ArticlePDF Available
Glassfrogs, anurans of the family Centrolenidae, have
received considerable attention during the last decade
(for a bibliographic review see Cisneros-Heredia and
McDiarmid, 2007). In particular, studies on the Glass-
frogs from the eastern slopes of the Andes and from the
Amazonian lowlands have revealed our lack of under-
standing of its diversity and distribution patterns (Cis-
neros-Heredia and McDiarmid, 2006a, 2006b, 2007;
Guayasamin et al., 2006; Cisneros-Heredia and Meza-
Ramos, 2007; Cisneros-Heredia et al., 2008). Herein we
present the rst country records of Hyalinobatrachium
iaspidiense from Ecuador and Peru that suggest a con-
tinuous distribution of this species across the Amazo-
nian basin.
Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense is among the most
distinctive species of centrolenids by having a particu-
lar dorsal pattern only shared with Hyalinobatrachium
mesai (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid, 2007; Barrio-
Amoros and Brewer-Carias, 2008). Both species show
large lime-green dorsal blotches that turn white when
individuals are preserved (Ayarzagüena, 1992; Lescure
and Marty, 2000; Señaris and Ayarzagüena, 2005; D.F.
Cisneros-Heredia, R.W. McDiarmid, J.P. Caldwell and
G. Rivas, pers. obs.). These marks are a unique colour
arrangement of the dorsal parietal peritoneum of centro-
lenids (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid, 2007). The
most conspicuous difference between Hyalinobatra-
chium iaspidiense and H. mesai are the green bones of
the latter vs. white bones in the former.
Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense was described based
on specimens collected at Quebrada Jaspe, state of
Bolivar, Guayana region of Venezuela (Ayarzagüena,
1992). Señaris and Ayarzagüena (2005) reported it from
Caño Colima on the slopes of Serranía de Imataca,
state of Bolivar, Venezuela. It has been reported as H.
nouraguense (a synonym, see below for details) in: four
localities in French Guiana (Lescure and Marty, 2000);
one in Guyana (Ernst, Rödel and Arjoon, 2005); four in
Suriname (Kok and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2008); and two
in Brazil (Cordeiro-Duarte et al., 2002; Caldwell and
Shepard, 2005). Thus, it has been reported so far only
from north-eastern areas of Amazonia.
Between 20th of May and 1st of June 2007 a male of
Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense (DHMECN 04033,
Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito,
Ecuador; Fig. 1) was collected from the locality of
Totoa Nai’qui, Cofán-Dureno territory, province
of Sucumbíos, Republic of Ecuador (0.03442° S,
76.75278º W, ca. 280 m above sea level) by Mario
Yánez-Muñoz and Angel Chimbo. It was found on the
leaf of a bush directly over the water surface in a ooded
forest. This record represents the rst country record of
this species from Ecuador. Yánez-Muñoz and Chimbo
(2007) reported this specimen as “Hyalinobatrachium
sp. A” and Yánez-Muñoz and Cisneros-Heredia
(2008) as Hyalinobatrachium sp. N12”, commenting
that it was “apparently related or conspecic with
Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense”.
Herpetology Notes, volume 2: 49-52 (2009) (published online on 06 May 2009)
New country records of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense (Amphibia,
Anura, Centrolenidae) from the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador
and Peru
Mario Yánez-Muñoz1, Pedro Pérez-Peña2 and Diego Cisneros-Heredia*1,3,4
1 Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Sección Vertebra-
dos, División de Herpetología, calle Rumipamba No. 341 y
Ave. de Los Shyris, Quito, Ecuador.
2 Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana, calle Pevas
5ta Cuadra, Iquitos, Perú.
3 Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Colegio de Ciencias
Biológicas & Ambientales, calle Diego de Robles y Ave. In-
teroceánica, Campus Cumbayá, Edif. Maxwell, Casilla Postal
17-1200-841, Quito, Ecuador;
4 King’s College London, Department of Geography, Strand,
London WC2R 2LS, United Kingdom.
* corresponding author
Abstract. We report the rst records of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense (Ayarzagüena, 1992) from Ecuador and Peru based on
voucher specimens collected in lowland Amazon rainforests. These are the westernmost records of this species and suggest a
continuous distribution across the entire Amazon basin.
Mario Yánez-Muñoz et al.
In November 2003 a female of Hyalinobatrachium
iaspidiense (MZUNAP 0517, Museo de Zoología,
Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional
de la Amazonía Peruana, Iquitos, Peru; Fig. 2) was
collected at the Lago Preto-Paredón on the frontier
between Peru and Brazil in the province of Ramón
Castilla, department of Loreto, Republic of Peru
(4.46157° S, 71.75133° W, ca. 95 m above sea level)
by Pedro Pérez-Peña. The individual was found on the
leave of a shrub ca. 1.2 m above the ground and about
50 m away from a small lagoon in terra rme forest
dominated by Lepidocaryum tenue and represents
the rst record of this species from Peru. Pérez et al.
(2006) and Pérez (2007) regarded this specimen as
Hyalinobatrachium sp”.
Specimens DHMECN 04033 and MZUNAP 0517
show all diagnostic characteristics of Hyalinobatrachium
iaspidiense, including the dorsal coloration pattern,
white bones, transparent ventral parietal peritoneum and
most visceral peritonea covered by iridophores except
for the pericardium that is transparent; supporting their
specic identication.
