ArticlePDF Available

The Early Stages and Breeding Sites of 10 Cerioidini Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae)

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Approximately 197 species comprise the widespread syrphid tribe, the Cerioidini (Diptera: Syrphidae), but rearing data are known for <5% of species. We obtained puparia of 10 species from fieldwork in Costa Rica, Cuba, and México and from material loaned to us from Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica, and the United States. These species are included in four of the five genera recognized in the tribe: two species of Ceriana Rafinesque, 1815; three species of Monoceromyia Shannon, 1925; four of Polybiomyia Shannon, 1925; and one species of Sphiximorpha Rondani, 1850. We describe and compare these puparia. They all possessed the diagnostic characters for the tribe. However, no early stage characters were correlated, hence early stages did not form groups based on shared characters. Some structures were relatively constant in form such as head skeletons and locomotory organs, but characters that showed plasticity included integumental vestiture and respiratory organs. A few features such as the unusually broader than long posterior respiratory process of Ceriana ornata Saunders, 1845, the spicules on the dorsum of the prothorax of Sphiximorpha barbipes (Loew, 1853), and the mesothoracic hooks of Monoceromyia tricolor (Loew, 1861) were unique to these species. Most cerioidine larvae were reared from tree sap but others came from tree holes, the liquid center of a cut agave (Agavaceae) and bee nests (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Field observations of larvae and their breeding site suggested functional explanations for some morphological features.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... In the Palaearctic region, adult cerioidines visit a wide range of flowers of several plant families Reemer et al. 2009), but may also feed on tree sap and utilise sap runs as meeting points for mating (Shannon 1927a;Waldbauer 1970;Ichikawa & O'Hara 2009). Some species utilise sap runs as breeding sites too (Dufour 1847;Rotheray et al. 2006;Ricarte et al. 2007;Radenković et al. 2013). In other biogeographic regions, cerioidine breeding sites are tree rot holes, the liquid centre of a cut agave (Agavaceae), water filled bamboo stems (Lundbeck 1916;Shannon 1927aShannon , 1927bLane & Carrera 1943;Maier 1982;Schmid 1994;Sivova et al. 1999;Rotheray et al. 1998Rotheray et al. , 2006Ricarte et al. 2007;Reemer et al. 2009) and even stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al. 2007;Halcroft et al. 2013). ...
... Some species utilise sap runs as breeding sites too (Dufour 1847;Rotheray et al. 2006;Ricarte et al. 2007;Radenković et al. 2013). In other biogeographic regions, cerioidine breeding sites are tree rot holes, the liquid centre of a cut agave (Agavaceae), water filled bamboo stems (Lundbeck 1916;Shannon 1927aShannon , 1927bLane & Carrera 1943;Maier 1982;Schmid 1994;Sivova et al. 1999;Rotheray et al. 1998Rotheray et al. , 2006Ricarte et al. 2007;Reemer et al. 2009) and even stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al. 2007;Halcroft et al. 2013). In the present study we revise the species level taxonomy of the West-Palaearctic cerioidines. ...
... Some species utilise sap runs as breeding sites too (Dufour 1847;Rotheray et al. 2006;Ricarte et al. 2007;Radenković et al. 2013). In other biogeographic regions, cerioidine breeding sites are tree rot holes, the liquid centre of a cut agave (Agavaceae), water filled bamboo stems (Lundbeck 1916;Shannon 1927aShannon , 1927bLane & Carrera 1943;Maier 1982;Schmid 1994;Sivova et al. 1999;Rotheray et al. 1998Rotheray et al. , 2006Ricarte et al. 2007;Reemer et al. 2009) and even stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al. 2007;Halcroft et al. 2013). In the present study we revise the species level taxonomy of the West-Palaearctic cerioidines. ...
Article
Full-text available
The West-Palaearctic cerioidines (Syrphidae: Cerioidini) are revised, including species of the genera Ceriana Rafinesque, Primocerioides Shannon, and Sphiximorpha Rondani. Three new species are described, Ceriana glaebosa van Steenis & Ricarte sp. n. (Cyprus), Ceriana media van Steenis & Ricarte sp. n. (Afghanistan and Iran) and Ceriana skevingtoni van Steenis & Ricarte sp. n. (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). The following names are proposed as junior synonyms: Cerioides caucasicus Paramonov, 1927 [= Ceriana conopsoides (Linnaeus, 1758)], Ceria binominata Verrall, 1901 [= Sphiximorpha garibaldii (Rondani, 1860)], Ceriana worelli, Brădescu, 1972b [= Sphiximorpha garibaldii (Rondani, 1860)] and Sphiximorpha hiemalis Ricarte, Nedeljković & Hancock, 2012 [= Primocerioides regale Violovitsh, 1985]. Identification keys, biological data and distribution maps for the studied taxa are provided. Conops vaginicornis Schrank, 1803 is discarded as a synonym of Ceriana conopsoides and should be considered as nomen dubium.
