichera oleosa (L.) Oken.) merupakan tanaman khas provinsi Nusa TenggaraTimur. Pada esktrak etanol kulit kayu Kesambi terbukti mengandung triterpenoid yang berfungsi sebagaiantimikroba dalam melawan gram negatif dan positif. Sediaan facial wash sebagai pembersih wajahmerupakan produk yang umum digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari, namun dengan karakteristikekstrak etanol kulit kayu kesambi dan karakteristik formula standard facial wash yang berbeda akanmenjadi tantangan dalam memformulasikannya menjadi sebuah produk yang stabil. Pada penelitian inidikembangkan 9 formula (formula 1 s.d formula 9) facial wash yang mengandung ekstrak etanol kulit kayukesambi yang dievaluasi organoleptis dan viskositasnya. Selanjutnya ditentukan 3 formula terbaik yaituformula 7, 8, dan 9 untuk diuji stabilitas dipercepat menggunakan climatic chamber pada suhu 40 ± 2˚C dankelembaban relatif 75 ± 5% dengan titik pengamatan pada hari ke-0, 8, dan 30 sebanyak tiga replikasi. Tigaformula dievaluasi berdasarkan organoleptis, viskositas, tingkat busa, daya sebar dan pH selama uji stabilitas.Selain itu, dilakukan modifikasi pada konsentrasi gelling agent pada formula yang dirancang, yaitu 0,5%;0,7%; dan 0,8%. Berdasarkan uji stabilitas yang dilakukan, ketiga formula terbaik mengalami peningkatansignifikan pada parameter viskositas dan penurunan pada daya sebar akibat penguapan air yang terjadipada sediaan selama 30 hari penyimpanan, namun ketiga formula tersebut memiliki pH yang stabil, dimanapH sediaan tidak berubah secara bermakna setelah 30 hari penyimpanan. Namun ketiga formula dapatmempertahankan busa selama 30 hari penyimpanan. Perbedaan konsentrasi gelling agent berpengaruhterhadap viskositas yang dihasilkan. Berdasarkan pengamatan yang dilakukan, dapat disimpulkan formula7 adalah formula terbaik berdasarkan parameter organoleptis, viskositas, tingkat busa, daya sebar, dan pH.
... It is of interest to note that the benefit of S. cerevisiae when used as skin-conditioning agent has been demonstrated earlier [21]. Our study outlines the potential beneficial role of S. cerevisiae in skin (and gut) homeostasis. ...
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Background Psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are chronic inflammatory diseases sharing similar pathogenic pathways. Intestinal microbial changes such as a decrease of bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported in IBD, suggesting the presence of a gut-skin axis. Objective To investigate whether the S. cerevisiae abundance was altered in psoriasis patients versus healthy controls, and whether dimethylfumarate (DMF) interacted with this yeast. Methods Using qPCR, faecal samples were compared between psoriasis patients without DMF (n = 30), psoriasis patients with DMF (n = 28), and healthy controls (n = 32). Results Faecal S. cerevisiae abundance was decreased in psoriasis compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Interestingly, DMF use raised S. cerevisiae levels (p<0.001). Gastrointestinal adverse-effects of DMF were correlated with a higher S. cerevisiae abundance (p = 0.010). In vitro, a direct effect of DMF on S. cerevisiae growth was observed. In addition, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies were not elevated in psoriasis. Conclusion The abundance of baker’s yeast S. cerevisiae is decreased in psoriasis patients, but appears to be restored upon DMF use. S. cerevisiae is generally classified as a yeast with beneficial immunomodulatory properties, but may also be involved in the occurrence of DMF’s gastrointestinal adverse-effects. Potentially, DMF might be a new therapy for IBD.
... There is evidence that ROS are involved in the process of skin aging, and the topical application of cosmetics with antioxidant properties has certified biological effects on the ROS. 36,37,38,4 Alanine, aspartic acid, phenylalanine, histidine, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine are responsible antioxidant capacity peptides. 39,40 And the glycinin constituted in aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, lysine and arginine amino acids. ...
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Objective: To review commercial products with vegetal ingredients that are used in personal hygiene and cosmetics of daily use. Collect, in the form of a catalog, botanical and pharmaceutical considerations of these extracts. Method: A field work was carried out during six months, visiting the areas of hygiene and cosmetics of four pharmacies and of three large commercial areas of Seville. All the products in which a plant name appeared appeared: used the necessary bibliography obtained through databases: Scopus, Web Of Science. Results and discussion: We found extracts from 129 different plants distributed throughout the plant kingdom (except for bryophytes). Of these, 116 are seed plants, distributed in 59 different families, being the most important: Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae and Sapindaceae. 42% of the plants are herbaceous, the rest are woody and some thallus. Their origins can be related to the agricultural areas traditionally cultivated by man, such as the Mediterranean, Central Asia, India, Southeast Asia, China and Japan. The most used organs in the elaboration of these products are: seeds, fruits, flowers (followed by the leaves). The most abundant secondary metabolites are: flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, hesperidin), vitamins (C), carbohydrates (carrageenans and fuciodans) and lipids (mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids). The main uses are: antioxidant power, aromas and fragrances, nutrients and skin moisturizers, photoprotective effect, hair care and anti-cellulite. Conclusion: The vegetable sample that has been found may be representative of the botanical species that appear in cosmetics and skin products, and everyday products of Spain. A scientific basis has also been found that supports the properties and benefits of plant extracts in these products.