These new records extend the known range of
Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense nearly 1900 km from
the nearest known locality, the municipality of President
Figueiredo (state of Amazonas, Brazil) and represent
the westernmost record of this species suggesting that
H. iaspidiense is widely distributed across the entire
Amazonian lowlands (Fig. 3).
Ernst et al. (2005) as well as Cisneros-Heredia
and McDiarmid (2007) suggested synonymy of
Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense and H. nouraguense
based on morphological characters. This hypothesis
was later supported by molecular data (Guayasamin
et al. 2007: Fig. 5 and 6) showing that almost no
differentiation between populations collected from
or near the respective type localities was evident. By
analysing the information presented by Ernst et al.
(2005), Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid (2007)
and Guayasamin et al. (2007) we treat both species
Figure 1. Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense (DHMECN 04033) from the Cofán-Dureno territory, province of Sucumbíos, Republic
of Ecuador.
New records of H. iaspidiense from Ecuador and Peru 51
as conspecics of H. iaspidiense Ayarzagüena, 1992.
Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid (2007) reported
that H. nouraguensis and H. iaspidiense differed in
the condition of iridophores over the pericardium, but
a closer inspection showed that these differences are
preservation artefacts rather than valid intraspecic
differences (Lescure and Marty, 2000; Señaris
and Ayarzagüena, 2005; G. Rivas pers. comm.; S.
Castroviejo-Fisher pers. comm.). Cisneros-Heredia and
McDiarmid (2007) hypothesized that species with large
dorsal blotches of iridophores form a monophyletic
group but were uncertain about the relationships of this
group regarding other Hyalinobatrachium. We agree
with this hypothesis and consider that H. iaspidiense
and H. mesai form a monophyletic group supported by
the synapomorphy of blotches of iridophores on the
dorsal parietal peritoneum.
Figure 2. Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense (MZUNAP 0517)
from Lago Preto-Paredón, department of Loreto, Republic of
Figure 3. Map of northern South America showing the known localities of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense based on the new
localities reported herein (closed symbols) and literature records (open symbols): (1) Quebrada Jaspe, (2) Caño Colima, (3)
mountain areas of Kaw, Monts Trinité, Courcibo, and Saut Arataye/Nouragues Reserve, (4) President Figueiredo, (5) lower River
Cristalino region, (6) Mabura Hill Forest Reserve, (7) Sipaliwini district, (8) Cofán-Dureno territory, (9) Lago Preto-Paredón.
Country codes: Venezuela = Ve; Colombia = Co; Ecuador = Ec; Peru = Pe; Guyana = Gu; Suriname = Su; French Guiana = FG;
Brazil = Br; Bolivia = Bo.
Acknowledgments. We are grateful to Roy W. McDiarmid,
Janalee Caldwell, Gilson Rivas, and Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher
for their helpful comments and discussions. We thank Pablo
Puertas, Richard Bodmer, Angel Chimbo, Corine Vriesendorp,
Sebastian Descanse, and Alvaro del Campo for eld and
laboratory assistance, Mark Bowler for taking the pictures;
and María Olga Borja for pre-reviewing the manuscript. M.
Yánez-Muñoz’s research was supported by the Field Museum
of Chicago through their Rapid Biological Inventories,
Environmental and Conservation Program coordinated by Corine
Vriesendorp, Debora Moskovits, and Randall Borman. P. Pérez-
Peña’s research was supported by Wildlife Conservation Society–
Peru. D. Cisneros-Heredia’s research was supported by Ma. E.
Heredia and L. Heredia, the Smithsonian Women’s Committee,
the 2002 Research Training Program at the National Museum
of Natural History-Smithsonian Institution, King’s College
London, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, the Russel E. Train
Education for Nature Program of the Word Wildlife Fund WWF,
and the ‘‘Fernando Ortíz-Crespo’’ Endangered Species Program
managed by EcoCiencia and Conservation International.
Ayarzagüena, J. (1992): Los Centrolenidos de la Guayana Vene-
zolana. Publ. Asoc. Amigos Doñana 1: 1–48.
Barrio-Amoros, C.L., Brewer-Carias, C. (2008): Herpetological
results of the 2002 expedition to Sarisariñama, a tepui in Ve-
nezuelan Guayana, with the description of ve new species.
Zootaxa 1942: 1–68.
Caldwell, J.P., Shepard, D.B. (2005): Frogs of the Lower Cristali-
no River Area. In: Amphibians and Reptiles of the Lower Cri-
stalino River Region of the Southern Amazon. Vitt, L.J., Cal-
dwell, J.P., Colli, G.R., França, F.G.R., Shepard, D.B., Eds.,
Norman, Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.
Available online at:
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., McDiarmid, R.W. (2006a): A new species
of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae)
from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeogra-
phy of glassfrogs. Zootaxa 1244: 1–32.
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., McDiarmid, R.W. (2006b): Review of
the taxonomy and conservation status of the Ecuadorian glass-
frog Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid (Amphibia:
Anura: Centrolenidae). Zootaxa 1361: 21–31.
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., McDiarmid, R.W. (2007): Revision of
the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia: Anura: Athespha-
tanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of
new taxa of glassfrogs. Zootaxa 1572: 1–82.
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Meza-Ramos, P. (2007): An enigmatic
new species of glassfrog (Amphibia: Anura: Centrolenidae)
from the Amazonian Andean slopes of Ecuador. Zootaxa 1485:
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Venegas, P.J., Rada, M., Schulte, R.
