Article

Antiaging Effect of Cordyceps sinensis Extract

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Abstract

This experiment studied the effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract (CSE) on mice aged by d-galactose and castrated rats to analyse its antiaging effect. Water maze and step-down type avoidance tests were used to examine the effect of CSE on learning and memory. CSE shortened escape latency, prolonged step-down latency and decreased the number of errors in mice aged by d-galactose. The effect of CSE on the sexual function of castrated rats was evaluated by measuring the penis erection latency, mount latency and ejaculation latency. CSE appeared to shorten penis erection latency and mount latency in castrated rats. The study also measured the effect of CSE on the activity of age-related enzymes. The results showed that CSE improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and monoamine oxidase activity in the aged mice. The study demonstrated that CSE can improve the brain function and antioxidative enzyme activity in mice with d-galactose-induced senescence and promote sexual function in castrated rats. All of these findings suggest that CSE has an antiaging effect.

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... The result suggested that stimulation of the M1mAchR by CCh was the key factor leading to ERK phosphorylation enhanced by extract of CS. Pretreatment with DCM and PIR exhibited drastic inhibition of CCh induced ERK phosphorylation [12]. ...
... Electron microscopy of hippocampus found that neurons and cellular organelles were well conserved with less 2 degeneration in mice treated with CSE compared to control group mice, suggesting the enhancement of brain function by CSE [12,13]. ...
... The toxicity of STZ was being suppressed by CS. Moreover, findings suggested that CS reduced the complication related to Diabetes Mellitus like improvement in electrolyte balance and decrease in deposition of collagen fibril in histopathological examination of renal cortical over the control model which is a typical feature of Diabetic nephropathy [12]. ...
... It has been hypothesized that vanadium complex of vanadiumenriched C. militaris (VECM), is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the action of insulin, and mimic further favourable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. militaris has been reported to demonstrate an antidepressant-like activity, which attenuates the diabetes induced increase in blood glucose concentrations (Ji et al., 2009). ...
... Additionally, the two enzymes are reported to be regulated by a specific transcription factor, microphthalmiaassociated transcription factor (MITF) (Shimoda et al., 2010;Hasegawa, 2010). Cordyceps is traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan, for the ethno pharmacological treatment of anti-aging activities from various extracts of Cordyceps exhibited a wide range of bioactivity in vivo, as well as in vitro (Ji et al., 2009;Shi et al., 2009;Ko et al., 2010). Chien et al. (2008) and Ji et al. (2009) reported that Cordyceps spp. ...
... Cordyceps is traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan, for the ethno pharmacological treatment of anti-aging activities from various extracts of Cordyceps exhibited a wide range of bioactivity in vivo, as well as in vitro (Ji et al., 2009;Shi et al., 2009;Ko et al., 2010). Chien et al. (2008) and Ji et al. (2009) reported that Cordyceps spp. Extract exhibited suppressing effect on the melanin production by tyrosinase-inhibitory activities. ...
... Çalışma, ekstrenin yaşlanmış farelerde beyin fonksiyonunu ve antioksidatif enzim aktivitesini arttırabildiğini ve hadım edilmiş sıçanlarda cinsel işlevi desteklediğini göstermektedir. 33 ...
... Sonuçlar, Cordyceps'in süperoksit dismutaz, glutatyon peroksidaz ve katalaz aktivitesini artırdığını, ve yaşlı farelerde lipit peroksidasyonu ve monoaminoksidaz aktivitesini ise düşürdüğünü ortaya koymuştur. 33 ...
... •Improved the activity of SOD, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and monoamine oxidase activity (Yamaguchi et al., 2000a;Gu et al., 2003;Wang et al., 2004;Chen et al., 2006;Ji et al., 2009;Wang M et al. (2012) Antitumor effects •Involvement of hedgehog, apoptosis, p53, and estrogen signaling (Yoshida et al., 1989;Yoo et al., 2004;Park et al., 2005;Yoshikawa et al., 2007;Jin et al., 2008;Yoshikawa et al., 2008;He et al., 2010;Wong et al., 2010;Jen et al., 2011;Wu et al., 2014;Park et al., 2017;Lee et al., 2019) Hypoglycemic activity ...
... A study by Wang et al., 2004 confirmed, that C. sinensis increases the capability of learning and memory, improve the action of SOD of RBC's, mind and liver, the action of Na + -K + -ATPE of the brain, the potential of catalase and GPx of blood, and remarkably decline the activity of monoamine oxidase of the brain and the contents of MDA of brain and liver in aged mice by improving the antioxidative profile and eradicating free radicals (Wang et al., 2004). Ji et al. treated (Ji et al., 2009) D-galactose-induced senescence mice with C. sinensis extract. The results documented that C. sinensis extract can ameliorate the brain function and possess antioxidant activity by improving the activity of SOD, GPx, and catalase as well as lower the level of lipid peroxidation and monoamine oxidase. ...
Article
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In recent decades, interest in the Cordyceps genus has amplified due to its immunostimulatory potential. Cordyceps species, its extracts, and bioactive constituents have been related with cytokine production such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, phagocytosis stimulation of immune cells, nitric oxide production by increasing inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and stimulation of inflammatory response via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Other pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-cancer, antihyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, vasorelaxation, anti-depressant, aphrodisiac, and kidney protection, has been reported in pre-clinical studies. These biological activities are correlated with the bioactive compounds present in Cordyceps including nucleosides, sterols, flavonoids, cyclic peptides, phenolic, bioxanthracenes, polyketides, and alkaloids, being the cyclic peptides compounds the most studied. An organized review of the existing literature was executed by surveying several databanks like PubMed, Scopus, etc. using keywords like Cordyceps , cordycepin, immune system, immunostimulation, immunomodulatory, pharmacology, anti-cancer, anti-viral, clinical trials, ethnomedicine, pharmacology, phytochemical analysis, and different species names. This review collects and analyzes state-of-the-art about the properties of Cordyceps species along with ethnopharmacological properties, application in food, chemical compounds, extraction of bioactive compounds, and various pharmacological properties with a special focus on the stimulatory properties of immunity.
... However several other nucleosides, cyclic pepetides, sterols and polysaccharides have also been reported [80]. There are numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to affirm the potency of this species as antitumor, cerebroprotective [81], antiaging [82], gastroprotective [83], immunomodulatory [84,85], antioxidant [16,86], anti-inflammatory [87][88][89], antidiabetic [90,91], aphrodisiac [82,92,93], antiproliferative [94][95][96] and anti-fatigue activities [97,98]. ...
... However several other nucleosides, cyclic pepetides, sterols and polysaccharides have also been reported [80]. There are numerous in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to affirm the potency of this species as antitumor, cerebroprotective [81], antiaging [82], gastroprotective [83], immunomodulatory [84,85], antioxidant [16,86], anti-inflammatory [87][88][89], antidiabetic [90,91], aphrodisiac [82,92,93], antiproliferative [94][95][96] and anti-fatigue activities [97,98]. ...
Article
The genus Daphne belongs to the Thymeleaceae family and contains over 90 species that are distributed in Asia, Europe and parts of North Africa. The species of the genus Daphne are used in the traditional medicine of China, Tibet, Korea, and the Middle East for the treatment of various conditions. A broad range of studies has shown the significant biological potential of these species as sources of biologically and pharmacologically active compounds. Daphne species are a source of several classes of valuable phytochemicals such as coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and different classes of terpenes. The phytochemical diversity of this genus is demonstrated by over 350 secondary metabolites isolated from various species. The genus possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiviral, abortive and haemostatic effects. A variety of bioactive secondary metabolites found in this genus may have potential use in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Thus, species belonging to the genus Daphne can be considered an important source both for the treatment of various disorders, due to the presence of a plethora of bioactive constituents with potent bioactivities, and as possible leads in the discovery and synthesis of new medications.