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Efficient UV-absorbing molecules are designed to protect against UV-light exposure. However, the development of photostable sunscreens is important to preserve the photoprotective efficacy and to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photodegradation products, which can promote phototoxic or photoallergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mangiferin and naringenin on the photostability and phototoxicity of sunscreens containing avobenzone. Cosmetic sunscreen formulations containing octocrylene (OCT), octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone (AVO) were prepared and supplemented or not with mangiferin, naringenin, or with both compounds in combination. For photostability studies, samples of the formulations were spread onto glass plates, exposed to UVA radiation and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine UV filters and the antioxidants recovery. The phototoxicity of the UV filters and antioxidants was evaluated using 3T3 fibroblast cultures that were subjected (or not) to irradiation according to OECD TG 432. The photostability studies demonstrated that AVO and naringenin showed the highest photodegradation when present in formulation FN (containing octocrylene, avobenzone, octyl methoxycinnamate and naringenin). The addition of mangiferin to this combination (FMN) resulted in an improved photostability of both substances compared to FN. The in vitro phototoxicity test showed that only avobenzone was considered phototoxic. The combination containing AVO/naringenin exhibited phototoxic potential; however, this was reduced by the addition of mangiferin (combination CMN). The results of this study are promising because it was demonstrated that mangiferin could increase the photostability and reduce the phototoxic potential of the combination of naringenin and AVO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) serves as a key regulator for ubiquitylation-mediated pathway. The identification of the corresponding relationship between E3 and its substrates is challenging but required for understanding the regulatory network of ubiquitylation. The low abundance of ubiquitinated conjugates and high redundancy of E3s-substrates regulation made screening pretty hard. Herein, we combined SILAC-based quantitative proteomics with two contrary genetic methods (overexpression and knockout) in theory for E3 (Hrt3, F-box subunit of SCF complex) substrates screening. The knockout method could not overcome the constraint mentioned above, while the overexpression approach turned on the access to the potential substrates of E3. Subsequently, we obtained 77 candidates which involved in many critical biological processes and needed to be verified one by one in the future. Within these candidates, we confirmed the relationship between one of the candidates Nce103 and Hrt3, and linked the Hrt3 with oxygen sensitivity and oxidative stress response which Nce103 took part in as well. This research was also beneficial for our understanding the impact of oxygen supply on regulation of yeast growth through the ubiquitination of Nce103.
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Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption.
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For decades, naturally produced plants have been studied and used in herbalism (herbal medicines). Despite being natural, these products were not of any interest of any of the major pharmaceutical companies. There are various reasons behind this ignorance but mainly because of the outdated thought, that many people believe about natural products, in which plants are only utilized for their antibiotic benefits since there were successfully used as antibiotics in the post-World War II era. Mainly small pharmaceutical companies have paid attention to natural products and explored their benefits against various diseases such as microbial infection, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other illnesses while big pharmaceutical industries have focused on screening synthetic compounds. Nowadays, natural products and their derivatives have demonstrated their significant impact as therapeutic agents on people heath. Accordingly, about one-third of the top-selling products in the pharmaceutical market are natural products which are either derived from plants or microorganisms. The use of such products is highly preferred by people due to their unique advantages of good therapeutic efficacy, low side effects and cheaper than synthetic products. However, many of natural products are not clearing the clinical trials due to their toxicity and problems with biocompatibility. This review will briefly highlight the history of herbal medicine and will cover pharmaceutical formulations prepared from therapeutically active extracts of natural products. In addition, this article will summarise a range of natural products in conventional dosage forms to the most recent nano-medicinal forms.
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Sustainable industry practices and circular economy concepts encourage the transformation of production waste into by-products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in fermentation industry worldwide, generating large amounts of spent yeast which is mainly directed to animal feed or discarded as waste. Instead of becoming and environmental problem, spent yeast can be directed to the extraction of valuable compounds such as mannans and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS). This review presents a compilation of the studies up to date regarding the different chemical, enzymatic, mechanical or physical processes addressed for mannans extraction and MOS production. Additionally, the existing studies on the chemical modification of mannans aimed to improve specific characteristics are also discussed. Finally, the more relevant bioactivities and potential applications of mannans, MOS and mannose are presented, together with products on the market containing these compounds.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate, assessed by two in vitro techniques: 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test and Human 3-D Skin Model In Vitro Phototoxicity Test. For this, four different formulations containing vitamin A palmitate and different UV-filters combinations, two of them considered photostable and two of them considered photounstable, were prepared. Solutions of each UV-filter and vitamin under study and solutions of four different combinations under study were also prepared. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (3T3-NRU-PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D-PT). Avobenzone presented a pronounced phototoxicity and vitamin A presented a tendency to a weak phototoxic potential. A synergistic effect of vitamin A palmitate on the phototoxicity of combinations containing avobenzone was observed. H3D-PT results did not confirm the positive 3T3-NRU-PT results. However, despite the four formulations studied did not present any acute phototoxicity potential, the combination 2 containing octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) presented an indication of phototoxicity that should be better investigated in terms of the frequency of photoallergic or chronic phototoxicity in humans, once these tests are scientifically validated only to detect phototoxic potential with the aim of preventing phototoxic reactions in the general population, and positive results cannot predict the exact incidence of phototoxic reactions in humans.
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Rice [Oryza sativa L. (Gramineae)] bran is a rich source of phytochemicals. Its oil also contains several bioactive components that exhibit antioxidative properties such as ferulic acid (F), γ-oryzanol (O), and phytic acid (P) which can be a new source of cosmetic raw materials. To evaluate the anti-aging effects of the gel and cream containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds. The semi-purified rice bran extracts containing F, O, and P which indicated the growth stimulation of human fibroblasts and the inhibition of MMP-2 by sulforhodamine B and gelatin zymography, respectively, were entrapped in niosomes by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid (scCO(2)) and incorporated in gel and cream formulations. The skin hydration, elasticity, thickness and roughness, and pigmentation in human volunteers after treated with these gel and creams were investigated by corneometer, cutometer, visiometer, and mexameter, respectively. Gel and cream containing the semi-purified rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes gave no sign of erythema and edema detected within 72 h on the shaved rabbit skin by the closed patch test investigated by mexameter and visual observation, respectively. These formulations also demonstrated higher hydration enhancement and improvement of skin lightening, thickness, roughness, and elasticity on the skin of 30 human volunteers within the 28-day treatment not more than 9, 27, 7, 3, and 3 times, respectively. The formulations containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds gave superior clinical anti-aging activity which can be applied as a novel skin product.
