Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia: Part II. The pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae)
[ "Natural Sciences Department, Broward Community College, 3501 S.W. Davie Road, Davie, FL 33314 ( )"] Annals of Carnegie Museum
(Impact Factor: 0.72).
01/2009; 74(Mar 2005):1-37. DOI: 10.2992/0097-4463(2005)74[1:ROTVSO]2.0.CO;2
Twelve species (Bothriopsis bilineata, B. oligolepis, B. taeniata, Bothrocophias microphthalmus, Bothrops andianus, B. atrox, B. jonathani, B. moojeni, B. neuwiedi, B. sanctaecrucis, Crotalus durissus, Lachesis muta) and five genera of pitvipers are known from Bolivia. Known ranges of several species are expanded to accommodate recently collected material and Bothrops andianus is reported from Bolivia. The holotypes of Bothrops andianus and Lachesis peruvianus are redescribed. Bothriopsis oligolepis (Werner) is shown to be synonymous with Lachesis peruvianus Boulenger rather than L. chloromelas. We designate a lectotype of Bothriopsis chloromelas (Boulenger) and apply this name to the ornately patterned forest pitviper endemic to the northern and central Andes of Peru. Morphological variation and reproductive data are reported for B. sanctaecrucis. References to Bolivian specimens of B. jararacussu are based on misidentifications of B. sanctaecrucis. Although the known ranges of B. brazili, B. jararacussu, and Bothrocophias hyoprora approach Bolivia's borders, these species have not yet been collected within the country. A rectangular loreal is rare in pitvipers and may be a synapomorphy of two small Andean pitvipers: B. andianus and B. lojanus.
Available from: Mariangela Vargas
- "Paz; this species in Bolivia has been recently classified as Bothrops mattogrossensis (Campbell and Lamar, 2004), although this taxonomic change is disputed by some authors (Harvey et al., 2005). (c) Bothrops jararaca ( "
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ABSTRACT: Species of the genus Bothrops induce the vast majority of snakebite envenomings in Latin America. A preclinical study was performed in the context of a regional network of public laboratories involved in the production, quality control and development of antivenoms in Latin America. The ability of seven polyspecific antivenoms, produced in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Costa Rica, to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant, defibrinogenating and myotoxic activities of the venoms of Bothrops neuwiedi (diporus) (Argentina), Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. neuwiedi (mattogrossensis) (Bolivia), Bothrops atrox (Peru and Colombia) and Bothrops asper (Costa Rica) was assessed using standard laboratory tests. Despite differences in the venom mixtures used in the immunization of animals for the production of these antivenoms, a pattern of extensive cross-neutralization was observed between these antivenoms and all the venoms tested, with quantitative differences in the values of effective doses. This study reveals the capacity of these antivenoms to neutralize, in preclinical tests, homologous and heterologous Bothrops venoms in Central and South America, and also highlight quantitative differences in the values of Median Effective Doses (ED50s) between the various antivenoms.
Available from: Paola A. Carrasco
- "Rhinocerophis jonathani was described by Harvey (1994) based on two specimens from the Bolivian Altiplano. Dirksen et al. (1995) reported two additional specimens from near Samaipata, Santa Cruz, and Harvey et al. (2005) described a few additional specimens from Santa Cruz and Cochabamba. Recent field work in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina has identified six new localities for this rarely encountered pitviper. "
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