... They studied the effects of a brief 3month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of C. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in ages between 30-40 years old, 7 healthy male volunteers, amateur cyclists participated in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. They reported the effects of fungal supplements on physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress [DPPH (1, 1'-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity] just before and after the physical activity [34,35] . They observed a decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). ...
... [55] : Adenosine (33), cordycepin (34), guanosine(35), dideoxyadenosine (36), N6-(2-hydroxyethyl) adenosine(37), inosine(38), thymidine(39), uridine ...
Article
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Yarsagumba (Cordyceps sinensis) is one of the world rarest fungal species that parasites on the body of a caterpillar of a moth and found underground of alpine grass at high altitude. The Cordyceps sinensis is known as " summer plant and winter insect " or " half-caterpillar-half-mushroom ". This fungus used for various medicinal purposes, caring diseases and specially used as a food product in China and south Asian countries. It contains various biologically active pharmacophores which helps to maintain the health and body. Reports say that, the regular use of Cordyceps, is very useful for sportsperson to maintain their body balance, endurance, strength, and to make healthy body weight etc. On the basis of scientific and manmade facts, we tried to summarise, why Cordyceps is recommended to sport person as a physical booster. It contains various bioactive pharmacophores including essential oil, which are medicinally important. Thus body always looks for such type of dietary supplements.
... metabolites. Because that Cordyceps do not rot easily in the soil and are usually used as tonic medicine or food, they are presumed to contain antibiotics and antiaging compounds (Ji et al. 2008;Schmidt et al. 2003;Olatunji et al. 2018;He et al. 2018), therefore, the isolated novel compounds of this study will be submitted to antimicrobial and antiaging tests. In this study Escherichia coli and Candida albicans will be used to test the antimicrobial activities, and Caenorhabditis elegans will be used for the antiaging assays. ...
... Bioactivities of N 6 -(2-hydroxyethylacetate) adenosine and linoleoyl-glycero-phosphocholine have been reported already (Kim et al. 2014;Harrison et al. 2020;Papandreou et al. 2021;Azarcoya-Barrera et al. 2021), therefore we just submitted the 3 novel compounds for bioactivity studies. Because Cordyceps are presumed to contain antibiotics and antiaging compounds (Ji et al. 2008;Schmidt et al. 2003;Olatunji et al. 2018;He et al. 2018), the isolated novel compounds were submitted to antimicrobial and antiaging tests. ...
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High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed that there are 20 main components in spores and mycelia extract of Cordyceps fumosorosea strain RCEF 6672 including mannitol ( 1 ), uridine ( 2 ), adenine ( 3 ). N ⁶ -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine ( 4 ). N ⁶ -(2-hydroxyethylacetate)-adenosine ( 5 ), fumosoroseanoside A ( 6 ) and B ( 7 ), ovalicin-4α-alcohol ( 8 ), 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ( 9 ) and its isomer ( 10 ), fumosoroseain A ( 11 ) and its isomer ( 12 ), 5 non-ribosomal peptides ( 13 to 17 ) and 3 fatty acids ( 18 to 20 ). The compounds 5 , 6 , 7 , 9 and 11 were prepared with preparative and semi-preparative HPLC and identified with 1D and 2D NMR. Compounds 4 and 5 were the first time identified from C. fumosorosea . Compounds 6 , 7 and 11 are novel compounds. Compounds 6 and 7 showed antibacterial and antifungal activities, and 11 showed antiaging activity. All the secondary metabolites ( 4 to 8 and 11 to 17 ) have strong bioactivities indicating that the metabolites have pharmaceutical development potentiality. Graphical Abstract
... Previous reports by Zhang et al. [43] have shown that in D-Gal treated rats the activity of brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), isoform that regulates brain levels of most biogenic amines, including DA, 5-HT and NA was increased. Significant increase in the activity of brain MAO-B was also observed in mice aged by 6-week-D-galactose administration compared to the control [44]. It was found that activity of MAO-B is age-related and increases in most human brain structures starting from the age of 50-60 years [45]. ...
Article
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a phenolic compound believed to have neuroprotective and procognitive activity. D-Galactose (D-Gal) is a sugar, which administered to mammals can induce cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of D-Gal administered orally in inducing cognitive impairment in rats and describe how it affects the concentration of neurotransmitters in rats’ brain. The second aim was to evaluate the influence of PCA on learning, memory and neurotransmission in D-Gal-exposed rats. Memory impairment was induced by long-term administration of D-Gal (100 mg/kg body weight/day) directly via oral gavage. PCA (50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively) was administered in drinking water. Morris Water Maze test (MWM) to assess learning and spatial memory was initiated after 38 days of treatment and lasted for 10 days. The concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites were evaluated in selected brain regions using high performance liquid chromatography. D-Gal significantly impaired cognitive performance during the acquisition and recall of MWM compared to control rats and changed concentrations of cortical serotonin as well as its cortical and hippocampal turnover. The turnover of dopamine was also influenced by D-Gal. Simultaneously, PCA was found to improve retrieval of acquired information in MWM and to restore brain serotonergic and dopaminergic turnover dysregulated by D-Gal. These findings confirm the usefulness of oral D-Gal in eliciting rat model of mild memory impairment and show that long-term administration of PCA can be beneficial in reversing detrimental changes related to cognitive deficiencies.
... Protecting against damage of cells by free radicals is one of the biological activities exerted by Cordyceps species extracts. This activity corresponds to polysaccharide fraction [64,114,126,127]. C. sinensis has potent antioxidant and antiaging properties. ...
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In the ancient books of traditional medicines, medicinal mushrooms were occupying the headlines, and the main topics were confirming to their miraculous therapeutic powers. The presence of various phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and terpenoids and other compounds, is the reason for their potent biological activities as anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiaging, hepatic protective, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and much more biological activities are discovered every day. Many mushroom genera are famous for their promising therapeutic capabilities. One of the mushrooms genera attracting attention is Cordyceps which has long been used in Asian countries for maintaining long and healthy life. Numerous studies on different metabolic activities of Cordyceps have been performed both in vitro and in vivo. This review describes the importance of medicinal mushrooms with focus on Cordyceps as an example of globally commercialized mushrooms.
... 19 The effects of O. sinensis and G. lucidum on cognitive functions have been evaluated in animal models or through in vitro studies. Cs extract was reported to improve learning and memory in aged mice 20 and in memory-impaired mice. 21 Cordycepin, a major component of O. sinensis, was found to enhance learning in healthy mice. ...
Article
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis (= Cordyceps sinensis) and Ganoderma lucidum are medicinal mushrooms used in traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of O. sinensis and G. lucidum on cognitive function have been evaluated through the use of animal models and in vitro studies, which indicated beneficial effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with a commercially available supplement of O. sinensis and G. lucidum on cognitive function in young, healthy human participants. Physical education students (n = 96 [53 men, 43 women]; mean ± standard deviation age, 26.3 ± 3.21 years) were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: highdose supplement (HD) group, low-dose supplement (LD) group, and a placebo (PL) group. Each group received the treatment, administered by a technician blinded to supplements/placebo, for 30 days. Participants were evaluated for various cognitive functions before and immediately after treatment. Evaluation of cognitive function domains— global cognitive score, memory, executive function, attention, information processing speed, visuospatial ability, verbal function, and motor skills—showed no significant differences between groups. These results indicate that a combination of O. sinensis and G. lucidum supplements for 30 days did not enhance cognitive function domains in young healthy participants.
