Varicella-Zoster Virus in Children Immunized With the Varicella Vaccine

ArticleinCutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner 90(3):114-6 · September 2012with3 Reads
Source: PubMed
We present the case of a 4-year-old immunocompetent girl with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that occurred 45 months after a single dose of the varicella vaccine. Varicella-zoster virus is rare in children, particularly those who have received the varicella vaccine. Our case illustrates the need for a continued high index of suspicion, even among vaccinated children with herpetiform rashes, for varicella reactivation or reinfection.
    • "The DNA vaccination process is performed as follows, the exogenous genes are cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and the recombinant plasmid DNA is injected directly into the animal. These exogenous genes are subsequently expressed in vivo, and the generated antigens acti‑ vate the immune system, triggering an immune reaction (19,20). DNA vaccines are different from traditional attenuated pathogen, protein or polypeptide vaccines and, as such, DNA vaccines have particular advantages. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study a eukaryotic expression vector of varicella zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) was constructed and enabled to express in COS7 cells. Furthermore, a specific immune response against the VZV gE eukaryotic expression plasmid was induced in BALB/c mice. The VZV gE gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector, pcDNA3.1. The recombinant vector was subsequently transfected into COS7 cells using a liposome transfection reagent. The recombinant protein was instantaneously expressed by the transfected cells, as detected by immunohistochemistry, and the recombinant pcDNA-VZV gE plasmid was subsequently used to immunize mice. Tissue expression levels were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. In addition, the levels of serum antibodies and spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity were investigated. The amplified target gene included the full-length gE gene (~2.7 kb), and the recombinant expression vector induced gE expression in COS7 cells. In addition, the expression plasmid induced sustained expression in vivo following immunization of mice. Furthermore, the plasmid was capable of inducing specific antibody production and effectively stimulating T cell proliferation. Effective humoral and cellular immunity was triggered in the mice immunized with the VZV gE eukaryotic expression vector. The results of the present study laid the foundation for future research into a VZV DNA vaccine.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactivation of latent Varicella-Zoster virus may cause various neurological complications including meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, vasculopathy resulting in stroke and pseudotumor cerebri. It occurs mainly in elderly or immunocompromised patients and is very rare in children. We report a 4-year and 6-months old immunocompetent boy who developed encephalitis and cerebellites, due to reactivation of latent Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV). Characteristic skin lesions of varicella were absent. Varicella-Zoster virus DNA was weakly positive in cerebrospinal fluid and serum Varicella-Zoster virus immunoglobulin G was positive while immunoglobulin M remained negative. Although rare, Varicella-Zoster virus may reactivate to cause significant central nervous system disease even in immunocompetent children. We highlight the importance of keeping a high degree of suspicion as the typical rash may not associate the disease. The key for correct diagnosis is the temporal relationship between the symptom appearance and elevated anti-VZV antibodies in serum (immunoglobulin G) or the presence of VZV DNA (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes zoster is uncommon in the pediatric population. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 2-year-old boy who received the live attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccination at his 12-month pediatric visit. The child was treated with acyclovir and recovered without complications.
    Article · Jan 2014
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