Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia. II: The pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae)

ArticleinAnnals of Carnegie Museum 74(Mar 2005):1-37 · January 2009with385 Reads
DOI: 10.2992/0097-4463(2005)74[1:ROTVSO]2.0.CO;2
Abstract
Twelve species (Bothriopsis bilineata, B. oligolepis, B. taeniata, Bothrocophias microphthalmus, Bothrops andianus, B. atrox, B. jonathani, B. moojeni, B. neuwiedi, B. sanctaecrucis, Crotalus durissus, Lachesis muta) and five genera of pitvipers are known from Bolivia. Known ranges of several species are expanded to accommodate recently collected material and Bothrops andianus is reported from Bolivia. The holotypes of Bothrops andianus and Lachesis peruvianus are redescribed. Bothriopsis oligolepis (Werner) is shown to be synonymous with Lachesis peruvianus Boulenger rather than L. chloromelas. We designate a lectotype of Bothriopsis chloromelas (Boulenger) and apply this name to the ornately patterned forest pitviper endemic to the northern and central Andes of Peru. Morphological variation and reproductive data are reported for B. sanctaecrucis. References to Bolivian specimens of B. jararacussu are based on misidentifications of B. sanctaecrucis. Although the known ranges of B. brazili, B. jararacussu, and Bothrocophias hyoprora approach Bolivia's borders, these species have not yet been collected within the country. A rectangular loreal is rare in pitvipers and may be a synapomorphy of two small Andean pitvipers: B. andianus and B. lojanus.
    • "The Andean Bothrops lojanus has been considered as incertae sedis and although morphological analyses recovered the species within Bothrops (Carrasco et al., 2012 ), in the present study B. lojanus appears within the genus Bothrocophias with weak support. The distribution of B. lojanus in terrestrial forested habitats in Ecuador and the occurrence of some Bothrocophias species in this same region and habitat (Campbell and Lamar, 2004; Harvey et al., 2005) suggest this might be a possible relationship. However, the few gene sequences available for B. lojanus (only two mitochondrial gene sequences) may be preventing us to find a reliable phylogenetic position for the species. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Snakes of the cosmopolitan family Viperidae comprise around 329 venomous species showing a striking heterogeneity in species richness among lineages. While the subfamily Azemiopinae comprises only two species, 70% of all viper species are arranged in the subfamily Crotalinae or the "pit vipers". The radiation of the pit vipers was marked by the evolution of the heat-sensing pits, which has been suggested to be a key innovation for the successful diversification of the group. Additionally, only crotalines were able to successfully colonize the New World. Here, we present the most complete molecular phylogeny for the family to date that comprises sequences from nuclear and mitochondrial genes representing 79% of all living vipers. We also investigated the time of divergence between lineages, using six fossils to calibrate the tree, and explored the hypothesis that crotalines have undergone an explosive radiation. Our phylogenetic analyses retrieved high support values for the monophyly of the family Viperidae, subfamilies Viperinae and Crotalinae, and 22 out of 27 genera, as well as well-supported intergeneric relationships throughout the family. We were able to recover a strongly supported sister clade to the New World pit vipers that comprises Gloydius, Ovophis, Protobothrops and Trimeresurus gracilis. Our results agree in many aspects with other studies focusing on phylogenetics of vipers, but we also recover new relationships as well. Despite the addition of new sequences we were not able to resolve some of the poor supported relationships previously suggested. Time of divergence estimates suggested that vipers started to radiate around the late Paleocene to middle Eocene with subfamilies most likely dating back to the Eocene. The invasion of the New World might have taken place sometime close to the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. Diversification analyses suggested a shift in speciation rates during the radiation of a sub-clade of pit vipers where speciation rates rapidly increased but slowed down toward the present. Thus, the evolution of the loreal pits alone does not seem to explain their explosive speciation rates. We suggest that climatic and geological changes in Asia and the invasion of the New World may have also contributed to the speciation shift found in vipers.
    Article · Jan 2017
    • "In view of this evident systematic problem, different taxonomic rearrangements to rectify the paraphyly of Bothrops were proposed. One of the proposals was to maintain Bothriopsis and to split Bothrops into multiple monophyletic genera, consistently with the wider trend in pitviper systematics of splitting large genera into smaller, more homogeneous genera (Gutberlet and Campbell, 2001; Parkinson et al., 2002; Malhotra and Thorpe, 2004; Harvey et al., 2005; Castoe and Parkinson, 2006). Other authors (Salom~ ao et al., 1997; Vidal et al., 1997; Wüster et al., 2002b) proposed to synonymize Bothriopsis with Bothrops, some of them arguing that the morphological and ecological diversity of the group is probably the result of a single adaptive radiation, and that splitting the genera would obscure this biogeographical pattern. "
    Dataset · Jun 2016 · Toxicon
    • "In view of this evident systematic problem, different taxonomic rearrangements to rectify the paraphyly of Bothrops were proposed. One of the proposals was to maintain Bothriopsis and to split Bothrops into multiple monophyletic genera, consistently with the wider trend in pitviper systematics of splitting large genera into smaller, more homogeneous genera (Gutberlet and Campbell, 2001; Parkinson et al., 2002; Malhotra and Thorpe, 2004; Harvey et al., 2005; Castoe and Parkinson, 2006). Other authors (Salom~ ao et al., 1997; Vidal et al., 1997; Wüster et al., 2002b) proposed to synonymize Bothriopsis with Bothrops, some of them arguing that the morphological and ecological diversity of the group is probably the result of a single adaptive radiation, and that splitting the genera would obscure this biogeographical pattern. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since nomenclature is intended to reflect the evolutionary history of organisms, advances in our understanding of historical relationships may lead to changes in classification, and thus potentially in taxonomic instability. An unstable nomenclature for medically important animals like venomous snakes is of concern, and its implications in venom/antivenom research and snakebite treatment have been extensively discussed since the 90�s. The taxonomy of the pitvipers of the Bothrops complex has been historically problematic and different genus-level rearrangements were proposed to rectify the longstanding paraphyly of the group. Here we review the toxinological literature on the Bothrops complex to estimate the impact of recent proposals of classification in non-systematic research. This assessment revealed moderate levels of nomenclatural instability in the last five years, and the recurrence of some practices discussed in previous studies regarding the use of classifications and the information provided about the origin of venom samples. We briefly comment on a few examples and the implications of different proposals of classifications for the Bothrops complex. The aim of this review is to contribute to the reduction of adverse effects of current taxonomic instability in a group of medical importance in the Americas.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
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