... Icariin (ICA) (the chemical structure is shown in Figure 1) is the main active flavonoid glucoside from herbs of the genus Epimedium; these herbs are used in traditional Chinese medicine and have long been prescribed for the treatment of bone fractures and osteoporosis as a bone-protecting agent. In addition to promoting bone regeneration and repair, ICA also has many beneficial pharmacological and biological activities, including neuroprotective effects [8,9]; protective effects against atherosclerosis [10]; antitumor effects [11,12]; anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects [13,14]; and improved sexual function effects [15]. Several animal and cell studies have shown that treatment with ICA can increase osteogenic differentiation and reduce bone loss in vivo and in vitro [16][17][18]. ...
Article
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Icariin (ICA) is the main active flavonoid glucoside from herbs of the genus Epimedium; in traditional Chinese medicine, these herbs have long been prescribed for the treatment of bone fractures and osteoporosis. Several studies have shown that treatment with ICA can increase osteogenic differentiation and reduce bone loss in vivo and in vitro. However, the definite signaling pathway of this osteogenic effect remains unclear. In this study, we selected bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells as a model of osteoblast differentiation. We investigated the effects of ICA on C2C12 cells osteogenic differentiation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that ICA could enhance BMP2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation of C2C12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with ICA activated the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling axis in a time-dependent manner. Blocking cAMP signaling using the PKA selective inhibitor H89 significantly inhibited the stimulatory effect of ICA on osteogenesis. Therefore, the osteoinductive potential and the low cost of ICA indicate that it is a promising alternative treatment or promoter for enhancing the therapeutic effects of BMP2.
... Expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7-1/-2 was also decreased with the increase in cordycepin concentration as presented in Figure 4A [65]. Furthermore, cordycepin has been found to suppress the expression of diabetes-regulating genes through the inactivation of NF-κb-dependent inflammatory responses [66,67]. In another study, cordycepin's antidiabetic activity was reported in an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cordyceps is a rare naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus usually found at high altitudes on the Himalayan plateau and a well-known medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps contains various bioactive components, out of which, cordycepin is considered most vital, due to its utmost therapeutic as well as nutraceutical potential. Moreover, the structure similarity of cordycepin with adenosine makes it an important bioactive component, with difference of only hydroxyl group, lacking in the 3 position of its ribose moiety. Cordycepin is known for various nutraceutical and therapeutic potential, such as anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, antiviral, hepato-protective, hypo-sexuality, cardiovascular diseases, antimalarial, anti-osteoporotic, anti-arthritic, cosmeceutical etc. which makes it a most valuable medicinal mushroom for helping in maintaining good health. In this review, effort has been made to bring altogether the possible wide range of cordycepin's nutraceutical potential along with its pharmacological actions and possible mechanism. Additionally, it also summarizes the details of cordycepin based nutraceuticals predominantly available in the market with expected global value. Moreover, this review will attract the attention of food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceutical and food industries to improve the use of bioactive molecule cordycepin for nutraceutical purposes with commercialization to aid and promote healthy lifestyle, wellness and wellbeing.
... Wang et al. (1998) reported that O. sinensis contains a factor that stimulates corticosteroid production in animal model. The hot water extract of O. sinensis improve the sexual function in rats (Ji et al., 2009) and stimulate the steroidogenesis, significantly by inducing testosterone production via PKA and PKC signal transduction pathways (Hsu et al., 2003;Huang et al., 2004;Chen et al., 2005;Wong et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
Medicinal mushrooms with therapeutic importance are being utilized for the treatment of a variety of severe manifestations. Particularly, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a genus of ascomycete fungi, which parasitize mainly on insects and other arthropods, has been intensively studied in various disease models. This fungus is found naturally in the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring regions, including China, Nepal, Tibet, and India. The presence of nucleosides, polysaccharides, sterols, steroids, and other bioactive compounds of O. sinensis make its use in replenish kidney and treatment of fatigue, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyposexualities, renal failure, arrhythmias, and other heart diseases, and liver disorders. The fungus has also given the reliable results in different organ malfunctioning by controlling the cytokines, chemokines, and oxidative stress induced proteins level which are involved in several human malignancies. This chapter highlights the multiple therapeutic roles of O. sinensis as dietary supplements with possible in vitro and in vivo clinical evidence and interactions/toxicity.
... Cordyceps sinensis), a famous entomopathogenic fungus, has been extensively used as tonic food and remedy in China and other Asian countries for hundreds of years. It has multiple bioactivities including hepatorenal protection (Liu et al., 2014), immunomodulation (Wu et al., 2014), anti-aging (Ji et al., 2009) and anti-tumor effects (Niwa et al., 2013). Hence, the use of health food and medicinal products derived from O. sinensis has become very popular in many countries. ...
Article
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has multiple health-promoting effects. It is used as herbal remedy and health food in Asian countries, together with its cultured mycelia used as a substitute of natural O. sinensis. In the present study, natural O. sinensis collected from three geographical regions and its cultured mycelia derived from three strains were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with chemometrics. A total of 72 metabolites were identified from all samples with different metabolic profiles observed between natural O. sinensis and cultured mycelia. Among them, 50 metabolites showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and cultured mycelia. Higher levels of trehalose, glycerol and citric acid in natural O. sinensis were found compared to those in cultured mycelia, while myo-inositol and some amino acids were more abundant in cultured mycelia. In addition, chemical compositions of natural O. sinensis varied depending on the geographical regions. Natural O. sinensis from three locations were clearly differentiated by the concentrations of meso-erythritol, D-mannitol, glucose and organic acids. The current study provides a comprehensive metabolic profiles of natural O. sinensis and its cultured mycelia, which is potentially important for understanding the metabolism of O. sinensis and facilitating the application of cultured mycelia as a supplement of natural O. sinensis.
... Expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7-1/-2 was also decreased with the increase in cordycepin concentration as presented in Figure 4A [65]. Furthermore, cordycepin has been found to suppress the expression of diabetes-regulating genes through the inactivation of NF-κb-dependent inflammatory responses [66,67]. In another study, cordycepin's antidiabetic activity was reported in an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cordyceps is a rare naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus usually found at high altitudes on the Himalayan plateau and a well-known medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps contains various bioactive components, out of which, cordycepin is considered most vital, due to its utmost therapeutic as well as nutraceutical potential. Moreover, the structure similarity of cordycepin with adenosine makes it an important bioactive component, with difference of only hydroxyl group, lacking in the 3′ position of its ribose moiety. Cordycepin is known for various nutraceutical and therapeutic potential, such as anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, antiviral, hepato-protective, hypo-sexuality, cardiovascular diseases, antimalarial, anti-osteoporotic, anti-arthritic, cosmeceutical etc. which makes it a most valuable medicinal mushroom for helping in maintaining good health. In this review, effort has been made to bring altogether the possible wide range of cordycepin’s nutraceutical potential along with its pharmacological actions and possible mechanism. Additionally, it also summarizes the details of cordycepin based nutraceuticals predominantly available in the market with expected global value. Moreover, this review will attract the attention of food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceutical and food industries to improve the use of bioactive molecule cordycepin for nutraceutical purposes with commercialization to aid and promote healthy lifestyle, wellness and wellbeing.
... Cordyceps militaris (L) Fr., belonging to Family Cordycipitaceae, Order Hypocreales, genus Cordyceps, class Sordariomycetes, Phylum Ascomycota, Kingdom Fungi, is an important edible and medicinal fungus which is parasitic on the cocoons and pupae of Lepidoptera larvae and is widely distributed all over the world (Sung et al., 2007;Singh et al., 2009). It has various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-tumor, and anti-proliferation (Liu et al., 1997;Nan et al., 2001;Zhan et al., 2006;Ji et al., 2009;Choi et al., 2014). And it is rich in various active chemicals such as cordycepin, adenosine, cordyceps polysaccharide, etc., which have the functions of enhancing immunity, lowering blood lipids, and anti-tumor (Wang and Zhang, 2021). ...
