Age as a Long-Term Prognostic Factor in Bariatric Surgery

*Digestive, Colorectal and Minimal Invasive Surgery, University of Torino, Turin, Italy †AOU San Giovanni Battista and University of Torino, Turin, Italy.
Annals of surgery (Impact Factor: 8.33). 11/2012; 256(5):724-9. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182734113
Source: PubMed


: To analyze the potential effects of preoperative age on postoperative weight loss in patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) with long-term follow-up data.
: The reasons for individual differences in surgically induced weight loss are not completely understood. To date, there are no available studies specifically aimed at analyzing the effects of age on weight loss in patients undergoing the same operation and with long-term follow-up data.
: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for all patients who underwent RYGBP between 2006 and 2010. To evaluate weight loss, we used preoperative and follow-up body mass index (BMI), analyzed by the mixed-effects linear model for repeated measures. To evaluate age effects, patients were classified in quartiles (≤35 years, 36-42 years, 43-51 years, ≥52 years).
: A total of 489 patients entered the study; preoperatively, the younger group showed a significantly higher BMI (mean BMI: 48.2 in patients aged ≤35 years, 46.9 in 36-42 years, 45.5 in 43-51 years, 45.7 in ≥52 years, P = 0.014) and a higher percentage of super-obesity (41.6% among patients aged ≤35 years, 28.1% among 36-42 years, 27.6% among 43-51 years, 28.3% among ≥ 52 years, P = 0.047). In spite of this, younger patients experienced a significantly greater and prolonged BMI decrease during the entire follow-up period and the BMI trend over time resulted significantly modified according to age quartiles (P = 0.036).
: This study provides a new prognostic factor in bariatric surgery: patient age. Because advanced age represents a risk factor for complications and mortality, and given that bariatric surgery may not be as effective in older patients compared to younger subjects, we believe that surgical indications in patients older than 50 years should be carefully weighed up.

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    • "Maximising the health benefits obtained from bariatric surgery is therefore a key priority. Several preoperative clinical factors such as BMI, sex, age, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are suggested to impact upon weight loss outcomes [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]. However, we have recently shown that early, 3–6-month postoperative weight loss is the strongest predictor of maximal and 2-year postoperative weight loss response [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm −2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, í µí± = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, í µí± = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (í µí± = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (í µí± = 0.034), and improved " Change in Health " in QoL domain (í µí± = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (í µí± = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of obesity
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Preoperative prediction of weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) could help surgeons in managing surgical lists and patients' expectations. The objective of this study was to understand if preoperative metabolic control might improve surgical results. Methods: Prospective cohort of 163 consecutive patients who underwent RYGB with at least 1 year of follow-up. Results: Most patients were female (90.2%), with a mean age of 38 (19-60) and a BMI of 46.0 (34.3-59.9) kg/m(2). After 12 months, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.7 kg/m(2) (21.5-39.9) with a corresponding percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL) of 78.8% and a percentage of weight loss (%WL) of 35.1%. Patients with the highest preoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) were older (42 versus 36; P<.001); were more likely to have type 2 diabetes (T2 DM, 40% versus 6.8%; P<.001) and metabolic syndrome (89% versus 25%; P<.001), had a slightly higher BMI (30.8 versus 29.3 kg/m(2); P = .03), and had achieved a significantly lower %EWL and %WL at 12 months (72.5% versus 81.2%; P = .004; 33.2 versus 35.9%; P = .03, respectively). We observed a dose-response effect with increasing FBG (<85 mg/dL, 85-100 mg/dL, and ≥ 100 mg/dL, respectively), with 83.5%, 80.0%, and 72.5% (P = .009) of %EWL at 12 months. By multivariate logistic regression, initial BMI and FBG>100, were the only variables related (inversely) with the probability of achieving a %EWL>80 or %WL>35. This effect was not detected in patients receiving oral antidiabetic medications. Conclusion: Higher preoperative FBG is independently related to a poorer weight loss 12 months after RYGB; this suggests the need to offer earlier surgical intervention for severely obese patients with impairment of glucose metabolism. The potential for less weight loss in patients with a higher FBG should not discourage RYGB, given the significant metabolic improvement after surgery.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Whether and how sex and age affect bariatric-surgery outcome is poorly understood. Estrogens regulate body composition in women and animals, and increase weight loss in a rodent model of gastric bypass, suggesting that premenopausal women may lose more weight following bariatric surgery. METHODS: One thousand three hundred fifty-six female gastric-bypass or gastric-banding patients were retrospectively grouped as 20-45 years old (presumptively premenopausal; n = 1,199) and 55-65 years old (presumptively postmenopausal; n = 157). Mixed-model ANCOVA followed by Bonferroni-corrected t tests were used to categorically test the effect of age on percent excess body weight loss (%EBWL) at 1 and 2 years post-surgery, controlling for preoperative EBW and surgery type. Age effects were also tested dimensionally in all women and in 289 male patients. RESULTS: Twenty- to forty-five-year-old women showed greater %EBWL 1 and 2 years post-surgery than 55-65-year-old women (p's < 0.0005). No age effect was detected in 20-25- vs. 30-35-, 30-35- vs. 40-45-, or 20-25- vs. 40-45-year-old women (p's > 0.2) This age effect was detected only after gastric banding, with 20-45-year-old women losing ∼7 kg more than 55-65-year-old women after 2 years. Dimensional analysis confirmed a significant inverse effect of age on bariatric surgery outcome in women, but did not detect any effect in men. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that 55-65-year-old women lose less weight than 20-45-year-old women in the initial 2 years after bariatric surgery, especially gastric banding; this may be mediated by age- or menopause-associated changes in physical activity, energy expenditure, or energy intake.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Obesity Surgery
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