Molecular Systematics and the Role of the "Várzea"-"Terra-Firme" Ecotone in the Diversification of Xiphorhynchus Woodcreepers (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae)

[ "Department of Biological Sciences, and Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA"]
The Auk (Impact Factor: 1.86). 01/2009; 119(Jul 2002):621-640. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2002)119[0621:MSATRO]2.0.CO;2


Se reconstruyó la filogenia de todas las especies conocidas y de muchas de las subespecies de Xiphorhynchus (Dendrocolaptidae) para evaluar los límites de las especies en este género taxonómicamente complejo y para investigar el rol del ecotono entre “várzea” (bosque de inundación) y “terra-firme” (bosque de tierras altas) del Amazonas en su diversificación. Las filogenias fueron inferidas a partir de 2,430 pares de bases de los genes de ADN mitocondrial ND2, ND3 y citocromo b. Todas las estimaciones filogenéticas avalaron la monofilia de todas las especies vivientes de Xiphorhynchus, con excepción del par de especies hermanas X. picus y X. kienerii. Se encontró fuerte respaldo para incluir a Lepidocolaptes fuscus en Xiphorhynchus, confirmando estudios moleculares y anatómicos previos. Los niveles de divergencia en las secuencias entre algunas subespecies de X. guttatus, X. ocellatus y X. spixii alcanzaron o excedieron aquellos encontrados entre especies biológicas cercanamente emparentadas de Xiphorhynchus. Los altos niveles de diferenciación en las secuencias y la parafilia de algunas especies de Xiphorhynchus indicaron que los siguientes taxones deberían ser reconocidos como especies: X. guttatoides, X. chunchotambo y X. elegans. Todas las especies de Xiphorhynchus restringidas a las áreas de bosque de terra-firme de las tierras bajas del Amazonas formaron un grupo monofilético fuertemente respaldado, mientras que las especies restringidas a bosques de várzea aparecieron en la base del clado que contenía a aquellas encontradas en una amplia variedad de hábitats (X. obsoletus) o pertenecieron a un linaje separado que probablemente pueda ser considerado como un género separado (X. kienerii). Estos resultados falsifican la relación de hermandad esperada entre las especies de várzea y terra-firme que se esperaría si el ecotono de várzea y terra-firme hubiera jugado un rol importante en la diferenciación entre poblaciones y en la especiación de Xiphorhynchus. En cambio, las estimaciones filogenéticas sugirieron que la especialización de hábitat de várzea y terra-firme evolucionó temprano en la historia evolutiva de Xiphorhynchus y que las diferenciaciones subsecuentes ocurrieron principalmente en el hábitat de terra-firme.

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Available from: Alexandre Aleixo
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    • "Several researchers have inquired how this diversity was shaped in time and space. To that extent recent studies have relied on molecular data and phylogeographic approaches (Aleixo, 2004Aleixo, , 2002 Antonelli et al., 2010; Ribas et al., 2012 Ribas et al., , 2005). Molecular data, when accurately integrated with biogeography and phenotypic variation studies, have a great potential to test hypotheses regarding the factors that generated species diversity in forest biomes and how these factors changed through time (Carneiro et al., 2012; Moritz et al., 2000). "
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    • "Given the extreme morphological and genetic similarity between X. g. eytoni and X. g. gracilirostris, as well as the lack of reciprocal monophyly between these taxa, we propose that they are treated as synonymous, with the older name eytoni having nomenclatural priority (Marantz et al., 2003). The only X. guttatus taxon missing from the analyses presented herein (dorbignyanus from northeastern Bolivia and Central Brazil, i.e. between the ranges of nominate guttatoides and vicinalis) has been demonstrated to cluster with high support within the species X. guttatoides as delimited herein (Aleixo, 2002); hence it should also be treated as a subspecies until its evolutionary status is evaluated with a better sampling. Uncorrected sequence divergence among lineages/subspecies of X. guttatoides ranged from 0.7% to 1.4% between X. g. guttatoides (C5) and X. g. vicinalis (C4); 2.0–3.1% between X. g. vicinalis (C4) and X. g. eytoni (C3); and 2.0–3.1% between X. g. eytoni (C3) and X. g. guttatoides (C5). "
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    • "Table 1 List of samples, Genbank accession numbers and locality information for samples and sequences included in this work. The number in the 'ID' column corresponds to the numbers in Figs 1 and 2. In 'source' column: A = Arbeláez-Cortés et al. (2010), B = Weir et al. (2009), C = Aleixo (2002), D = Brown et al. (2008), E = Kerr et al. (2009) and F = Derryberry et al. (2011) "
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