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Background: Gouty arthritis (GA) is a common inflammatory disease that causes pain due to the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals into joints and surrounding tissues. Anti-inflammatory drugs have significant clinical anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, but they have many side effects. Cordyceps militaris is an edible and medicinal fungus, and its extract (CME) has good anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of CME on GA and its underlying mechanism. Methods: The effect of CME on the expression of related inflammatory factors and histopathological changes in the MSU-induced acute inflammatory gout model in rats was studied by ELISA and HE, and its anti-inflammatory mechanism was analyzed by transcriptome combined with RT-qPCR. Results: CME significantly improved gait scores and joint swelling in GA rats, and reduced MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration. CME inhibited MSU-induced inflammatory responses by reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and Caspase-1 and increasing the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. Transcriptome analysis showed that CME significantly altered inflammation-related cytokine pathways, and identified four major genes involved in regulation of inflammation, CCL7, CSF2RB, LIF, and IL-1β. In addition, RT-qPCR was performed to verify these differential genes. Conclusion: CME significantly alleviated the inflammatory progression of GA and ameliorated the onset of GA. The underlying mechanism may be related to triggering the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway to inhibit the activation of the inflammasome and regulate the immune system. And it regulates the inflammatory response induced by MSU crystals through the genes CCL7, CSF2RB, and IL-1β.
... Expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7-1/-2 was also decreased with the increase in cordycepin concentration as presented in Figure 4A [65]. Furthermore, cordycepin has been found to suppress the expression of diabetes-regulating genes through the inactivation of NF-κb-dependent inflammatory responses [66,67]. In another study, cordycepin's antidiabetic activity was reported in an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. ...
Article
Full-text available
:Cordycepsisararenaturallyoccurringentomopathogenicfungususuallyfoundathighaltitudes on the Himalayan plateau and a well-known medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps contains various bioactive components, out of which, cordycepin is considered most vital, due to its utmost therapeutic as well as nutraceutical potential. Moreover, the structure similarity of cordycepin with adenosine makes it an import antbioactive component, with difference of only hydroxyl group, lacking in the 30 position of its ribose moiety. Cordycepin is known for various nutraceutical and therapeutic potential, such as anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, antiviral, hepato-protective, hypo-sexuality, cardiovascular diseases,antimalarial,anti-osteoporotic,anti-arthritic,cosmeceutical etc. which makes it a most valuable medicinal mushroom for helping in maintaining good health. In this review, effort has been made to bring altogether the possible wide range of cordycepin’s nutraceutical potential along with its pharmacological actions and possible mechanism. Additionally,it also summarizes the details of cordycepin based nutraceuticals predominantly available in the market with expected global value. Moreover, this review will attract the attention of food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceutical and food industries to improve the use of bioactive molecule cordycepin for nutraceutical purposes with commercialization to aid and promote healthy lifestyle, wellness and wellbeing.
... Expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7-1/-2 was also decreased with the increase in cordycepin concentration as presented in Figure 4A [65]. Furthermore, cordycepin has been found to suppress the expression of diabetes-regulating genes through the inactivation of NF-κb-dependent inflammatory responses [66,67]. In another study, cordycepin's antidiabetic activity was reported in an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cordycepsis a rare naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus usually found at high altitudes on the Himalayan plateau and a well-known medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps contains various bioactive components, out of which, cordycepin is considered most vital, due to its utmost therapeutic as well as nutraceutical potential. Moreover, the structure similarity of cordycepin with adenosine makes it an important bioactive component, with difference of only hydroxyl group, lacking in the 30 position of its ribose moiety. Cordycepin is known for various nutraceutical and therapeutic potential, such as anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, antiviral, hepato-protective, hypo-sexuality, cardiovascular diseases, antimalarial, anti-osteoporotic, anti-arthritic, cosmeceutical etc. which makes it a most valuable medicinal mushroom for helping in maintaining good health. In this review, effort has been made to bring altogether the possible wide range of cordycepin’s nutraceutical potential along with its pharmacological actions and possible mechanism. Additionally, it also summarizes the details of cordycepin based nutraceuticals predominantly available in the market with expected global value. Moreover, this review will attract the attention of food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceutical and food industries to improve the use of bioactive molecule cordycepin for nutraceutical purposes with commercialization to aid and promote healthy lifestyle, wellness and wellbeing
... Expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7-1/-2 was also decreased with the increase in cordycepin concentration as presented in Figure 4A [65]. Furthermore, cordycepin has been found to suppress the expression of diabetes-regulating genes through the inactivation of NF-κb-dependent inflammatory responses [66,67]. In another study, cordycepin's antidiabetic activity was reported in an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. ...
Article
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Cordyceps is a rare naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus usually found at high altitudes on the Himalayan plateau and a well-known medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps contains various bioactive components, out of which, cordycepin is considered most vital, due to its utmost therapeutic as well as nutraceutical potential. Moreover, the structure similarity of cordycepin with adenosine makes it an important bioactive component, with difference of only hydroxyl group, lacking in the 3′ position of its ribose moiety. Cordycepin is known for various nutraceutical and therapeutic potential, such as anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, antiviral, hepato-protective, hypo-sexuality, cardiovascular diseases, antimalarial, anti-osteoporotic, antiarthritic, cosmeceutical etc. which makes it a most valuable medicinal mushroom for helping in maintaining good health. In this review, effort has been made to bring altogether the possible wide range of cordycepin’s nutraceutical potential along with its pharmacological actions and possible mechanism. Additionally, it also summarizes the details of cordycepin based nutraceuticals predominantly available in the market with expected global value. Moreover, this review will attract the attention of food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceutical and food industries to improve the use of bioactive molecule cordycepin for nutraceutical purposes with commercialization to aid and promote healthy lifestyle, wellness and wellbeing.
... CS are mainly composed of cordycepin [17], cordymin [18], nucleoside [19], polysaccharide [20], cordycepic acid [21], fatty acids, and amino acids [22]. Modern studies have shown that CS has anti-cancer [23], immune regulation [24], anti-oxidation [25], anti-diabetes [26], anti-aging [27], and other pharmacological effects. The protective effects of Cordyceps extract on cerebral ischemia have attracted the attention of researchers [28]. ...
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Cerebral ischemia is a common refractory brain disease, resulting from a reduction in the blood flow to the brain. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to ischemic stroke and brain injury. Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is an important traditional Chinese medicine, which has been linked to neuroprotection in recent studies. In this study, we investigated the role of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway on the protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract (CSE) against cerebral ischemia injury both in vivo and in vitro. In a murine middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, administration of CSE relieved neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis. CSE also reduced neurobehavioral scores and oxygen free radical (OFR), while improving the levels of ATP, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and mitochondrial complexes I-IV. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Bax, cytochrome c (Cyt c) and caspase-3 were down-regulated. In brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), CSE prevented OGD-induced cellular apoptosis, and recovered the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Moreover, CSE treatment induced an increase of Bcl-2 protein expression and a decrease of Bax, Cyt c and caspase-3 protein expression. Meanwhile, the caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities were also inhibited. The results indicate that CSE can relieve cerebral ischemia injury and exhibit protective effects via modulating the mitochondrial respiratory chain and inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
... Expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7-1/-2 was also decreased with the increase in cordycepin concentration as presented in Figure 4A [65]. Furthermore, cordycepin has been found to suppress the expression of diabetes-regulating genes through the inactivation of NF-κb-dependent inflammatory responses [66,67]. In another study, cordycepin's antidiabetic activity was reported in an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. ...