(2008): A new species of Glassfrog (Anura, Centrolenidae)
from the Foothill Andean forests of Ecuador and Peru. Herpe-
tologica 64: 342–353.
Cordeiro-Duarte, A.C., Sanaiotti, T.M., Duarte, E.L.C., Pereira,
O. (2002): Geographic Distribution. Hyalinobatrachium nou-
raguensis. Herpetol. Rev. 33: 220.
Ernst, R., Rödel, M.-O., Arjoon, D. (2005): On the cutting edge–
The anuran fauna of the Mabura Hill Forest Reserve, Central
Guyana. Salamandra 41: 179–194.
Guayasamin, J.M., Bustamante, M.R., Almeida-Reinoso, D.,
Funk, W.C. (2006). Glass frogs (Centrolenidae) of Yanayacu
Biological Station, Ecuador, with the description of a new spe-
cies and comments on centrolenid systematics. Zool. J. Linn.
Soc. 147: 489–513.
Guayasamin, J.M., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Ayarzagüena, J., Tru-
eb, L., Vilà, C. (2008): Phylogenetic relationships of glassfrogs
(Centrolenidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 48: 574–595.
Kok, P.J.R., Castroviejo-Fisher, S. (2008): Glassfrogs (Anura:
Centrolenidae) of Kaieteur National Park, Guyana, with notes
on the distribution and taxonomy of some species of the family
in the Guiana Shield. Zootaxa 1680: 25–53.
Lescure, M., Marty, C. (2000): Atlas des Amphibiens de Guyane.
Patrimoines Naturels, 45: 1–388.
Pérez, P.E. (2007) Finding frogs in the Peruvian Amazon. Wild-
life Conservation 2007: 14.
Pérez, P.E., Bodmer, R.E., Puertas, P.E. (2006): Anuros y Sauri-
os del Interuvio Yavarí–Tahuayo y su Comparación con las
Áreas Naturales Protegidas en la Región Loreto, Perú. Iquitos,
Manejo de Fauna silvestre en Amazonia y Latinoamérica.
Señaris, J.C., Ayarzagüena, J. (2005): Revisión taxonómica de la
Familia Centrolenidae (Amphibia; Anura) de Venezuela. Se-
villa, Publicaciones del Comité Español del Programa Hombre
y Biosfera – Red IberoMaB de la UNESCO.
Yánez-Muñoz, M.H., Chimbo, A. (2007): Anbios y Reptiles,
In: Ecuador: Territorio Cofan Dureno, p. 96–99. Borman, R.,
Vriesendorp, C., Alverson, W.S., Moskovits, D.K., Stotz, D.F.,
del Campo, A., Eds., Chicago, The Field Museum, Rapid Bio-
logical Inventories Report 19.
Yánez-Muñoz, M.H., Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. (2008): Notes on
Geographic Distribution: Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae:
Cochranella orejuela, rst country records from Ecuador.
CheckList 4: 50–54.
Mario Yánez-Muñoz et al.
Accepted by Sebastian Steinfartz
... Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense is a poorly known glassfrog species that was originally described from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield (Ayarzagüena, 1992). Additional reports of this species include other localities in the Guianas (e.g., Kok and Castroviejo-Fisher, 2008 for the junior synonym H. nouraguense Lescure & Marty, 2000;Castroviejo-Fisher et al., 2011;Ouboter and Jairam, 2012;Cole et al., 2013) and major parts of the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru (e.g., Guayasamin and North, 2009;Yánez-Muñoz et al., 2009). Herein, we report H. iaspidiense from two new localities, one from the upper Amazon Basin in Pastaza Province, Ecuador, and the other from Loreto Department, Peru. ...
... To the best of our knowledge, H. iaspidiense is now known from five localities in Ecuador, including in Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, and Sucumbíos provinces ( Fig. 3; Guayasamin and North, 2009;Yánez-Muñoz et al., 2009;Guayasamin et al., 2020; this study). The new record extends the species' range 43 km southwestwards, reaching into the Andean foothills. ...
... With an elevation of 950 m, this specimen corroborates the species' upper elevational limit, stated to be 800-1000 m (Ayarzagüena, 1992;Castroviejo-Fisher et al., 2011). The locality is situated substantially higher than the other Ecuadorian localities, which range from 280-405 m (Guayasamin and North, 2009;Yánez-Muñoz et al., 2009;Guayasamin et al., 2020). Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense occurs at this locality in syntopy with at least two other centrolenid species, Teratohyla midas (Lynch & Duellman, 1973), and Chimerella mariaelenae (Cisneros-Heredia & McDiarmid, 2006), which were all found together along the same stream. ...
Full-text available
We have added two new records (in Ecuador and Peru) and maximun altitude of the glass frog "Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense"
... The only species with a similar dorsal coloration is H. mesai, a species known only from the southern slope of Sarisariñama-tepui, Venezuela [224]. It has been suggested, however, that H. mesai and H. iaspidiense represent the same species [223]. Diagnosis: (1) Vomerine teeth absent; (2) snout truncated in dorsal aspect and slightly protruding in profile; (3) tympanum not visible; supratympanic fold absent; (4) dorsal skin shagreen; (5) venter smooth; pair of enlarged subcloacal warts, but low and difficult to see; (6) ventral parietal peritoneum transparent (condition P0); pericardium transparent; white peritoneum covering intestines and stomach; transparent peritoneum on urinary bladder (condition V6); (7) liver bulbous, hepatic peritoneum white (condition H2); (8) humeral spines absent; (9) webbing absent between Fingers I, II, and III, moderate between outer fingers; webbing formula III (2-2 + ) -(1 + -2 − ) IV; (10) webbing between toes moderate; webbing formula on foot I (1-1 + ) -(2 + -2 1/3 ) II (1 + -1 1/3 ) -(2 + -2 1/4 ) III (1-1 + ) -(2-2 3/4 ) IV (2 + -2 1/4 ) -(1 + -1 1/4 ) V; (11) ulnar fold present, enameled; external tarsal fold present, enameled; internal tarsal fold short and low; (12) concealed prepollex; nuptial pad Type IV; (13) Finger II shorter than Finger I (Finger II about 93% of Finger I); (14) disc of Finger III width 39%-57% of eye diameter; (15) Color in life ( Figure 112): Dorsum translucent, with a yellowish-green background coloration, large lime-green blotches, and small black spots. ...