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Age has a huge influence on skin roughness; with increasing age, the number of collagen and elastine fibers is reduced and elasticity decreases significantly. Pharmaceutical and cosmetics, environmental factors and lifestyle have an important effect on skin. In this study, the efficacy of 12 commercial anti-wrinkle products was evaluated using a direct non-invasive method to measure the skin surface morphology. Four clinical parameters surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) (Ser, Sesc, Sesm, and Sew) were evaluate using Visioscan(®) VC98. Two hundred and forty-eight healthy female volunteers, aged between 30 and 70 years, were chosen for this study. The duration of treatment was 28 days. Skin microrelief parameters were evaluated using the Visioscan(®) VC98 - SELS 2000 from Courage+Khazaka. Measurements were made in the crow's feet area and the differences were evaluated for statistical significance. Significant differences were found for some of the SELS parameters. According to the results obtained for SELS Sew, products that showed to be more effective against aging were V, M, N, T, P, R and L. We think this methodology may be considered very useful for the direct study of the skin surface and may be suitable as a routine method in wrinkle evaluation.
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We have analyzed the proteins that are oxidatively damaged when Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to stressing conditions. Carbonyl groups generated by hydrogen peroxide or menadione on proteins of aerobically respiring cells were detected by Western blotting, purified, and identified. Mitochondrial proteins such as E2 subunits of both pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, aconitase, heat-shock protein 60, and the cytosolic fatty acid synthase (α subunit) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were the major targets. In addition we also report the in vivomodification of lipoamide present in the above-mentioned E2 subunits under the stressing conditions tested and that this also occurs with the homologous enzymes present in Escherichia coli cells that were used for comparative analysis. Under fermentative conditions, the main protein targets in S. cerevisiae cells treated with hydrogen peroxide or menadione were pyruvate decarboxylase, enolase, fatty acid synthase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Under the stress conditions tested, fermenting cells exhibit a lower viability than aerobically respiring cells and, consistently, increased peroxide generation as well as higher content of protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides. Our results strongly suggest that the oxidative stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells shares common features.
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Among the many active agents for dermocosmetic purposes that have been described, marketed, and prescribed, vitamins (vitamin A palmitate among them) and alpha-hydroxy acids such as glycolic acid have been gaining scientific importance. Vitamin A palmitate contributes to the maintenance of skin softness and smoothness, improving the water barrier properties of the tissue. Glycolic acid has yielded highly satisfactory results in terms of recovery of aged skin. The combination of low concentrations of glycolic acid with vitamin A palmitate has been extensively used in dermocosmetic formulations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the histopathological alterations caused by formulations containing vitamin A and/or glycolic acid in guinea pig skin, determined by appropriate stereologic techniques. The following formulations were applied to specific shaved areas of guinea pig skin: gel alone (used as the dermocosmetic base), gel with vitamin A added, gel with glycolic acid added, and gel with both vitamin A and glycolic acid added. After application of the formulations for one week, skin biopsies were obtained from the animals and we investigated the histopathological alterations. Under the present experimental conditions, both the formulations containing vitamin A and glycolic acid caused increased epidermal thickness, with cells of larger volume due to intra-and extracellular edema (hydration). This epithelial thickening was not limited to the upper cell layers but was also present in the basal and spinous layers. These alterations were even more evident with the use of the formulation containing a combination of vitamin A and glycolic acid.
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We have analyzed the proteins that are oxidatively damaged when Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to stressing conditions. Carbonyl groups generated by hydrogen peroxide or menadione on proteins of aerobically respiring cells were detected by Western blotting, purified, and identified. Mitochondrial proteins such as E2 subunits of both pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, aconitase, heat-shock protein 60, and the cytosolic fatty acid synthase (α subunit) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were the major targets. In addition we also report the in vivomodification of lipoamide present in the above-mentioned E2 subunits under the stressing conditions tested and that this also occurs with the homologous enzymes present in Escherichia coli cells that were used for comparative analysis. Under fermentative conditions, the main protein targets in S. cerevisiae cells treated with hydrogen peroxide or menadione were pyruvate decarboxylase, enolase, fatty acid synthase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Under the stress conditions tested, fermenting cells exhibit a lower viability than aerobically respiring cells and, consistently, increased peroxide generation as well as higher content of protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides. Our results strongly suggest that the oxidative stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells shares common features.
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Ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) exposure results in a variety of cellular insults including induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Accumulation of these lesions can lead to mutations in critical genes and contribute to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Topically applied alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) has previously been shown to prevent the induction of skin tumors in UVB irradiated female C3H/HeNTac mice. We hypothesized that alpha-tocopherol, which absorbs strongly in the UVB, may act as a sunscreen to prevent photodamage. To explore possible mechanisms of photoprotection, we topically applied alpha-tocopherol dispersed in a neutral cream vehicle to the dorsal epidermis of female C3H/HeNTac mice and exposed them to 2.5 J/m2/s of UVB for 60 min. Immediately after exposure, we analyzed thymine dimer levels in DNA by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Epidermal DNA from mice receiving this UVB dose contained 247 +/- 42 pmol thymine dimers/micromol thymine. Topical application of alpha-tocopherol inhibited dimer formation in a dose-dependent manner. A 1% alpha-tocopherol dispersion inhibited the formation of thymine dimers to 43% of levels in vehicle controls. Several vitamin E compounds, including alpha-tocopherol acetate, alpha-tocopherol methyl ether, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol also inhibited thymine dimer formation, but were five- to ten-fold less potent than alpha-tocopherol. A variety of commercially available sunscreens were also less potent than alpha-tocopherol in their ability to reduce dimer formation. These results suggest that DNA photoprotection is an important mechanism by which topically applied alpha-tocopherol can inhibit UVB induced skin cancer. Alpha-Tocopherol acetate, the most common form of vitamin E in commercial skin care products, conferred less protection, perhaps due to its lower absorptivity in the UVB. Our results further underscore the importance of determining which forms of vitamin E can inhibit specific lesions involved in photocarcinogenesis.
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Some types of cosmetic products such as hand soaps and creams are commonly used several times a day, especially in occupational use situations. Little has experimentally been shown of how the daily frequency of the application of an allergen in a product influences the allergic response. This study investigates the allergic responses elicited in presensitized individuals when exposed to a specific amount of allergen applied either in 1 application per day or distributed over 4 applications per day. As model allergen, the cosmetic preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) is used. 19 contact allergic individuals and 12 controls participated in a double-blind, randomized use test. To areas on the forearms were applied 2 drops either once daily of a solution containing 0.04% MDBGN or 4 times a day of a solution containing 0.01% MDBGN. 14 of 19 patients developed dermatitis following the application of approximately equal amounts of MDBGN on both arms. Controls were negative. In this experiment, applications of 0.04% MDBGN once daily or 0.01% MDBGN 4 times daily had, in a use test, approximately equal capabilities of provoking allergic contact dermatitis. This adds new knowledge to the risk assessment and regulation of cosmetic allergens. However, these results may be highly allergen dependent, and further studies are needed before more general conclusions can be made.