Article
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Cordyceps is a rare naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus usually found at high altitudes on the Himalayan plateau and a well-known medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps contains various bioactive components, out of which, cordycepin is considered most vital, due to its utmost therapeutic as well as nutraceutical potential. Moreover, the structure similarity of cordycepin with adenosine makes it an important bioactive component, with difference of only hydroxyl group, lacking in the 3´ position of its ribose moiety. Cordycepin is known for various nutraceutical and therapeutic potential, such as anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, antiviral, hepato-protective, hypo-sexuality, cardiovascular diseases, antimalarial, anti-osteoporotic, anti-arthritic, cosmeceutical etc., which makes it a most valuable medicinal mushroom for helping in maintaining good health. In this review, effort has been made to bring altogether the possible wide range of cordycepin’s nutraceutical potential along with its pharmacological actions and possible mechanism. Additionally, it also summarizes the details of cordycepin based nutraceuticals predominantly available in the market with expected global value. Moreover, this review will attract the attention of food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceutical and food industries to improve the use of bioactive molecule cordycepin for nutraceutical purposes with commercialization to aid and promote healthy lifestyle, wellness and wellbeing.
... Animals were kept under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 3°C) and humidity (40 ± 10%) with a 12 h light/dark cycle. After 5 days adaptation, 60 mice were stochastically allocated into five groups (n = 12, half male and half female) as follows: control group (NC) received daily hypodermic injection and oral gavage of saline, model group (MC) received daily hypodermic injection of d-gal (300 mg/kg) and oral gavage of saline, vitamin E (VE) group received daily hypodermic injection of d-gal (300 mg/kg) and oral gavage of VE (50 mg/kg), CTBE-L group received daily hypodermic injection of d-gal (300 mg/kg) and oral gavage low dose of CTBE (500 mg/kg), and CTBE-H group received daily hypodermic injection of d-gal (300 mg/kg) and oral gavage high dose of CTBE (2000 mg/kg) (Ji et al., 2009). Body weight was monitored weekly. ...
Article
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The study investigated the polyphenol of Coreopsis tinctoria buds extract (CTBE) and its protective effects on cognitive dysfunction and brain damage induced by d-galactose in mice. Three polyphenols and nine flavonoids were characterized by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS, with major components as flavanomarein (13.644 mg/g dry weight) and marein (13.387 mg/g dry weight). Results showed CTBE significantly improved the learning, memory, and cognitive abilities and brain index of aging mice. Besides, CTBE reduced the content of malondialdehyde while increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the the total antioxidants in brain. CTBE reversed the abnormality of Ach level, AChE activity, and hippocampus changes in aging mice. Therefore, CTBE, as a novel nutraceutical, could attenuate the cognitive damage and improve parameters related to brain senescence, partly by reducing the oxidative stress and hippocampal damage.
... Cordyceps has a positive influence in sperm formation and restore sexual dysfunction in both genders (Zhu et al., 1998;Zhang et al., 2005). By reducing risk of Alzheimer disease due to β-amyloid Cordyceps proved to improve concentration and memory (Ji et al., 2009;Jin et al., 2004). Function of Cordyceps in improving liver function were showed in increasing ALT in hepatitis B virus infection patients (Zhu et al., 1992;Gong et al., 2000). ...
Article
Cordyceps genus is a well-known traditional medicine worldwide. It contains abundant physiological active compounds that were demonstrated to perform benefit in reducing progression of cancer as well as protecting human health. Accurately classifying species in this genus is essential in order to prevent commercial counterfeit medicines. Nowadays, a taxonomic classification of species based on DNA sequences can overcome the existed limitation in identifying by using only morphological characteristics of this genus. DNA barcodes are standard short genomic regions that are universally present in target lineages and has sufficient sequence variation to discriminate species in the genus. A variety of loci has been suggested as DNA barcodes for plants, including genes and non-coding regions in the nuclear and plastid genomes such as psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL, and ITS. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify selected species of Cordyceps genus using DNA barcodes. Seven strains of Cordyceps were collected. Total DNA extraction and purification, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were performed with standard chemicals and kits. The candidate ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was amplified and sequenced. Data were analyzed using Bioedit 7.2.6 and MEGA 7 softwares. Analysis of seven obtained DNA barcode sequences of collected samples revealed that the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region provided high species discriminating power for Cordyceps genus. Accordingly, phylogenetic trees based on this DNA barcode exhibited six samples had closed relationship to Cordyceps militaris, while another specimen was the nearest neighbor to Cordyceps sinensis with average similarities at 99.82% and 99.81%, respectively. Our results support the identification of valuable medicinal plant species within Cordyceps genus.
... However, different reports investigated that cordycepin can suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NO) in LPS stimulated macrophages, leading to downregulation of type 2 diabetes-regulating genes (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-λ) [64]. It inactivates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-regulated inflammatory responses and corresponding reduced expression of diabetes-regulating genes [65,66]. Cordycepin has also been observed to exert anti-hyperlipidemic activity due to its structural resemblance to adenosine (activating adenosine mono phosphate kinase-AMPK), which can lead to inhibition of Acetyl CoA carboxylase and result in reduction of fatty acid synthesis [67]. ...
Article
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Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) is a medicinal mushroom possessing a variety of biofunctionalities. It has several biologically important components such as polysaccharides and others. The diverse pharmacological potential of C. militaris has generated interest in reviewing the current scientific literature, with a particular focus on prevention and associated molecular mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. Due to rising global demand, research on C. militaris has continued to increase in recent years. C. militaris has shown the potential for inhibiting inflammation-related events, both in in vivo and in vitro experiments. Inflammation is a multifaceted biological process that contributes to the development and severity of diseases, including cancer, colitis, and allergies. These functions make C. militaris a suitable functional food for inhibiting inflammatory responses such as the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, on the basis of existing information, the current study provides insights towards the understanding of anti-inflammatory activity-related mechanisms. This article presents a foundation for clinical use, and analyzes the roadmap for future studies concerning the medical use of C. militaris and its constituents in the next generation of anti-inflammatory drugs.
... Following infection, the fungus grows within the body cavity of the insect larva, mummifying the larva within 5-12 months and converting it into a sclerotium, from which the fruiting body of the fungus grows [20]. The parasite complex of the mummified larva and the fungal stromata forms a traditional Chinese medicine called Dong-ChongXiaCao (DCXC), which is prized for its apparent anti-tumor [21], immunomodulating [22], hypocholesterolemic [23], hypoglycemic [24], and anti-aging [25] effects, among others. ...
Article
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Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. An appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. The ghost moth, Thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the Lepidoptera. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation of this species to its high-altitude environment and host immune response to O. sinensis infection and RT-qPCR is commonly used in these studies to decipher the genetic basis of physiological functions. However, a thorough assessment of candidate reference genes in the genus Thitarodes is lacking. Here, the expression levels of eight candidate reference genes (ACT, EF, EIF4A, GAPDH, G6PDH, RPL13A, TUB and 18S) in T. armoricanus at different developmental stages and in different body parts of the seventh instar larvae were analyzed, along with larvae kept under low temperatures, larvae exposed to two fungal infections and larvae fed different diets. Three established software programs-Bestkeeper, geNorm and NormFinder-were employed to calculate variation among the treatments. The results revealed that the best-suited reference genes differed across the treatments, with EF, EIF4A and GAPDH found to be the best suited for the different developmental stages and larvae body parts; EF, EIF4A and RPL13A found to be the best suited for low-temperature challenge; and EF, EIF4A and TUB found to be the best suited for the fungal infections and dietary treatments. This study thus further contributes to the establishment of an accurate method for normalizing RT-qPCR results for T. armoricanus and serves as a reference for gene expression studies of related insect species.