... In the Palaearctic region, adult cerioidines visit a wide range of flowers of several plant families Reemer et al. 2009), but may also feed on tree sap and utilise sap runs as meeting points for mating (Shannon 1927a;Waldbauer 1970;Ichikawa & O'Hara 2009). Some species utilise sap runs as breeding sites too (Dufour 1847;Rotheray et al. 2006;Ricarte et al. 2007;Radenković et al. 2013). In other biogeographic regions, cerioidine breeding sites are tree rot holes, the liquid centre of a cut agave (Agavaceae), water filled bamboo stems (Lundbeck 1916;Shannon 1927aShannon , 1927bLane & Carrera 1943;Maier 1982;Schmid 1994;Sivova et al. 1999;Rotheray et al. 1998Rotheray et al. , 2006Ricarte et al. 2007;Reemer et al. 2009) and even stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al. 2007;Halcroft et al. 2013). ...
... Some species utilise sap runs as breeding sites too (Dufour 1847;Rotheray et al. 2006;Ricarte et al. 2007;Radenković et al. 2013). In other biogeographic regions, cerioidine breeding sites are tree rot holes, the liquid centre of a cut agave (Agavaceae), water filled bamboo stems (Lundbeck 1916;Shannon 1927aShannon , 1927bLane & Carrera 1943;Maier 1982;Schmid 1994;Sivova et al. 1999;Rotheray et al. 1998Rotheray et al. , 2006Ricarte et al. 2007;Reemer et al. 2009) and even stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al. 2007;Halcroft et al. 2013). In the present study we revise the species level taxonomy of the West-Palaearctic cerioidines. ...
... Some species utilise sap runs as breeding sites too (Dufour 1847;Rotheray et al. 2006;Ricarte et al. 2007;Radenković et al. 2013). In other biogeographic regions, cerioidine breeding sites are tree rot holes, the liquid centre of a cut agave (Agavaceae), water filled bamboo stems (Lundbeck 1916;Shannon 1927aShannon , 1927bLane & Carrera 1943;Maier 1982;Schmid 1994;Sivova et al. 1999;Rotheray et al. 1998Rotheray et al. , 2006Ricarte et al. 2007;Reemer et al. 2009) and even stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al. 2007;Halcroft et al. 2013). In the present study we revise the species level taxonomy of the West-Palaearctic cerioidines. ...
Article
The West-Palaearctic cerioidines (Syrphidae: Cerioidini) are revised, including species of the genera Ceriana Rafinesque, Primocerioides Shannon, and Sphiximorpha Rondani. Three new species are described, Ceriana glaebosa van Steenis & Ricarte sp. n. (Cyprus), Ceriana media van Steenis & Ricarte sp. n. (Afghanistan and Iran) and Ceriana skevingtoni van Steenis & Ricarte sp. n. (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). The following names are proposed as junior synonyms: Cerioides caucasicus Paramonov, 1927 [= Ceriana conopsoides (Linnaeus, 1758)], Ceria binominata Verrall, 1901 [= Sphiximorpha garibaldii (Rondani, 1860)], Ceriana worelli, Bradescu, 1972b [= Sphiximorpha garibaldii (Rondani, 1860)] and Sphiximorpha hiemalis Nedeljkovic & Hancock, 2012 [= Primocerioides regale Violovitsh, 1985]. Identification keys, biological data and distribution maps for the studied taxa are provided. Conops vaginicornis Schrank, 1803 is discarded as a synonym of Ceriana conopsoides and should be considered as nomen dubium.
... Studies on the biology of cerioidines by various workers indicated the majority of them utilize tree sap as breeding sites (Rotheray et al., 1998;Rotheray et al., 2006;Ricarte et al., 2007;Reemer et al., 2009) and some breed also in stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al., 2007;Halcroft et al., 2013). The adults mimic potter wasps (Eumeninae: Vespidae: Hymenoptera) and visit flowers of various plants. ...
... Studies on the biology of cerioidines by various workers indicated the majority of them utilize tree sap as breeding sites (Rotheray et al., 1998;Rotheray et al., 2006;Ricarte et al., 2007;Reemer et al., 2009) and some breed also in stingless bee colonies (Ricarte et al., 2007;Halcroft et al., 2013). The adults mimic potter wasps (Eumeninae: Vespidae: Hymenoptera) and visit flowers of various plants. ...
Article
Flower fly species of the genus Monoceromyia Shannon (Diptera: Syrphidae) in India are reviewed and two new species, M. flavoscutata Sankararaman, Anooj and Mengual, sp. nov. and M. nigra Sankararaman, Anooj and Mengual, sp. nov. are described from Tamil Nadu and Arunachal Pradesh (India), respectively. A new synonym is proposed: M. multipunctata (Hull, 1941) is synonymised under M. polistoides (Brunetti, 1923). Moreover, lectotypes are designated for Ceria patricia Brunetti, 1923 and Ceria tredecimpunctata Brunetti, 1923. An identification key to Indian Monoceromyia species is also provided. www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:01D46FC7-83F9-4796-A7DC-F308F9BBC72F
... Then, Beeson (1953) cited this data as confirmation of development of larva in sap of fermenting Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., 1844. Rearing records of Cerioidini indicate that the larva feed on exuded tree sap (Lundbeck 1916;Bhatia 1931;Heiss 1938;Maier 1987;Rotheray et al. 1998;Sivova et al. 1999;Krivosheina 2001;Ricarte et al. 2007). ...