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In this study we investigated the effect of beta-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on fungicidal activity, cytokine production and natural killer activity. Spleen and peritoneal cells from female C57BL/6 mice, previously injected (24 or 48 h) with 20 or 100 microg of glucan by i.p. route, were assayed. In vivo beta-glucan administration primed spleen cells for a higher production of IL-12 and TNF-alpha when S. aureus was used as a stimulus. In addition, beta-glucan increased NK spleen cells activity against YAC target cells. Some immunomodulatory activities not yet described for beta-glucan were observed in this work.
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Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks). Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline) to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5) and 14 days (94.8). Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline) to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1). Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days). Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice.
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The objective of the study was to compare measurements of skin hydration and of biomechanical properties performed on different zones of face and volar forearm. Two short-term (1 h) and two long-term (3 weeks) studies were conducted with a moisturizing and a firming product, respectively, on groups of female volunteers with dry skin. Measurements (Corneometer) and Dermal Torque Meter or DTM were performed on different zones of the face and of the volar forearm, 1 h after product application, and after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of repeated twice daily application. While the sebaceous-gland rich T-zone behaves differently, probably due to sebum/skin, sebum/product and/or sebum/measuring device interactions, there are no statistically significant differences between measurements made on temple, cheek, maxilla and volar forearm. The volar forearm is representative of the face for measuring skin hydration and biomechanical properties, and relevant for the assessment of the efficacy of cosmetic products destined for facial use.
Article
Moisturizers containing vitamins A and E as well as ceramides are believed to improve the skin condition by increasing the water content of the stratum corneum. The aim of this research was to evaluate, through the capacitance method (a non-invasive method), the moisturizing effect of an O/W emulsion (non-ionic self-emulsifying base) containing vitamin A palmitate, vitamin E acetate, and ceramide III on human skin. The studies were carried out on a group of 40 healthy Caucasian female rest subjects between 30 and 45 years of age, using the Corneometer CM 825 PC. Skin measurements were taken from the volunteers at 7 and 30 days after daily use (twice a day) of the tested products. The presence of vitamins A and E or ceramide III did not cause an improvement in the hydration of the stratum corneum, which means that none of those compounds strengthens the hydration effectiveness of the base formulations used, at least at the doses tested. The interpretation of electrical measurement regarding skin moisture should be made with caution; thus the results observed in this study show the importance of using different approaches (or methodologies) to verify the performance of the formulas tested. We conclude that, at the low doses typically used in cosmetic formulations, vitamins A and E and ceramide III are not likely to contribute to the hydrating effects of the base moisturizing formulation when assessed by capacitance.
Article
• Live yeast cell derivative is an alcoholic extract from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that has previously been shown by three groups of workers to stimulate wound healing. Live yeast cell derivative is a complex mixture, and it was not known which of its many components was responsible for the biological activity. This study describes the separation and analysis of the major components, one of which is a peptide fraction that stimulates wound healing. The fraction consists of a mixture of peptides from 6000 to 17000 d. It causes angiogenesis in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane assay and in a rabbit cornea assay, and it dramatically stimulates wound healing in the "Schilling/Hunt" wire mesh cylinder model at concentrations 25-fold lower than those required for the intact live yeast cell derivative. (Arch Surg. 1990;125:641-646)
Article
β-Glucan is a major component of the yeast cell wall, and plays an important role in the immune system and skin protection. The composition and structure of the yeast cell wall vary with species. The yeast cell wall is also affected by the composition of media and the culture conditions. After cultivating Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cell wall fraction was prepared by cell lysis using a homogenizer. The crude cell wall extracts were purified to the soluble β-glucan by ethanol precipitation followed by DEAE ion-exchange chromatography, ConA chromatography, and freeze-drying. In batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae, the soluble β-glucan content and the resistance of the cell wall to β-glucanase was highest at early stationary phase. In continuous cultivation of S. cerevisiae, the soluble β-glucan content and the resistance of cell wall to β-glucanase were higher at lower dilution rate. Based on the results obtained from batch and continuous cultivation of S. cerevisiae, fed-batch cultivation was chosen for the mass production of soluble β-glucan. When S. cerevisiae was grown on 1.5-fold concentrated Dw medium and 15g of glucose 50ml−1 solution was fed intermittently, 0.13g β-glucang−1 dried cell was obtained, and the productivity of β-glucan was 0.095g β-glucanl−1 culture brothh−1.
Article
Sustainable rates of sebaceous wax ester secretion were measured on the foreheads of 109 men and 167 women, aged 15-97. Each measurement was made after first depleting the cutaneous sebum reservoir by overnight absorption of lipid into a layer of bentonite clay. Lipid was then absorbed for 3 h into fresh clay in which two 2-cm cloth disks were embedded. The absorbed lipid was extracted from the disks with ether and analyzed for wax esters by thin-layer chromatography. For both men and women there was a wide range of wax ester secretion rates at all ages. Rates were highest in the 15- to 35-year-olds and appeared to decline continuously throughout the adult age range. Values of log(wax esters) were better correlated with age than the untransformed values of wax ester secretion. The equations of best fit of log(wax esters) vs age suggested that sebum secretion declines about 23% per decade in men and 32% per decade in women.