... Oxidative mischief to nucleic acid (DNA), proteins, and various macromolecules gathers with age and has been conjectured to be a major, yet by all record not the sole, sort of endogenous damage inciting developing [6,21,22]. Superoxide (0₂), hydrogen peroxide (H₂0₂), and hydroxyl progressive (− OH), which are mutagens conveyed by radiation, are also results of normal processing [12,23]. Endogenous oxidants similarly hurt proteins and lipids [24] have demonstrated that the activity of proteolytic mixtures that hydrolyze oxidized proteins isn't fit thwart an age-related augmentation of oxidized proteins. ...
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Scavenging free radical potency of cordycepin is the major bioactive segment extricated from Cordyceps species. In some new years, Cordyceps has gotten growing thought inferable from its distinctive restorative/pharmacological tests. This assessment reviews continuous explores on the counter oxidant impacts and the associated analyses of Cordyceps species. The results from our review show that Cordyceps of the cordycepin applies protective effects against hostile to oxidant injury for certain, afflictions including constant obstructive pneumonic infection (COPD), hepatitis, asthma, cerebral paralysis, Parkinson’s illness (PD), coronary course sickness (CAD), Alzheimer illness, respiratory failure, malignancy infection, maturing, waterfalls, and mind brokenness. Cordyceps coordinates the NF-κB, RIP2/Caspase-1, Akt/GSK-3β/p70S6K, TGF-β/Smads, and Nrf2/HO-1 hailing pathways among others of cordycepin. A couple of assessments focusing in on Cordyceps auxiliaries were surveyed and found to down metabolic speed of Cordyceps and augmentation its bioavailability. In addition, cordycepin further developed opposition, prevented the duplication of viral RNA, and covered cytokine storms, therefore proposing its capacity to treat COVID-19 and other viral defilements. From the accumulated and assessed information, this article gives the speculative reason to the clinical usages of cordycepin and inspects the way for future assessments focusing in on expanding the restorative use of Cordyceps species. Cordycepin and its analogs show unfathomable potential as the accompanying new class of against oxidant specialists.
... Oxidative mischief to nucleic acid (DNA), proteins, and various macromolecules gathers with age and has been conjectured to be a major, yet by all record not the sole, sort of endogenous damage inciting developing [6,21,22]. Superoxide (0₂), hydrogen peroxide (H₂0₂), and hydroxyl progressive (− OH), which are mutagens conveyed by radiation, are also results of normal processing [12,23]. Endogenous oxidants similarly hurt proteins and lipids [24] have demonstrated that the activity of proteolytic mixtures that hydrolyze oxidized proteins isn't fit thwart an age-related augmentation of oxidized proteins. ...
Article
Scavenging free radical potency of cordycepin is the major bioactive segment extricated from Cordyceps species. In some new years, Cordyceps has gotten growing thought inferable from its distinctive restorative/pharmacological tests. This assessment reviews continuous explores on the counter oxidant impacts and the associated analyses of Cordyceps species. The results from our review show that Cordyceps of the cordycepin applies protective effects against hostile to oxidant injury for certain, afflictions including constant obstructive pneumonic infection (COPD), hepatitis, asthma, cerebral paralysis, Parkinson’s illness (PD), coronary course sickness (CAD), Alzheimer illness, respiratory failure, malignancy infection, maturing, waterfalls, and mind brokenness. Cordyceps coordinates the NF-κB, RIP2/Caspase-1, Akt/GSK-3β/p70S6K, TGF-β/Smads, and Nrf2/HO-1 hailing pathways among others of cordycepin. A couple of assessments focusing in on Cordyceps auxiliaries were surveyed and found to down metabolic speed of Cordyceps and augmentation its bioavailability. In addition, cordycepin further developed opposition, prevented the duplication of viral RNA, and covered cytokine storms, therefore proposing its capacity to treat COVID-19 and other viral defilements. From the accumulated and assessed information, this article gives the speculative reason to the clinical usages of cordycepin and inspects the way for future assessments focusing in on expanding the restorative use of Cordyceps species. Cordycepin and its analogs show unfathomable potential as the accompanying new class of against oxidant specialists.
... 36 In recent years, C. sinensis has been investigated in animals and in vitro studies for antiaging effects. 37 Similarly, we proved that C. sinensis could weaken the CSE-induced senescence. C. sinensis may be a useful method to resist senescence in patients with COPD. ...
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Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence.
... Despite the wide range of pharmacological effects, cordycepin has low solubility in water at room temperature and is rapidly metabolized in plasma, as has been shown by the rapid cleansing after injection into rats. In addition, negatively charged cordycepin cannot pass through the cell membranes and results in inefficient cellular uptake [9,10]. Therefore, it is necessary to create carriers to protect its structure and then improve pharmacologic effects of cordycepin. ...
Article
Biodegradable periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (B-PMO) are an outstanding nanocarrier due to their biodegradability and high drug load capacities. The present study describes a synthesis of a phenylene-containing tetrasulfide based B-PMO, named P4S. The incorporation of aromatic phenylene groups into the framework creates a strong interaction between nanoparticles (NPs) with aromatic rings in the cordycepin molecules. This results in the low release profile under various conditions. In addition, the replacement of this linker slowed the degradation of nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles are evaluated and compared with a biodegradable ethane-containing tetrasulfide based PMO and a non-degradable MCM-41. The biodegradability of P4S is also demonstrated in a reducing environment and the 100 nm spherical nanoparticles completely decomposed within 14 days. The porous structure of P4S has a high loading of hydrophilic cordycepin (approximately 731.52 mg g⁻¹) with a slow releasing speed. The release rates of P4S NPs are significantly lower than other materials, such as liposomes, gelatin nanoparticles, and photo-crosslinked hyaluronic acid methacrylate hydrogels, in the same solution. This specific release behavior could guarantee drug therapeutic effects with minimum side-effects and optimized drug dosages. Most importantly, according to the in vitro cytotoxicity study, cordycepin-loaded P4S NPs could retain the toxicity against liver cancer cell (HepG2) while suppressed the cytotoxicity against normal cells (BAEC).
... Interestingly, the Chinese cordyceps, which is commonly used in China to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung (Zhou et al., 2009), has long been used to ameliorate human conditions associated with aging and senescence, it is principally applied to treat fatigue, night sweating and other symptoms related to aging (Ji et al., 2009). The traditional usage of this cordyceps was recorded in a book in the Qing Dynasty (1757 AD) . ...
Article
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Hypoxia will cause an increase in the rate of fatigue and aging. Chinese cordyceps, a parasitic Thitarodes insect-Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungus complex in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has long been used to ameliorate human conditions associated with aging and senescence, it is principally applied to treat fatigue, night sweating and other symptoms related to aging, and it may play the anti-aging and anti-fatigue effect by improving the body's hypoxia tolerance. Aims of the study The present study investigated the anti-hypoxia activity of Chinese cordyceps and explore the main corresponding signal pathways and bioactive compounds. Materials and methods In this study, network pharmacology analysis, molecular docking, cell and whole pharmacodynamic experiments were hired to study the major signal pathways and the bioactive compounds of Chinese cordyceps for anti-hypoxia activity. Results 17 pathways which Chinese cordyceps acted on seemed to be related to the anti-hypoxia effect, and “VEGF signal pathway” was one of the most important pathway. Chinese cordyceps improved the survival rate and regulated the targets related VEGF signal pathway of H9C2 cells under hypoxia, and also had significant anti-hypoxia effects to mice. Chorioallantoic membrane model experiment showed that Chinese cordyceps and the main constituents of (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid and cerevisterol had significant angiogenic activity in hypoxia condition. Conclusion Based on the results of network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis, cell and whole pharmacodynamic experiments, promoting angiogenesis by regulating VEGF signal pathway might be one of the mechanisms of anti-hypoxia effect of Chinese cordyceps, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid and cerevisterol were considered as the major anti-hypoxia bioactive compounds in Chinese cordyceps.