... Diagnosis: (1) Vomerine teeth absent; (2) snout truncated in dorsal aspect and slightly protruding in profile; (3) tympanum not visible; supratympanic fold absent; (4) dorsal skin shagreen; (5) venter smooth; pair of enlarged subcloacal warts, but low and difficult to see; (6) ventral parietal peritoneum transparent (condition P0); pericardium transparent; white peritoneum covering intestines and stomach; transparent peritoneum on urinary bladder (condition V6); (7) liver bulbous, hepatic peritoneum white (condition H2); (8) humeral spines absent; (9) webbing absent between Fingers I, II, and III, moderate between outer fingers; webbing formula III (2-2 + ) -(1 + -2 − ) IV; (10) webbing between toes moderate; webbing formula on foot I (1-1 + ) -(2 + -2 1/3 ) II (1 + -1 1/3 ) -(2 + -2 1/4 ) III (1-1 + ) -(2-2 3/4 ) IV (2 + -2 1/4 ) -(1 + -1 1/4 ) V; (11) ulnar fold present, enameled; external tarsal fold present, enameled; internal tarsal fold short and low; (12) concealed prepollex; nuptial pad Type IV; (13) Finger II shorter than Finger I (Finger II about 93% of Finger I); (14) disc of Finger III width 39%-57% of eye diameter; (15) Color in life ( Figure 112): Dorsum translucent, with a yellowish-green background coloration, large lime-green blotches, and small black spots. Venter transparent, pericardium transparent (red heart visible), visceral and hepatic peritonea white [223,225]. ...
... Type locality: "Saut Arataye (environs du camp de base), Réserve des Nouragues (bassin de l'Approuague), Guyane française". Placed in synonymy by Yánez-Muñoz, Pérez-Peña, and Cisneros-Heredia, 2009[223]. ...
Full-text available
Glassfrogs (family: Centrolenidae) represent a fantastic radiation (~150 described species) of Neotropical anurans that originated in South America and dispersed into Central America. In this study, we review the systematics of Ecuadorian glassfrogs, providing species accounts of all 60 species, including three new species described herein. For all Ecuadorian species, we provide new information on the evolution, morphology, biology, conservation, and distribution. We present a new molecular phylogeny for Centrolenidae and address cryptic diversity within the family. We employ a candidate species system and designate 24 putative new species that require further study to determine their species status. We find that, in some cases, currently recognized species lack justification; specifically, we place Centrolene gemmata and Centrolene scirtetes under the synonymy of Centrolene lynchi; C. guanacarum and C. bacata under the synonymy of Centrolene sanchezi; Cochranella phryxa under the synonymy of Cochranella resplendens; and Hyalinobatrachium ruedai under the synonymy of Hyalinobatrachium munozorum. We also find that diversification patterns are mostly congruent with allopatric speciation, facilitated by barriers to gene flow (e.g., valleys, mountains, linearity of the Andes), and that niche conservatism is a dominant feature in the family. Conservation threats are diverse, but habitat destruction and climate change are of particular concern. The most imperiled glassfrogs in Ecuador are Centrolene buckleyi, C. charapita, C. geckoidea, C. medemi, C. pipilata, Cochranella mache, Nymphargus balionotus, N. manduriacu, N. megacheirus, and N. sucre, all of which are considered Critically Endangered. Lastly, we identify priority areas for glassfrog conservation in Ecuador.
... Males of this species lack humeral spines (Guayasamin and North 2009; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011). Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense is known from Brazil (Yáñez-Muñoz et al. 2009; Ávila-Pires et al. 2010; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011 ), Ecuador (Muñoz et al. 2009; Guayasamin and North 2009), French Guiana (Lescure and Marty 2000; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011), Guyana (Ernst et al. 2005; Cole et al. 2013), Peru Check List 12(2): 1849, 2 March 2016 doi: ISSN 1809-127X © 2016 Check List and Authors Brazil. ...
... Males of this species lack humeral spines (Guayasamin and North 2009; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011). Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense is known from Brazil (Yáñez-Muñoz et al. 2009; Ávila-Pires et al. 2010; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011 ), Ecuador (Muñoz et al. 2009; Guayasamin and North 2009), French Guiana (Lescure and Marty 2000; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011), Guyana (Ernst et al. 2005; Cole et al. 2013), Peru Check List 12(2): 1849, 2 March 2016 doi: ISSN 1809-127X © 2016 Check List and Authors Brazil. ...
... Silva e Silva and Costa-Campos | First record of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense for the state of Amapá (Yáñez-Muñoz et al. 2009; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2011). Here we report a new record of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense in the municipality of Serra do Navio (00°54ʹ50ʺ N, 051°59ʹ59.2ʺ ...