Article
Preparations from yeast have been used for a long time for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. Studies have identified glucan from the cell wall of baker's yeast as an immunologically active agent. Glucan is a poly beta-( 1-3)-linked glucopyranose of high molecular weight and belongs to the class of compounds known as biological response modifiers. Glucan preparations are involved in the activation of the body's natural defence mechanisms and in the acceleration of the skin's wound healing processes. In the skin, Langerhans' cells and keratinocytes are the immunologically competent cells. Recent studies indicate that UV irradiation can deplete the number and viability of these cells (immunosuppression). The use of non-specific immune-stimulators, such as glucan, is a new approach for improving the function of stressed skin. We have developed a process to modify pure glucan from baker's yeast to carboxymethyl glucan (CM-glucan), a water soluble product suitable for topical formulations. The functional properties of this new compound have been investigated in vitro and in vivo. Cell culture experiments showed that CM-glucan protects skin cells against the depletion of antioxidant molecules upon UV-A irradiation and promotes the growth of keratinocytes. In placebo controlled studies with healthy volunteers, the pretreatment of skin with CM-glucan offered substantial protection against skin damage caused by a detergent challenge or UV-A irradiation. In addition, CM-glucan enhanced the renewal rate of the stratum corneum.
Article
Predictive tests are of value in forecasting the response of a population to a sensitizer; diagnostic testing is used to determine what substances may actually be producing dermatologic problems. Skin sensitization predictive and diagnostic data for the eleven most frequently encountered skin sensitizers in Western Europe, Canada and the United States are reviewed. These compounds include two drugs (benzocaine and neomycin), two cosmetic ingredients (p-phenylenediamine and balsam of Peru), four preservatives (formaldehyde, ethylenediamine, parabens and mercurials) and three ingredients of wearing apparel (nickel, chromium and thiram). Many of the data were collected by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group and the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group on tests with 1,200 and 4,825 dermatologic patients, respectively; the remainder were obtained by individual investigators with smaller groups of subjects. The data obtained by various investigators are discussed in relation to the factors which affect the extent and degree of sensitization which they can cause.
Article
Live yeast cell derivative is an alcoholic extract from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that has previously been shown by three groups of workers to stimulate wound healing. Live yeast cell derivative is a complex mixture, and it was not known which of its many components was responsible for the biological activity. This study describes the separation and analysis of the major components, one of which is a peptide fraction that stimulates wound healing. The fraction consists of a mixture of peptides from 6000 to 17,000 d. It causes angiogenesis in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane assay and in a rabbit cornea assay, and it dramatically stimulates wound healing in the "Schilling/Hunt" wire mesh cylinder model at concentrations 25-fold lower than those required for the intact live yeast cell derivative.
Article
The influence of vitamin E (tocopherol, CAS 10191-41-0) on stratum corneum hydration was tested in O/W and W/O emulsions. Additionally, the O/W emulsion was used in an in vivo/in vitro method to gravimetrically obtain evidence concerning the water-binding capacity of the stratum corneum. In the W/O emulsion, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% vitamin E were compared. With both types of emulsions, vitamin E increased the stratum corneum hydration statistically significantly (p = 0.0002). In addition, we could provide evidence of an enhanced water-binding capacity after treatment with vitamin E (p = 0.05). For the hydrating effect of vitamin E. its concentration is of importance. The optimum concentration turned out to be 5%.
Article
The recently developed Skin Visiometer, based on light transmission through blue-coloured silicone replicas, was used to study skin microrelief. Calibrated metal plates displaying lines with depths between 6 and 361 microns, were used to determine the accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of the technique as well as the parameters of importance during measurement. The precision of the measurements was particularly good between 10 microns and 361 microns. The sensitivity of the method was between 10 and 20 microns. Replicas of volar forearm skin were taken from four groups (n = 15) of male and female volunteers in the age ranges 20 to 30 years and 55 to 65 years. In addition to the instrumental roughness parameters (Rz, Rt, Rm and Ra), the surface of the furrows, the number of primary and secondary lines and the number of intersections were determined. For both sexes, significantly lower values were observed for Rz, Rm and Rt in the younger age group than in the older age group. In addition, the numbers of primary and secondary lines and the number of intersections were higher, pointing to a more structured microrelief in younger forearm skin. Diurnal rhythm, the relative humidity of the measuring room and the position of the forearm were found to be significant factors, while room temperature and precleansing of the skin with mild products were not. Following the application of a hydrating cream (twice daily for 14 days) to the forearm skin of the older female age group, the Rz, Rt, Rm and Ra decreased, while the other parameters measured, except for the surface taken in by the lines, increased, indicating that the microrelief was modified towards the typical pattern observed in young skin.
Article
Non-invasive bioengineering methods are widely used in the assessment of irritant skin reactions. To assess the ability of eight non-invasive measurement techniques to distinguish changes in skin conditions over time, these changes being induced by five different irritants. The following techniques were compared in a multivariate analysis: laser-Doppler perfusion imaging (LDI), laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), visual scoring (VS), colorimetric measurements (Chromameter CR 200 a* and L* scales), Mexameter Hb scale (Mexa Hb) and capacitance (Corneometer CM 820). Irritants tested were sodium lauryl sulphate 2% (SLS), tape stripping (TS), tretinoin 0.05% (TRET), ultraviolet (UV) exposure to 30 W m(-2) UVB/95 W m(-2) UVA, and dithranol 0.5% (DIT). Measurements were performed at baseline and after 24, 48 and 72 h. The study was conducted on the upper back of 11 healthy volunteers of both sexes aged 27-51 years. For DIT it was possible to discriminate over time with CR 200 a* and L*, VS, LDI, LDF and Mexa Hb. In SLS discrimination over time was seen with TEWL and LDF. Discrimination in TS was demonstrated for TEWL, VS, CR 200 a*, CM 820, LDF, LDI and Mexa Hb. In TRET discrimination ability was seen for LDI, LDF, Mexa Hb and VS. For UV it was possible to discriminate using VS, TEWL, LDF, LDI and Mexa Hb. Different irritation patterns need different measurement modalities in order to give optimal discrimination over time.