... [1][2][3] Several biological activities and pharmacological effects of Cordyceps s.l. have been reported, including liver function improvement, 4) anti-cancer, 5) anti-oxidation, 6) anti-aging, 7) and anti-diabetic activities. 8) It was also suggested that Cordyceps can be used to support conventional cancer therapies, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy to reduce their side effects. ...
Article
Although more than 400 species of Cordyceps s.l. have been identified, most have not been well explored regarding their potential for medicinal use. In this study, the profiles of constituents of ten different species of Ophiocordyceps, which is an unexplored species of Cordyceps, were analyzed and their anti-tumor effects were further examined. Although all Ophiocordyceps samples exhibited similar peak patterns, Ophiocordyceps gracilioides (O. grac) had a distinct constituent profile from the other samples. Furthermore, O. grac was the most active in suppressing the transcriptional activities of both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, and the production of interleukin (IL)-6 from breast cancer cells. This study demonstrated that O. grac is a relatively unexplored Cordyceps s.l. that may have medicinal potential to inhibit the NFκB-STAT3-IL-6 inflammatory pathway in cancer. Fullsize Image
... 하지만 이들은 대부분 중국에서 다양한 종류의 배지(쌀겨, 밀기울, 톱밥, 현미, 밀알, 다양한 곡물 사용) 로 균사체 형태로 생산된 것이다 [29]. [7,8,12,14,15,24,39,48,52,66,67,83,92,98,107,121,136,140,161,162,167,173,177,178,180,188,194,200,207,208,[210][211][212]. ...
Article
Cordyceps is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb well-known in China, Korea and Japan since B.C. 2,000. The original entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps sinensis belonging to the genus Cordyceps could not be found inside Korean peninsula due to the absence of the host insect for the corresponding entomogenous fungus. The development of artificial production methods of Korean type Cordyceps using the silkworm Bombyx mori as in vivo culture medium for the the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes is the first, and wonderful occasion in the research history of insect industry of this global world. The aim of this article is to review the historical research background, mass-production methods, and pharmacological effects of the silkworm-dongchunghacho (Paecilomyces tenuipes) which is a newly developed Korean medicinal insect-borne mushroom, and another non-insect-borne medicinal mushroom (Cordyceps militaris and Cordyceps pruinosa). Their biological actions include anti-tumor, immunostimulating, anti-fatigue, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombosis, hypolipidaemic and insecticidal effects. The bioactive principles are protein-bound polysaccharides (hexose, hexosamin), cordycepin, D-manitol, acidic polysaccharide etc. Protein-bound polysaccharides and n-butanol fractions were demonstrated to show a significant anti-tumor activities but did not show a cytotoxicities. D-mannitol exhibited a significant prolongation of the life span in tumor bearing mice. Ergosterol did not show an efficient anti-tumor activity, but showed a significant phagocytosis enhancing activity. Anti-tumor activity of silkworm-dongchunghacho might be attributed to immuno-stimulating activities rather than cytotoxic effects [164]. Also this review comprises the breeding of Dongchunghacho varieties, optimization of culture conditions, improvement of learning and memory by Dongchunghacho, application of them as foods and chemical constituents.
... 3 ′ -deoxy-hypoxanthinosine [13,14]. It is noticeable that cordycepin is quickly degraded in the rat after injection [14,15]. Moreover, cordycepin shows low solubility in water making it difficult to circulate in the body. ...
Article
Cordycepin, a major compound of Cordyceps sp., has been shown to have anticancer potential. However, its low solubility in water is a hurdle in drug delivery in the human body and for cellular uptake. This study focuses on the ability to load cordycepin onto a biodegradable silica nanoparticle as an effective nanocarrier. Biodegradable tetrasulfide-based organosilica nanomaterial with homogeneously spherical particles, average particle size of approximately 50 nm, and pore size of 3.56 nm were successfully synthesized. The nanomaterial could efficiently load cordycepin with a loading capacity up to 755.02 mg g⁻¹. The release profile of cordycepin-loaded nanoparticles at pH 5.5 showed a burst release within the first 1 h and a gradually slow rate thereafter. Moreover, the results of in vitro toxicity of the drug-loaded material against two malignant cancer cell lines including gastric (AGS) and lung (A549) indicated the potential of the nanosystem for drug delivery in cancer therapy.
... Cordycepic acid played an important role in treating liver fibrosis of hepatic stellate cells (Gressner et al. 2006). 3-O-glucopyranoside having antitumor activity, O. sinensis polysaccharide were also isolated and characterized from mycelia of O. sinensis (Ji et al. 2009). Luo et al. (2019) have reported inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis induction by selenium-enriched medicinal mushroom like Cordyceps militaris in mucoepidermoid pulmonary carcinoma (NCI-H292) and adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549). ...
Article
Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) is a fungus closely related to medicinal mushroom, which belongs to the family Ophiocordycipitaceae. It is a well-known and rich herbal source of bioactive active constituents. The medicinal mushroom has garnered worldwide attention owing to its multifarious bioactivities. This mushroom grows on the larva of ghost moths (Hepialidae) and produces fruiting bodies, which serve as a vital natural source of medicine and supplementary diets. On account of the diverse pharmacological and bioactive constituents present in O. sinensis, it has been established as a potential antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory agent that has been successfully used for treating several health issues, including hypoxia-related problems encountered by mountaineers, pilgrims, tourists and soldiers occurring at high-altitude regions such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), frostbite, chilblains, hypothermia, etc. The most important pharmacologically active compounds present in the O. sinensis include nucleobases and its derivatives (adenosine, cordycepin, 3-deoxyadenosine, AMP, GMP, UMP, guanosine, uridine), polysaccharides (mannose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, galactose), proteins, peptides and steroids. This article focuses on the various research endeavors undertaken to scientifically establish the medicinal properties of O. sinensis, highlighting the various principally active compounds, their pharmacological action, drug designing and development and future perspective for various health benefits.
... 24 Additionally, it has also been reported that the antioxidant activities in O. sinensis are attributed to the presence of fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and phytosterols contained in various preparations. 25,26 Notably, literature provides evidence of some biological applications of the most abundant VOCs identified by GC-MS in all the four samples, e.g., 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester reportedly has antioxidant potential; hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activities; 1-tetradecanol is used in antiseptic emollients, etc. 14,22 ...
Article
Ophiocordyceps sinensis, a high-altitude medicinal mushroom, is widely revered in traditional medicine for its antiproliferative, antihypercholesterolemic, energy enhancement, etc. properties. These properties are attributed to the presence of steroids, terpenoids, polyphenolics, glycosides, and glycoproteins in it. The current study presents characterization of three phenolic rich fractions (PRFs) separated from aqueous extract of O. sinensis using diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. These fractions possessed considerable antioxidant potential in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, ferric ion reducing power, and free radical scavenging efficiency. Chemical characterization of the PRFs was carried out using HPTLC and GC-MS. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate fractions elucidated appreciable antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi. The aqueous extract and residual phenolic fraction displayed protective effect on HEK 293 cell lines against hypoxia stress and also bestowed appreciative adaptogenic role against cold, hypoxia, and restraint stress in vivo, by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase and incrementing reduced glutathione concentrations.
