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We report herein the second locality of Synapturanus rabus Pyburn, 1977 in Peru, based on specimens collected at Reserva Forestal Santa Cruz, department of Loreto. In addition, a general description of the call is provided.
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Journal of species lists and distribution
Chec List
No te s o N GeoGraphic DistributioN
Check List 8(2): 274-275, 2012
© 2012 Check List and Authors
ISSN 1809-127X (available at
The microhylid genus Synapturanus Carvalho,
1954 currently includes three species distributed
across the Guiana region and Amazonia: Synapturanus
mirandaribeiroi Nelson and Lescure, 1975; S. rabus
Pyburn, 1977; and S. salseri Pyburn, 1975. Synapturanus
rabus is known to occur in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru
(Pyburn 1977; Wild 1995; Gordo et al. 2006). In Peru it
Tëbu, in the headwaters of the River Gálvez, close to the
River Blanco, 05°51’30” S, 73°45’37” W, ca. 100-180 m,
department of Loreto) (Gordo et al. 2006). We are pleased
to report the second locality of Synapturanus rabus from
During herpetological surveys at Reserva Forestal
       
department of Loreto, Peru (03°32’01” S, 73°10’30” W,
110 m), one individual of Synapturanus rabus
      
Amazonia Peruana, Peru; Figure 1-2) was collected on
Abstract: We report herein the second locality of Synapturanus rabus Pyburn, 1977 in Peru, based on specimens collected
at Reserva Forestal Santa Cruz, department of Loreto. In addition, a general description of the call is provided.
 
 
* Corresponding author. E-mail:
 1* and Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia 2
Synapturanus rabus Pyburn, 1977 in Peru (Amphibia: Anura:
Figure 1. Synapturanus rabus 
Forestal Santa Cruz, Loreto, Peru.
Figure 2. Synapturanus rabus 
left hand, ventral view; B: left foot, ventral view; C: head, dorsal view; D:
head, lateral view. Line = 2 mm.
López-Rojas et al. | Filling gap in the distribution of Synapturanus rabus in Peru
Figure 3. Similitary of oscilogram and audiospectrogram of six
advertismente calls of Synapturanus rabus of this paper (A) and by the
Read (2000).
20th     
beneath ground, and found after excavating approximately
0.2 m under the surface. The specimen has all the
diagnostic characteristics described by Pyburn (1977)
for the species, including: small body size (18.9 mm in
SVL), throat, dorsum, upper surfaces of limbs and sides of
head and body dark brown; pale cream line along canthus
rostralis; median, unpigmented notch at anterior end of
 
sharp (Figures 1 and 2).
The present record extends the known distribution of
Synapturanus rabus in western Amazonia to a point about
         
Tëbu, Gordo et al. 2006), 640 km southwestern of the type
locality (Pyburn 1977), and 470 km southeastern of the
closest Ecuadorian locality (Tiputini Biodiversity Station,
      
       
and Peruvian localities.
The call of Synapturanusrabusat Reserva Forestal Santa
Cruzwas recorded at 0.1 m on the surface from ground,
using a Canon PowerShot A610, each call were edited and
analysed with the software Praat v. 5.1.25, then compared
with the call presented by Read (2000) for the species.
Statistical analysis was carried out with Past v.1.34. Both
recordings showed similar characteristics (Figure 3), with
the call consisting of short pulsations regularly repeated
at intervals between 6.80 and 7.50 seconds (average ± SD,
7.16 ± 0.32 seconds, N=5), with repetitions between 8-16
notes per minute (average ± SD, 12.62 ± 3.89 seconds,
Each call occurred had note length between 0.08-0.09
(average ± SD, 0.09 ± 4-3 seconds, N=10, Figure 4), a single
pulse group of 29-48 pulses (mean= 39), and the number
of pulses per second varied between 32 and 46 (mean=
39). Activity calling is sporadic throughout night but
  
between 24.3-25.8 °C.
Figure 4. Oscilogram of a single advertisement call of Synapturanus
rabus, showing amplitude modulation.
Literature Cited
         