... Then, Beeson (1953) cited this data as confirmation of development of larva in sap of fermenting Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth., 1844. Rearing records of Cerioidini indicate that the larva feed on exuded tree sap (Lundbeck 1916;Bhatia 1931;Heiss 1938;Maier 1987;Rotheray et al. 1998;Sivova et al. 1999;Krivosheina 2001;Ricarte et al. 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The wasp mimicking flower fly, Monoceromyia eumenioides (Saunders) is reported for the first time visiting flowers of tropical tree plant Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss. in April and May in Bangalore, Karnataka State India. Important identification characters of adult, male genitalia images and notes on the distribution, mimicry and its host plants are given.
... Existe una extensa literatura que nos facilita el conocimiento de la riqueza e importancia florística y faunística que caracteriza el bosque mediterráneo, principalmente en lo que se refiere al conocimiento de sus vertebrados, su vegetación y algunos pocos referidos a determinados grupos de artrópodos. Sin embargo, muy poco se conoce de sus insectos saproxílicos (GALANTE & MARCOS, 2004; MICÓ et al, 2005 MICÓ et al, , 2008 RICARTE et al., 2007 RICARTE et al., , 2009 MENDEZ et al., 2010), a pesar de que en este grupo de artrópodos, son muchas las especies que actúan como bioindicadoras del estado de conservación de nuestros bosques, constituyendo uno de los ensambles más interesantes en todos los ecosistemas donde se desarrollan. Vamos a explicar el porqué de ...
Article
Full-text available
What the hollows hide? Saproxylic insects comprise the largest component of the biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. They are the responsible for the mechanical breakdown of woody material both directly, by tunnelling and feeding in living trees that are decaying, snags (standing dead trees) and logs (fallen trees, portions of trunk and large branches), or indirectly, through symbiotic relationships with fungi and other micro-organisms that humidify wood. In this paper we open a door to reflection about the importance of the tree holes for the saproxylic biodiversity in the Mediterranean forests.
Article
Full-text available
Los agroecosistemas producen profundas alteraciones sobre la estructura y el funcionamiento del ambiente original, debido principalmente a la reducción de la biodiversidad. Las moscas de las flores (Diptera: Syrphidae) son organismos potencialmente útiles por los diversos servicios ecosistémicos que brindan. Se estudiaron los sírfidos colectados en un agroecosistema pampeano para evaluar riqueza, abundancia, plantas huéspedes y los servicios ecosistémicos que podrían ofrecer. Las moscas de las flores estuvieron representadas por tres subfamilias, ocho tribus, 17 géneros y 26 especies/ morfoespecies. Los adultos de estas moscas visitaron flores de 44 especies de plantas silvestres y/o cultivadas y exhibieron un patrón de interacción generalista. Las larvas de las especies más abundantes fueron depredadores (principalmente de hemípteros de cuerpo blando) y/o descomponedores/filtradores. Una única especie fue polinívora. Nuestros resultados, junto a la escasa bibliografía publicada, sugieren que las comunidades de sírfidos de la altamente modificada región pampeana están compuestas por pocas especies muy abundantes y muchas especies raras o con baja representatividad.
Article
Full-text available
The bee mimicking hover fly genus Volucella Geoffroy, 1762 and the potter wasp mimicking genus Monoceromyia Shan-non, 1922 are reported for the first time from South India. Brief diagnosis of Volucella trifasciata Wiedemann, 1830 and Monoceromyia javana (Wiedemann, 1824), high-resolution images of the habitus and other important characters, as well as notes on their distribution, mimicry and biology are provided.
Chapter
Tree hollows are fascinating microcosms that host a rich saproxylic insect assemblage. One of the most peculiar characteristics of this habitat is that both biotic and abiotic factors affect the evolution of the cavity making each unique and able to host a specialized fauna. Tree hollows are patchy habitats that provide a stable abiotic environment and long-lasting resources to a complex assembly of species from different trophic guilds (xylophagous, xylomycetophagous, saproxylophagous, saprophagous, predators, etc.), where species interactions seem to be an important piece of the puzzle of tree hollow diversity. Fourteen orders of insects and more than 800 species have been reported from tree hollows (primarily from Europe), with Coleoptera being the most diverse, followed by Diptera. However, knowledge of tree hollow insects and their requirements is still very asymmetric both geographically and taxonomically.
Article
Surveys in a xerophytic forests association in an Illinois sand area showed that specialized Batesian mimics of stinging bumblebees or wasps are numerous in spring and early summer, generally absent in midsummer, and present but infrequent in late summer. This extends the known occurrence of this sort of seasonal distribution among mimics to a group of mimetic species which are rare or do not occur in the mesophytic forest associations in Illinois which were surveyed by two previous investigators. Our findings support the hypothesis of these previous investigators that some temperate zone Batesian mimics may be selected to avoid the midsummer season when newly fledged, insectivorous birds are abundant and have not yet learned to shun the models which the mimics resemble.