Full-text available
We report the first record of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense (Ayarzaguena, 1992) from Amapá state, Brazil. This record is 1,020 km east from the type locality at Quebrada de Jaspe, San Ignacio de Yuraní, Bolívar state, Venezuela, and extends the distribution of the species 345 km north of the nearest known locality in Para. We also provide a map of the localities reported in the literature.
... Desde el año 2004 se han publicado cerca de cuatro artículos por año relacionados con la diversidad de ranas de cristal (Centrolenidae) del Ecuador [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25]. Gran parte del incremento al conocimiento de este grupo se debe al proyecto "Ranas de Cristal" mentalizado y dirigido por Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia (entrar a, ...
... Los ecosistemas de bosques de Neblina y Montanos en los sectores de las cuencas del Pastaza y Santiago no han sido bien estudiados; por ejemplo, mientras que al norte en la cuenca del Napo se han registrado hasta siete especies en bosques nublados; hacia el centro y sur solo se han reportado tres especies en ese ecosistema. Los métodos tradicionales para muestreos de anfibios (e.g., relevamientos de encuentros visuales) parecen no ser efectivos para registrar ranas centrolénidas; por ejemplo, a pesar de las prolijas colectas realizadas por Duellman [35] en la cuenca del Aguarico durante 6 años, nunca obtuvo registros de Hyalinobatrachium iaspiedensi o Nymphargus puyoensis, especies que si están presentes en esa zona [25]. Es trascendental juntar todos los esfuerzos posibles para investigar y conservar este grupo de la fauna ecuatoriana, en especial cuando las políticas gubernamentales apuestan por el extractivismo minero y una avalancha de proyectos hidroeléctricos en la región que afectarían a la supervivencia a largo plazo de la biodiversidad del oriente Ecuatoriano. ...
Full-text available
Presentamos nueva información que extiende la distribución latitudinal y altitudinal de cinco especies de ranas de cristal recientemente descritas y poco conocidas de la región oriental de Ecuador. Incluimos datos novedosos sobre su tamaño corporal e historia natural. Se discute información sobre la diversidad y biogeografía de ranas centrolenidas del oriente de Ecuador, encontrando que se encuentran asociadas con seis formaciones vegetales comprendidas entre las estribaciones orientales y la baja Amazonia. Identificamos tres importantes zonas de diversidad y endemismo en la región oriental de Ecuador asociadas con las cuencas hidrográficas de los ríos Napo, Pastaza y Santiago. Los ecosistemas de bosques Montano Bajos y Piemontanos concentran la mayor diversidad y endemismo para ranas centrolenidas, sin embargo 77% de ellas están amenazadas. Es trascendental juntar todos los esfuerzos posibles para investigar y conservar este substancial grupo de la fauna ecuatoriana.
... Distribution: Region 5. Considered until recently endemic to the Venezuelan Gran Sabana. For several years, reports of this species have come from French Guiana, Surinam, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru (Guayasamin and North 2009;Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2009), showing one of the widest distributions among centrolenid frogs. In Venezuela, however, only known from the southeastern sector (east of the Parima-Maigualida mountain chain). ...
Full-text available
Abstract.—Presented is an annotated checklist of the amphibians of Venezuela, current as of December 2018. The last comprehensive list (Barrio-Amorós 2009c) included a total of 333 species, while the current catalogue lists 387 species (370 anurans, 10 caecilians, and seven salamanders), including 28 species not yet described or properly identified. Fifty species and four genera are added to the previous list, 25 species are deleted, and 47 experienced nomenclatural changes. Eleutherodactylus terraebolivaris Rivero, 1961 is synonymized with Hylodes incertus Lutz, 1927 as Pristimantis incertus. Oreophrynella dendronastes Lathrop and MacCulloch, 2007, is considered a junior synonym of O. macconnelli (Boulenger 1895). Centrolene Jiménez de la Espada, 1872, is a feminine genus, so all species in the genus are amended. Centrolenella pulidoi Rivero, 1968 is considered a junior synonym of Hyla benitezi Rivero, 1961, as Boana benitezi. Centrolenella estevesi Rivero, 1968 is considered a junior synonym of Hyla jahni Rivero, 1961, as Hyloscirtus jahni. Illustrated herein are 300 species (77.5% of the total). Lastly, the distributions for all species are revised, species that possibly occur within Venezuela are suggested, and comments are provided on nomenclature and conservation issues. Resumen.—Se presenta una lista anotada de los anfibios de Venezuela, actualizada hasta diciembre de 2018. La última lista comprensiva (Barrio-Amorós 2019c) incluyó un total de 333 especies, mientras que la lista actual contiene 387 especies (370 anuros, 10 cecilias y siete salamandras), incluyendo 28 especies aun no descritas o identificadas propiamente. 50 especies y cuatro géneros se añaden a la lista previa, 25 especies se eliminan y 47 de ellas han experimentado cambios nomenclaturales. Eleutherodactylus terraebolivaris Rivero, 1961 se sinonimiza con Hylodes incertus Lutz, 1927, como Pristimantis incertus. Oreophrynella dendronastes Lathrop and MacCulloch, 2007, se considera sinónimo de O. macconnelli (Boulenger, 1895). Centrolene Jiménez de la Espada, 1872, es un género femenino, así que se emendan todos los nombres acorde. Centrolenella pulidoi Rivero, 1968 es considerado sinónimo de Hyla benitezi Rivero, 1961, como Boana benitezi. Centrolenella estevesi Rivero, 1968, se considera sinónimo de Hyla jahni Rivero, 1961, como Hyloscirtus jahni. Se presentan fotografías de 300 especies (77.5% del total). Por último, la distribución de todas las especies es revisada, se sugieren especies que podrían estar presentes en Venezuela y se presentan comentarios sobre nomenclatura y conservación.