Article
Moisturizers containing vitamins A and E as well as ceramides are believed to improve the skin condition by increasing the water content of the stratum corneum. The aim of this research was to evaluate, through the capacitance method (a non-invasive method), the moisturizing effect of an O/W emulsion (non-ionic self-emulsifying base) containing vitamin A palmitate, vitamin E acetate, and ceramide III on human skin. The studies were carried out on a group of 40 healthy Caucasian female test subjects between 30 and 45 years of age, using the Corneometer CM 825 PC. Skin measurements were taken from the volunteers at 7 and 30 days after daily use (twice a day) of the tested products. The presence of vitamins A and E or ceramide III did not cause an improvement in the hydration of the stratum corneum, which means that none of those compounds strengthens the hydration effectiveness of the base formulations used, at least at the doses tested. The interpretation of electrical measurement regarding skin moisture should be made with caution; thus the results observed in this study show the importance of using different approaches (or methodologies) to verify the performance of the formulas tested. We conclude that, at the low doses typically used in cosmetic formulations, vitamins A and E and ceramide III are not likely to contribute to the hydrating effects of the base moisturizing formulation when assessed by capacitance.
Article
Unlabelled: New methods to protect skin from photodamage from sun exposure are necessary if we are to conquer skin cancer and photoaging. Sunscreens are useful, but their protection is not ideal because of inadequate use, incomplete spectral protection, and toxicity. Skin naturally uses antioxidants (AOs) to protect itself from photodamage. This scientific review summarizes what is known about how photodamage occurs; why sunscreens--the current gold standard of photoprotection--are inadequate; and how topical AOs help protect against skin cancer and photoaging changes. This review is intended to be a reference source, including pertinent comprehensive reviews whenever available. Although not all AOs are included, an attempt has been made to select those AOs for which sufficient information is available to document their potential topical uses and benefits. Reviewed are the following physiologic and plant AOs: vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, silymarin, soy isoflavones, and tea polyphenols. Their topical use may favorably supplement sunscreen protection and provide additional anticarcinogenic protection. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:1-19.) Learning objective: At the completion of this learning activity, participants should have an understanding of current information about how the sun damages skin to produce skin cancer and photoaging changes, how the skin naturally protects itself from the sun, the shortcomings of sunscreens, and the added advantages of topical AOs for photoprotection.
Article
Methods are described for the extraction and analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, using modifications of the oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC(FL)) procedure. These methods provide, for the first time, the ability to obtain a measure of "total antioxidant capacity" in the protein free plasma, using the same peroxyl radical generator for both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Separation of the lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant fractions from plasma was accomplished by extracting with hexane after adding water and ethanol to the plasma (hexane/plasma/ethanol/water, 4:1:2:1, v/v). Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants were efficiently partitioned between hexane and aqueous solvents. Conditions for controlling temperature effects and decreasing assay variability using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe were validated in different laboratories. Incubation (37 degrees C for at least 30 min) of the buffer to which AAPH was dissolved was critical in decreasing assay variability. Lipophilic antioxidants represented 33.1 +/- 1.5 and 38.2 +/- 1.9% of the total antioxidant capacity of the protein free plasma in two independent studies of 6 and 10 subjects, respectively. Methods are described for application of the assay techniques to other types of biological and food samples.
Article
At the outermost surface of human skin, skin surface lipids are first-line targets of solar ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B irradiation induce photo-oxidation of skin surface lipids. To test this, sebum samples were collected from facial skin of 17 healthy volunteers, weighed, and immediately irradiated with either ultraviolet B or ultraviolet A. Squalene, the major sebum lipid, as well as photo-oxidation products were identified in sebum lipid extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Upon ultraviolet A exposures squalene was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas an unidentified sebum lipid photo-oxidation product was detected. Using high-performance thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance, unidentified sebum lipid photo-oxidation product was identified as a mixture of squalene monohydroperoxide isomers. Squalene monohydroperoxide isomers purified from sebum were identical with squalene monohydroperoxide isomers synthesized by preparative photo-oxidation of squalene. Squalene monohydroperoxide isomers were formed even after small suberythematogenic doses of ultraviolet A (5 J per cm2). Whereas physiologic baseline levels of squalene monohydroperoxide isomers in human skin were only slightly above detection limits, squalene monohydroperoxide isomer levels were strongly increased by suberythematogenic doses of ultraviolet A both in vitro and in vivo. High-performance liquid chromatography results could be complemented by a straightforward thin layer chromatography method for rapid screening of lipid peroxide formation in human sebum/skin surface lipids. In conclusion, specific squalene monohydroperoxide isomers were identified as highly ultraviolet A sensitive skin surface lipid breakdown products that may serve as a marker for photo-oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.
Article
Skin aging represents an important chapter of connective tissue aging and concerns an organ of vital importance. Here we describe the preparation as well as the biological properties of fucose-rich oligo- and polysaccharides (FROPs), composed of polymers of a trisaccharide containing galactose, acetyl galacturonic acid and fucose, from the original high molecular weight bacterial polysaccharide (Fucogel), Solabia, France). Using endoglycosidases, oligo- and polysaccharides were prepared and characterized by physical and chemical procedures. The non-reducing end-groups comprise equal amounts of galactose and fucose. The here-described biological properties are: stimulation of cell proliferation of cultured human skin fibroblasts, protection of cells against ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity due to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Properties elsewhere described concern the inhibition of matrix metallo-proteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), their expression and activation. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled polysaccharides, their interaction with cell membranes and also their penetration and accumulation in cells, especially in the cell nucleus could be demonstrated, probably via cell-membrane receptor-mediated mechanisms. We describe some of the symptoms of skin aging and show, that the here-described polysaccharide preparations are susceptible to slow down some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved, partly by the mediation of the above-mentioned receptors, partly by acting directly on the regulation of gene expression.
Article
The ultraviolet (UV) portion of sunlight is involved in the induction and development of skin cancers against which a limited photoprotection may be provided by reduced time of exposure, clothing, and sunscreen applications. The concept of an effective, safe, systemic photoprotection will circumvent many of the shortcomings. The UV-induced oxidative stress is a cause of DNA damage and a few publications have shown, in humans, minimal benefits, if any, of the oral intake of antioxidant complex, contrasting with the large literature showing beneficial effects in vitro or in animal models. We investigated, in 25 healthy individuals, the capacity of an antioxidant complex (AOC) - vitamins (lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), selenium - to reduce UV-induced damages. The AOC was administered orally, daily during 7 weeks. Before and after irradiations, before and after the intake of the product, six parameters were studied: skin color by chromametry, minimal erythemal dose and, on skin biopsies, sunburn cells (SBCs), p53 detected by immunohistochemistry, pigmentation index, and levels of lipoperoxides (thiobarbituric acid reaction). After the oral intake of AOC, we observed an elevation of the actinic erythema threshold (+20%, P=0.01) and a general reduction of the UV-induced erythemas, a reduction of the UV-induced p53 expression (P<0.05) and of SBCs (P<0.01), and a parallel reduction of the lipoperoxide levels (P<0.01). The pigmentation was increased (P<0.01). After the oral intake of an antioxidant complex, many parameters of the epidermal defense against UV-induced damages are significantly improved. The oral intake of AOC could provide a safe, daylong and efficient complement to photo-protective measures provided by topical and physical agents and may contribute to reduce the DNA damages leading to skin aging and skin cancers.