Reptiles; p. 191-196 In
      
and P.F. Fasabi-Rimachi (ed.). Rapid biological inventory 16: Peru:
Pyburn, W.F. 1977. A new fossorial frog from the Colombian rain forest
Herpetologica 32(4): 367–370.
   Frogs of the Ecuadorian Amazon, A guide to their calls.
Wild, E.R. 1995.New genus and species of Amazonian microhylid frog
with a phylogenetic analysis of New World genera. Copeia 1995(4):
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to Devon Graham and Carol Terceira
     
: August 2011
: January 2012
... We tentatively assigned the name S. mirandaribeiroi to sampled populations distributed in Suriname, Southern French Guiana and Northern Amazonas state, Brazil, considering distribution and morphology. Synapturanus rabus was described based on samples from Vaupés, Colombia (Western Guiana Shield), but populations from Ecuador (Read, 2000;Ortiz, 2018) and Peru (Gordo et al., 2006;López-Rojas & Cisneros-Heredia, 2012;Gagliardi-Urrutia et al., 2015) have been assigned tentatively to this taxon. DNA sequences from a population located 150 km south of the type locality were assigned tentatively to this taxon. ...
The outstanding biodiversity of the Guiana Shield has raised many questions about its origins and evolution. Frogs of the genera Adelastes, Otophryne and Synapturanus form an ancient lineage distributed mostly across this region. These genera display strikingly disparate morphologies and life-history traits. Notably, Synapturanus is conspicuously adapted to fossoriality and is the only genus within this group to have dispersed further into Amazonia. Moreover, morphological differences among Synapturanus species suggest different degrees of fossoriality that might be linked to their biogeographical history. Through integrative analysis of genetic, morphometric and acoustic data, we delimited 25 species in this clade, representing a fourfold increase. We found that the entire clade started to diversify ~55 Mya and Synapturanus ~30 Mya. Members of this genus probably dispersed three times out of the Guiana Shield both before and after the Pebas system, a wetland ecosystem occupying most of Western Amazonia during the Miocene. Using a three-dimensional osteological dataset, we characterized a high morphological disparity across the three genera. Within Synapturanus, we further characterized distinct phenotypes that emerged concomitantly with dispersals during the Miocene and possibly represent adaptations to different habitats, such as soils with different physical properties.
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El conocimiento de la biodiversidad de anfibios y reptiles es fundamental para proponer la conservación de estos taxa. En este trabajo se realizaron registros por encuentros visuales y recopilación bibliográfica para conocer la diversidad de anfibios y reptiles por tipos de hábitats en el interfluvio Putumayo-Napo-Amazonas. Nuestros resultados muestran la existencia de 140 especies de anfibios y 108 reptiles. El bosque de colina tuvo mayor riqueza de especies (58 especies de anfibios y 40 de reptiles). Las familias con mayor riqueza fueron Hylidae (38 especies) y Colubridae (39 especies). El análisis de similitud de hábitats en anfibios mostró dos grupos: de los bosques de terraza alta, terraza media y bosque de colinas y del bosque de terraza baja, aguajal y varillal pantanoso. En los reptiles también se formaron dos grupos: los de aguajal, bosque de colinas y terraza alta, y de los bosques de terraza baja, terraza media y varillal pantanoso. En este interfluvio, la herpetofauna está amenazada por la deforestación, la agricultura, la cacería de caimanes y recolección de huevos de tortugas. Si estas presiones antrópicas se intensifican podrían causar drásticas reducciones poblacionales.
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A new species and genus of microhylid frog are described from Amazonian Perú. The new genus is diagnosed by an incomplete maxillary arcade, which is an apomorphy of the genus. Furthermore, the new species possesses a remarkably large, Type-2 suspension feeding tadpole with unique, large, scalloped flaps pendant over the mouth. Phylogenetic analysis of New World microhylid genera supports a hypothesis in which the new genus is derived relative to Ctenophryne, Otophryne, and Nelsonophryne and is the sister taxon to the remaining genera.