... The diversity of species of frogs of the family Centrolenidae is highest in Colombia and Ecuador, diminishing northward and southward. The number of species in Ecuador has increased significantly since Lynch & Duellman (1973) and Duellman & Burrowes (1989), with 10 species described as new since 2004; and currently 32% (48 spp.) of the known anuran species of the family Centrolenidae (glassfrogs) have been reported to inhabit in the Republic of Ecuador (see subsequent publications: Cisneros-Heredia et al., 2008;Cisneros-Heredia & Morales-Mite, 2008;Guayasamin et al., 2008a;Yánez-Muñoz & Cisneros-Heredia, 2008;Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2009). Knowledge about the glassfrogs from Ecuador is still fragmented and its species richness is expected to increase with the study of unidentified museum specimens and the discovery of additional species with the exploration of previously uncollected areas (Cisneros-Heredia & McDiarmid 2006a, b, 2007. ...
Full-text available
FIGURE 3. (A): Teratohyla amelie; (B): Teratohyla midas; (C): Teratohyla pulverata; (D): Teratohyla spinosa; (E): Teratohyla sornozai sp. nov. Photos by P. Meza-Ramos, A. Georges, M. H. Yánez-Muñoz, R. W. McDiarmid, and H. M. Ortega-Andrade, respectively.
... described Rulyrana mcdiarmidi from Ecuador and Peru, and presented the first record of Nymphargus posadae from Peru. Muñoz et al. (2009) reported the first Peruvian record of Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense Ayarzagüena from Amazonian Peru. Castroviejo-Fisher et al. (2009) described Hyalinobatrachium carlesvilai Castroviejo-Fisher, Padial, Chaparro, Aguayo & de la Riva from the Amazonian slopes of central Andean Peru, assigned all previous records of H. munozorum from Peru either to H. carlesvilai or to H. bergeri, synonymized H. lemur with H. pellucidum Lynch & Duellman, and extended the distribution of the latter south to the department of Cusco, southern Peru. ...
Full-text available
We present new information on several species of centrolenid frogs from Ecuador and Peru that justify the placement of Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte as a junior synonym of Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman; Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid as a synonym of Centrolenella mariae Duellman & Toft; and Cochranella tangarana Du-ellman & Schulte as a synonym of Cochranella saxiscandens Duellman & Schulte.
... Hyalinobatrachium iaspidiense was collected in ESEC Grão-Pará Centre, together with Cochranella sp., above a creek in a large area of terra-firme forest surrounded by savanna. Yánez-Muñoz et al. (2009) synonymised H. nouraguensis with H. iaspidiense and discussed some new localities for the species in Peru and Ecuador. Moreover, they mentioned localities in Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname (collected by MSH) and French Guiana and two localities in Brazil: Presidente Figueiredo, in the Guianan part of the state of Amazonas, and the lower Cristalino River in northern Mato Grosso. ...
Full-text available
We discuss the herpetological results of seven expeditions to the Guianan part of Pará, which resulted in a total of 80 species of amphibians (77 frogs and three caecilians) and 95 species of reptiles (36 species of lizards, three species of amphisbaenians, 49 species of snakes, five species of chelonians and two species of caiman). We report six species new to science (three frogs, one caecilian, one lizard, one amphisbaenian), six new records for Brazil (five frogs, one caecilian) and 23 new records for Pará (13 frogs, four lizards, six snakes). For each of the new records we provide comments. Special comment is made about a large population of the toad Atelopus hoogmoedi that seems to be doing well and does not show any signs of population decline as many species of Atelopus at higher elevations do. We provide a complete list of species collected per locality containing data on endemicity, habitat, reproduction and food. For each of the seven collecting sites we provide data on richness and abundance of species. The sites are compared regarding their species composition, even though we can not say how much of the differences are due to specific habitats or geographic variation, seasonal variation or sampling deficiency. We synonymised the Bufonid Rhinella martyi with Bufo margaritifer and selected a lectotype for Rana margaritifera in order to resolve the problems about this name.
Full-text available
The region of Volta Grande do Xingu River, in the state of Pará, presents several kinds of land use ranging from extensive cattle farming to agroforestry, and deforestation. Currently, the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant affects the region. We present a checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the region and discuss information regarding the spatial distribution of the assemblies based on results of Environmental Programmes conducted in the area. We listed 109 amphibian (Anura, Caudata, and Gymnophiona) and 150 reptile (Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodylia) species. The regional species richness is still considered underestimated, considering the taxonomic uncertainty, complexity and cryptic diversity of various species, as observed in other regions of the Amazon biome. Efforts for scientific collection and studies related to integrative taxonomy are needed to elucidate uncertainties and increase levels of knowledge of the local diversity.