Article
Over the past decade, great progress has been made toward elucidating the structure and function of the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis. SC cells (corneocytes) protect against desiccation and environmental challenge by regulating water flux and retention. Maintenance of an optimal level of hydration by the SC is largely dependent on several factors. First, intercellular lamellar lipids, organized predominantly in an orthorhombic gel phase, provide an effective barrier to the passage of water through the tissue. Secondly, the diffusion path length also retards water loss, since water must traverse the tortuous path created by the SC layers and corneocyte envelopes. Thirdly, and equally important, is natural moisturizing factor (NMF), a complex mixture of low-molecular-weight, water-soluble compounds first formed within the corneocytes by degradation of the histidine-rich protein known as filaggrin. Each maturation step leading to the formation of an effective moisture barrier--including corneocyte strengthening, lipid processing, and NMF generation--is influenced by the level of SC hydration. These processes, as well as the final step of corneodesmolysis that mediates exfoliation, are often disturbed upon environmental challenge, resulting in dry, flaky skin conditions. The present paper reviews our current understanding of the biology of the SC, particularly its homeostatic mechanisms of hydration.
Article
Vitamin C, which is a strong anti-oxidant, plays an important role in maintaining physiological states. In dermatology, Vitamin C is used for treatment of various skin problems such as de-pigmentation of hyperpigmented spots. However, Vitamin C has limited stability and permeability, and development of a Vitamin C derivative with improved properties is needed. We evaluated the effect of a lipophilic Vitamin C derivative, tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid (VC-IP), on ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin pigmentation, to determine its potential as a more effective form of Vitamin C. The release of Vitamin C from VC-IP was examined using a reconstructed skin model following topical application of VC-IP. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of VC-IP were tested in cultured human keratinocytes. Subsequently, clinical test was done to clarify the effect of VC-IP on UVB-induced skin pigmentation. VC-IP released Vitamin C in physiological conditions and worked as pro-Vitamin C. In subsequent experiments, we found that VC-IP suppressed the elevation of intracellular peroxide after UVB irradiation, and enhanced cellular tolerance against UVB and reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Furthermore, VC-IP reduced the production of interleukin-1alpha and prostaglandin E2 in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and suppressed melanocyte proliferation in conditioned culture medium prepared from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. Finally, in a clinical study, topical application of a 3% VC-IP cream for 3 weeks suppressed pigmentation after UVB irradiation. These results demonstrate that VC-IP is a precursor of Vitamin C, and effectively suppresses UVB-induced skin pigmentation, possibly through its anti-oxidative activity.
Article
The polysaccharide-rich composition of Aloe vera extracts (Aloe barbadensis Miller), often used in cosmetic formulations, may impart moisturizing properties to the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cosmetic formulations containing different concentrations of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract on skin hydration, after a single and a 1- and 2-week period of application, by using skin bioengineering techniques. Stable formulations containing 5% (w/w) of a trilaureth-4 phosphate-based blend were supplemented with 0.10%, 0.25% or 0.50% (w/w) of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract and applied to the volar forearm of 20 female subjects. Skin conditions in terms of the water content of the stratum corneum and of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (Corneometer CM 825 and Tewameter TM 210) were analysed before and after a single and 1- and 2-week period of daily application. After a single application, only formulations supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% (w/w) of Aloe vera extract increased the water content of the stratum corneum, while after the 2-week period application, all formulations containing the extract (0.10%, 0.25% and 0.50%) had the same effect, in both cases as compared with the vehicle. TEWL was not modified after a single and after 1- and 2-week period of application, when compared with the vehicle. Our results show that freeze-dried Aloe vera extract is a natural effective ingredient for improving skin hydration, possibly through a humectant mechanism. Consequently, it may be used in moisturizing cosmetic formulations and also as a complement in the treatment of dry skin.
Article
It is already known that the photostability of a sunscreen is important for its performance on human skin. On the other hand, there are many formulations besides sunscreens containing combinations of UV-filters and daily use active substances with other claims like hydration and anti-aging effects. Vitamins A, C and E are frequently added in these kinds of products and it is not known if the UV-filters have some influence on the hydration and anti-aging effects of these vitamins on the skin as well as on their stability mainly when photounstable UV-filters like avobenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate are present in the formulation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different UV-filters combinations, a photostable and a photounstable one, on the photostability as well as on the efficacy of a formulation containing vitamin A, C and E derivatives. The formulations that were investigated contained or not (vehicle: formulation 1) a combination of 0.6 % (w/w) vitamin A palmitate (1,700,000 UI/g), 2 % (w/w) vitamin E acetate and 2% (w/w) ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate (formulation 2) supplemented with a photounstable UV filter combination octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) (formulation 3) or with a photostable UV filter combination OMC, benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and octocrylene (OC) (formulation 4). In the photostability studies, all formulations were spread onto a glass plate and exposed to UVA/UVB irradiation. The filter components and vitamins were quantified by HPLC analysis with detection at 325 and 235 nm and by spectrophotometry. To simulate the effects of these formulations daily use, all of them (formulations 1-4) were applied on the dorsum of hairless mice, which were submitted to a controlled light-dark cycle (and were not irradiated), once a day for 5 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), water content of the stratum corneum and viscoelastic properties of the skin were analyzed by using different non-invasive Biophysics Techniques in order to evaluate hydration and anti-aging effects of these formulations as well as erythema to assess skin irritation. Histopathology, viable epidermal thickness as well as the number of epidermal cell layers were also evaluated. It was observed that both UV filters combinations (photounstable one containing OMC, AVB and MBC and photostable one containing OMC, BP-3 and OC) enhanced vitamin A photostability and F4 was more photostable than F3, in terms of vitamin A. In vivo efficacy studies showed that F2, F3 and F4 enhanced the viable epidermal thickness, the number of epidermal cell layers, TEWL and Uv/Ue parameter, when compared to the vehicle, which can suggest that they enhanced viable epidermis hydration and acted in cell renewal. However formulation 2 (containing only vitamins), which was the most photounstable formulation, provoked an irritation on hairless mouse skin, and consequently it cannot be considered as safe as the other formulations. It can be concluded that both UV filters combinations did not influence the hydration and anti-aging effects of the formulations containing the vitamins under study and reduced the skin irritation observed when the vitamins were present in the formulation. In addition, the photostable UV-filters combination had the highest recovery of vitamin A in the photostability studies. Finally, it could be suggested that the presence of UV-filters can be considered interesting for the reduction of skin irritation and the most suitable formulation was the one containing the combinations of vitamins A, C and E with photostable UV-filters.