Guyana has a very distinctive herpetofauna. In this first ever detailed modern accounting, based on voucher specimens, we document the presence of 324 species of amphibians and reptiles in the country; 148 amphibians, 176 reptiles. Of these, we present species accounts for 317 species and color photographs of about 62% (Plates 1–40). At the rate that new species are being described and distributional records are being found for the first time, we suspect that at least 350 species will be documented in a few decades. The diverse herpetofauna includes 137 species of frogs and toads, 11 caecilians, 4 crocodylians, 4 amphisbaenians, 56 lizards, 97 snakes, and 15 turtles. Endemic species, which occur nowhere else in the world, comprise 15% of the herpetofauna. Most of the endemics are amphibians, comprising 27% of the amphibian fauna. Type localities (where the type specimens or scientific name-bearers of species were found) are located within Guyana for 24% of the herpetofauna, or 36% of the amphibians. This diverse fauna results from the geographic position of Guyana on the Guiana Shield and the isolated highlands or tepuis of the eastern part of the Pantepui Region, which are surrounded by lowland rainforest and savannas. Consequently, there is a mixture of local endemic species and widespread species characteristic of Amazonia and the Guianan Region. Although the size of this volume may mislead some people into thinking that a lot is known about the fauna of Guyana, the work has just begun. Many of the species are known from fewer than five individuals in scientific collections; for many the life history, distribution, ecology, and behavior remain poorly known; few resources in the country are devoted to developing such knowledge; and as far as we are aware, no other group of animals in the fauna of Guyana has been summarized in a volume such as this to document the biological resources. We briefly discuss aspects of biogeography, as reflected in samples collected at seven lowland sites (in rainforest, savanna, and mixed habitats below 500 m elevation) and three isolated highland sites (in montane forest and evergreen high-tepui forest above 1400 m elevation). Comparisons of these sites are preliminary because sampling of the local faunas remains incomplete. Nevertheless, it is certain that areas of about 2.5 km2 of lowland rainforest can support more than 130 species of amphibians and reptiles (perhaps actually more than 150), while many fewer species (fewer than 30 documented so far) occur in a comparable area of isolated highlands, where low temperatures, frequent cloudiness, and poor soils are relatively unfavorable for amphibians and reptiles. Furthermore, insufficient study has been done in upland sites of intermediate elevations, where lowland and highland faunas overlap significantly, although considerable work is being accomplished in Kaieteur National Park by other investigators. Comparisons of the faunas of the lowland and isolated highland sites showed that very few species occur in common in both the lowlands and isolated highlands; that those few are widespread lowland species that tolerate highland environments; that many endemic species (mostly amphibians) occur in the isolated highlands of the Pakaraima Mountains; and that each of the isolated highlands, lowland savannas, and lowland rainforests at these 10 sites have distinctive faunal elements. No two sites were identical in species composition. Much more work is needed to compare a variety of sites, and especially to incorporate upland sites of intermediate elevations in such comparisons. Five species of sea turtles utilize the limited areas of Atlantic coastal beaches to the northwest of Georgetown. All of these are listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as being of global concern for long-term survival, mostly owing to human predation. The categories of Critically Endangered or Endangered are applied to four of the local sea turtles (80%). It is important to protect the few good nesting beaches for the sea turtles of Guyana. We have documented each of the species now known to comprise the herpetofauna of Guyana by citing specimens that exist in scientific collections, many of which were collected and identified by us and colleagues, including students of the University of Guyana (UG). We also re-identified many old museum specimens collected by others in the past (e.g., collections of William Beebe) and we used documented publications and collection records of colleagues, most of whom have been working more recently. We present dichotomous keys for identifying representatives of the species known to occur in Guyana, and we present brief annotated species accounts. The accounts provide the current scientific name, original name (with citation of the original description, which we personally examined in the literature), some outdated names used in the recent past, type specimens, type localities, general geographic distribution, examples of voucher specimens from Guyana, coloration in life (and often a color photograph), and comments pointing out interesting subjects for future research.
Full-text available
The Glassfrog Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid is a taxon known only from the female holotype, and recently placed in the genus Centrolene due to its supposed close relationship with Centrolene mariae (Duellman & Toft). Herein we report new material of puyoensis, including adult male specimens previously unknown. We propose the new combination Cochranella puyoensis (Flores & McDiarmid) n. comb., in recognition of the state of the humeral crista ventralis in males of this species, which lack a humeral spine. The hypothesis of relationships between three species, including puyoensis, proposed as the mariae species-group is questioned as it was based on phenetic rather than derived characters. We present new data that extend the distributional range of Cochranella puyoensis, and define its range along the Foothill Evergreen forests from 400 m to 1000 m above sea level in the provinces of Napo, Orellana, and Pastaza. New data presented herein also permit a re-evaluation of the conservation status of the species, previously classified under the IUCN category of Critically Endangered. We recommend that Cochranella puyoensis be reclassified as "Endangered": EN B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii, iii); based on a better understanding of the presence of the species, its occupancy area, number of known localities, and habitat quality status.
Full-text available
Sarisariñama is a pink sandstone plateau with a total area (summit and slope) of 832 km2 located about 600 km SE of Caracas, in Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. It includes diverse environments along an elevational gradient from 400 m up to an elevation of 2100 m at its western cliffs. Sarisarińama is well known among spelunkers for its sinkholes (simas), among which Sima Mayor is the largest on earth. Herpetofaunal surveys at four camps in the uplands and two at the base of the massif revealed 32 species, four of which are here described as new taxa. These include three frogs in the genera Hyalinobatrachium, Anomaloglossus, and Pristimantis, and one gecko (genus Gonatodes). In addition to these new species, we name a fifth based on evidence that populations hitherto known as Hypsiboas benitezl from east of the Maigualida-Parima Mountains, including our Sarisarińama sample, are distinct species. Our sample of Stefania riae contained individuals with four different color patterns. Two aquatic species of lizards, Neusticurus racenisi and N. tatei, were found to occur microsympatrically and we provide a diagnosis for the poorly known N. tatei. Norops ortonii is reported for the second time from Venezuela. Dendrobates leucomelas was abundant in lowland areas around the massif. The significance of this frog for the indigenous Ye'kwana is commented upon, including its iconographic importance in basket weaving. We also include data on three other species of interest collected at Sarisariñama by a 1988 expedition from Simón Bolívar University and Radio Caracas Televisión. Throughout, we reference common names for most species in the indigenous Ye'kwana language, and we provide information on local legends and cultural anecdotes involving some of the local species. We comment on the zoogeography of the Sarisariñama herpetofauna by comparing it with that of other known tepuis.
Full-text available
We provide new distribution records and discuss the taxonomy of three species of Glassfrogs from the Guiana Shield: Centrolene gorzulai, Cochranella helenae, and Hyalinobatrachium taylori. These three species were collected in Kai- eteur National Park in west-central Guyana. Taxonomic changes were based on morphological, bioacoustic and genetic (a fragment of the mitochondrial ribosomal gene 16S) comparisons. We consider Centrolene papillahallicum to be a jun- ior synonym of C. gorzulai. We assign the Venezuelan population of Cochranella oyampiensis to Co. helenae and describe the phenotypic variation of this taxon. We refine the description of Cochranella oyampiensis and transfer it to the Co. spinosa species group. We propose the new name Cochranella helenae Group for those species of Cochranella assigned to the former Co. oyampiensis Group. We report the first record of Cochranella midas for French Guiana, and the first record of Hyalinobatrachium nouraguense, new emendation, for Suriname.
Full-text available
We describe a new species of frog of the family Centrolenidae, Cochranella amelie n. sp., from the central Amazonian Andean slopes, collected at the Oglan River, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador. This new species shows a very unusual com- bination of characters (lavender dorsum in preservative, absence of a humeral spine in adult males, transparent parietal peritoneum, white visceral peritonea, and bulbous liver). The relationships of this new species of Glassfrog are uncertain, and its assignment to Cochranella is preliminary.
Full-text available
Data on herpetofaunal communities in Guyana are very limited. However, it is of utmost importance that existing information is made available for policy makers at an early stage in the process of developing and planning protected areas. The study presented here provides first time information and essential data on anuran diversity, composition and endemism of the Mabura Hill Forest Reserve. So far, 41 anuran species, belonging to eight families, were recorded between November 2002 and September 2004, including a number of rare, secretive or unusual species rarely recorded in field surveys and thus hardly represented in collections, as well as several taxa new to science or species of uncertain taxonomic status. Two species represent interesting range extensions and are new records for the country. The status of the anuran fauna is discussed with regard to faunas of comparable sites in the Guianan region of northern South America and with respect to general conservation issues. The exceptional taxonomic composition of the Mabura Hill assemblage emphasizes the high conservation relevance of the site.
Full-text available
Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.
Full-text available
We describe a new species of glassfrog assigned to the genus Cochranella (Amphibia: Anura: Athesphatanura: Centrolenidae) from the Foothill Evergreen forests on the southeastern Andean slopes of Ecuador and northeastern Andean slopes of Peru. The new species is characterized by its moderate-sized body (25.4–26.9 mm in adult males), medium-sized eyes (eye diameter/third disc width 5 1.4–1.9), distinctive coloration in life (olive green with light spots) and in preservative (grayish lavender with pale spots), dorsal skin covered with flat warts and low tubercles, parietal peritoneum mostly white (covered by iridophores), thick ulnar folds, and extensive hand and foot webbing. In addition, we provide the first record of Nymphargus posadae from Peru, found in sympatry with the new species at the Cordillera del Có ndor. RESUMEN: Describimos una nueva especie de rana de cristal asignada al gé nero Cochranella (Amphibia: Anura: Athesphatanura: Centrolenidae) de los bosques Siempreverdes Piemontanos de la vertiente Andina suroriental de Ecuador y nororiental de Peru. La nueva especie se caracteriza por su tamañ o corporal moderado, ojo de tamañ o medio, coloració n distintiva en vida (verde oliva con puntos amarillos) y en preservado (grisácea lavanda con puntos pálidos), piel dorsal cubierta con verrugas y tubé rculos, peritoneo parietal completamente o casi completamente blanco, pliegue ulnar grueso y extensa palmeadura en las patas anteriores y posteriores. Adicionalmente, proporcionamos el primer registro de Nymphargus posadae para Perú , encontrada en simpatría con la nueva especie en la Cordillera del Có ndor.
Full-text available
We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb., and Cochranella pulverata n. comb.
We describe Centrolene bacatum, C. buckleyi, Cochranella posadae, and a new species of Cochranella from Yanayacu Biological Station on the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species differs from other species in Centrolenidae by a combination of characters, including reduced webbing between Fingers III and IV, and kidneys covered with white peritoneum. We summarize the current generic and infrageneric classification in Centrolenidae and discuss some of its problems. A phylogenetic analysis of morphological and behavioural data shows that the genera Centrolene and Cochranella might not be monophyletic; the genus Hyalinobatrachium and, in particular, the group H. fleischmanni seem to be monophyletic. However, an analysis with many more characters is needed to resolve the relationships of glass frogs. © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 147, 489–513.