Article
The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test (ROAT) reactivity. This study was aimed at determining the elicitation threshold in nickel-allergic individuals in a patch test and a ROAT, and comparing the threshold from these two test methods. Twenty nickel-allergic persons were tested with a dilution series of 19 concentrations in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0.78 microg nickel cm(-2) in the patch test. The threshold for the ROAT (in microg nickel cm(-2) per application) was significantly lower than the threshold for the patch test, while the dose-response for the accumulated ROAT dose at 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks was very similar to the patch test dose-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold for the ROAT. This may be important for risk assessment based on dose-response results from allergic patients.
Article
The cornified cell envelope (CE) formed by transglutaminase-mediated ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine cross-linking of specialized corneocyte proteins is the most insoluble component of the terminally differentiated keratinocyte. Under normal Nomarski optics, two types of CE are readily distinguishable: an irregularly shaped, readily deformed ‘fragile’ envelope (CEf), which predominates in the deepest layers of the stratum corneum, and a polygonal “resilient” or ‘rigid’ envelope (CEr), which represents over 80% of the CE population in the superficial layers. This distinct spatial distribution indicates a maturation of the CE from the fragile to the resilient morphology during stratum corneum maturation. In this study, we have examined morphological and physical changes occurring in the CE during the terminal differentiation. The proportion of CEf and CEr present in superficial samples of stratum corneum were readily distinguishable following staining with Tetrarhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) and showed significant body site variation. The percentage of CEf was highest on samples recovered from exposed body sites (back of hand > cheek > inner arm [bicep region]) suggesting innate body site differences or that photodamage and other environmental trauma can reduce or delay normal CE maturation. Soap-induced dryness resulted in a significant decrease in CE maturation coincidental with reduced corneodesmosomal hydrolysis. Effective moisturization of winter-induced dry skin enhanced CE maturation (33% increase in TRITC fluorescence, n = 14 following 4-week treatment). Using a novel micromanipulation instrument, the force required (µN) to maximally deform individual CEf and CEr was compared. CEf recovered from deep stratum corneum were significantly softer and weaker than CEr recovered from superficial layers. These studies indicate that the normal process of CE maturation is associated with an actual strengthening of this insoluble protective structure and that the impairment of this process is associated with poor quality of the stratum corneum. L'enveloppe de la cellule cornée (CE), formée par la réticulation de protéines spécialisées, via la formation de ponts ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine, est le composant le plus insoluble du kératinocyte totalement différencié. Dans des conditions optiques du type Nomarski classique, deux types de CE sont identifiables: l'un de forme irrégulière, à l'enveloppe aisément fragile et déformée (Cef) qui prédomine dans les couches les plus profondes de la peau et l'autre, une enveloppe polygonale, “rigide”“résistante” (CEr) qui représente environ 80% des CE des couches les plus superficielles. Cette nette distribution spatiale indique une maturation de la CE allant de la morphologie fragile vers résistante durant la maturation du stratum corneum. Dans cette étude, nous avons examiné les modifications morphologiques et physiques apportées à la CE au cours de la différentiation terminale. Les proportions des CEf et CEr présentes dans les échantillons de stratum corneum les plus superficiels étaient aisément distinguées par la colouration à l'isothiocyanate de Tetrarhodamine (TRITC) et montraient d'importantes variations selon le site cutané. Le pourcentage de Cef était le plus élevé dans des sites exposés (main-site dorsal > joue > biceps interne), indiquant que les dommages solaires et autres stress environnementaux réduisent ou retardent la maturation normale des CE. La sécheresse induitepar le savon a conduit à une chute significative dans la maturation de la CE concomitante à une hydrolyse réduite des desmosomes. Une hydratation efficace de la peau sèche hivernale augmentait la maturation de la CE (+33% du signal fluorescent du TRITC, n = 14, suite à un traitement de 4 semaines). L'utilization d'un nouvel instrument de micromanipulation permet de comparer les forces (µN) requises pour déformer au maximum les CEr et CEf individuelles. Les CEf obtenues des couches profondes du stratum corneum étaient significativement plus faibles que celles des CEr des couches les plus superficielles. Ces études indiquent que le processus normal de la maturation de la CE est associéà un véritable renforcement de cette structure insoluble et protectrice et que son affaiblissement conduit à un stratum corneum de mauvaise qualité.
Evaluation of the protective effect of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in a sunscreen, preventing erythema formation, transepidermal water loss and sunburn cell formation
  • Gaspar
Gaspar, L.R., Maia Campos, P.M.B.G., 2003. Evaluation of the protective effect of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in a sunscreen, preventing erythema formation, transepidermal water loss and sunburn cell formation. IFSCC Magazine 6, 213-217.
Evaluation of in vitro photostability of different sunscreens and its influence on in vivo SPF
  • L R Gaspar
  • A Nakano
  • I M N S R Santos
  • Maia Campos
Gaspar, L.R., Nakano, A., Dos Santos, I.M.N.S.R., Maia Campos, P.M.B.G., 2006. Evaluation of in vitro photostability of different sunscreens and its influence on in vivo SPF. In: 24th IFSCC Congress Osaka, 2006.
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