... Yang, Jang, & Park, 2020), anti-aging (Ji, Jia, Li, Wang, & Cai, 2009), antioxidant (Chen, Wu, & Huang, 2013), anti-inflammatory (Smiderle et al., 2014), anti-influenza effects (Ohta et al., 2007), antifibrotic (Nan, Park, Yang, Song, Ko, & Sohn, 2001) and so on. However, the popularity and high demand for C. sinensis and C. militaris has led to the scarcity of them, leading to their classification as protected endangered species (Cunningham & Long, 2018). ...
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Two new water‐soluble polysaccharide fractions (SCP II‐1 and SCP II‐2) were obtained from silkworm cordycepsusing DEAE Sepharose FF and Superose 6 columns chromatography. The characterization of their basic structure was studied by high performance liquid chromatography, high performance ion chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results showed that the molecular weight of SCP II‐1 and SCP II‐2 were 35.2 kDa and 23.4 kDa, and they were mainly composed of ribose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in molar ratio of 1.0:27.38:8.52:17.99 and 1.0:21.21:1.95:14.28, respectively. The AFM topography confirmed the highly branched chain conformation of SCP II‐1, while SCP II‐2 had more polymerized chain morphology. These two fractions possessed excellent antioxidant and antitumor activities, especially SCP II‐1 showed better inhibition than SCP II‐2. Those data suggested that purified polysaccharides from silkworm cordyceps have potential application in functional food and pharmaceutical industry. Practical applications Silkworm cordyceps is cultivated on the 5th instar larvae inoculated with Cordyceps sp. and the functions of cordyceps have been reported recently. The separation and purification of silkworm cordyceps polysaccharide is helpful to better exert important biological functions. The study on the structure‐function relations of polysaccharides will be useful to the application of polysaccharides in functional food and pharmaceutical industry.
... This activity is corresponding to polysaccharide fraction (Yu et al. 2007;Wang et al. 2012). Cordyceps sinensis has potent antioxidant and anti-aging properties (Yamaguchi et al. 2000;Ji et al. 2009). Also, many studies elucidated the antioxidant effect of extracts obtained from C. militaris (El-Hagrassi et al. 2020). ...
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Elkhateeb WA, Daba GM. 2020. Review: The endless nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits of the Himalayan gold, Cordyceps; Current knowledge and prospective potentials. Biofarmasi J Nat Prod Biochem 18: 70-77. As a traditional medicine, Cordyceps has long been used in Asian nations for maintaining vivacity and boosting immunity. Numerous publications on various bioactivities of Cordyceps have been investigated in both in-vitro as well as in vivo studies. Nevertheless, the role of Cordyceps is still arguable whether it acts as food supplement for health benefits or a real healing drug that can be prescribed in medicine. The Cordyceps industry has developed greatly and offers thousands of products, commonly available in a global marketplace. In this review, focus will be on introducing the ecology of Cordyceps and their classification. Moreover, elucidation of the richness of extracts originated from this mushroom in nutritional components was presented, with description of the chemical compounds of Cordyceps and its well-known compounds such as cordycepin, and cordycepic acid. Furthermore, highlights on natural growth and artificial cultivation of famous Cordyceps species were presented. The health benefits and reported bioactivities of Cordyceps species as promising antimicrobial, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, organ protective agent, and enhancer for organ function were presented.
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As a valuable entomophagus fungus species, caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) is endemic to the alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau and adjoining Himalayas. However, little is known about its ecological niche and habitat. We investigated its associated plant species and habitat across different sites in Dolpa, west Nepal, and explored how associated plant species and soil characteristics affect its density and growth during the months of June and July in 2 consecutive years. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to capture the distribution pattern of plant species. Principal component analysis was applied to visualize the gradients of the soil data, and generalized linear models were employed to test the effects of nutrients and vegetation on the availability and size of caterpillar fungus. A total of 33 plant species were frequently associated with caterpillar fungus across the investigated sites. The abundance of the fungus was significantly affected by vegetation composition, whereas the individual fungal traits were independent of soil nutrients or vegetation composition. Therefore, it is essential to protect associated plant species to better conserve caterpillar fungus at high elevations.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora is one of the most renowned traditional Chinese medicine used as tonic, renal, respiratory and reproductive health, promote longevity and overall improvement in quality of life. Natural production of O. sinensis is limited due to its extreme specificity in host range and confined geographic distribution. Therefore, cultivation of the fungus was developed to meet high demand for commercialization as nutraceutical. O. sinensis fruiting body has recently been successfully cultivated in large scale using rice based solid medium, providing wider source options for consumers and scientific researchers. Aims of the study: The present study aims to establish safety profile for the consumption of cultivated fruiting body of O. sinensis (FBOS) by 28-days sub-acute toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and methods: Rats were orally administered with cultivated FBOS at three graded doses (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), once daily for 28 consecutive days. Control group received distilled water. General observations (gross behavioral changes and toxic symptoms) and body weight of each animal were monitored daily. Haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological analysis were carried out at the end of the experiment (Day 29). Results: No behavioral changes, toxic symptoms or death was observed in rats throughout the dosing period. Cultivated FBOS treatment up to 1000mg/kg did not cause any adverse effect on the growth of the animals. Results from haematology and serum biochemistry revealed no toxic effect following cultivated FBOS treatment at three graded doses for 28 days. In addition, no treatment related histopathological changes were noted in heart, spleen, kidney, lung and liver of the animals. Conclusion: The present study revealed that oral administration of cultivated FBOS for 28 days, at dosage up to 1000mg/kg did not pose toxicological concern in rats. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of cultivated FBOS in 28-days subacute toxicity study is higher than 1000mg/kg.
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During COVID, global wide peoples realized the importance of natural food sources and their pharmacological values and now it has been used widely. It retained the previous decades of healthy human livelihood and attention created on conventional foods and medicines. From human evolution, mushrooms played a most unique role in food and medicine. Among them, C. sinensis is a temperate loving entomopathogenic fungus at altitudes of 3000 to 14,000 MSL. It is used as energy-sourced food and medicinal uses, via. Antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antiviral, antiaging, antidepressant, antifatigue, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, vasorelaxation, aphrodisiac, chronic urinal regulators, neuroregulators, anticancer, glycemic regulators, antimicrobial, immune modulators, and functional modifiers (FMs) to better live from their production of bioactive compounds. So, this fungal source drastically reduced overexploitation, climate change, mutations, and reduction of host population rate (ghost moth). These situations are pushed into artificial cultivation by complete and seminatural systems with extended times. Thus, simplification of cultivation progress will yield a better outcome in C. sinensis productions and new generation medicines in future when accompanied with scientific approaches with knowledgeable skilled persons in mushroom technology for human livelihood.KeywordsAphrodisiacAntifatigue C. sinensis CordycepinHypocholesterolemic
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Chapter
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Book
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During the last three decades or so, interest on caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) from the high-altitude areas of the Himalaya has grown across the globe. Fast-growing global market demand and year by year increasing price at international markets have made this fungus very lucrative to local indigenous communities inhabiting higher Himalayan villages, which have transformed their socio-economic status. Such collection and marketing of this fungus have emerged as an important source of income in parts of Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal. However, increasing the popularity and growing demand of caterpillar fungus has also become a curse to the unique alpine ecosystems. While the fungus has been in use for a long in the Chinese traditional medicine system, it became globally famous with its recognition as Himalayan Herbal Viagra in recent decades. The book is an attempt to present the status of Caterpillar Fungus in the Himalaya, its distribution, marketing, and sustainability issues. The book contains chapters on the collection, grading, and market; caterpillar fungus linked socio-economic development; evolving trade and marketing; and ecological consequences of fungus collection. Also, an attempt has been made to touch upon governance issues, and provide a way forward. An extensive bibliography at the end brings all available researches on target species at one place. We sincerely believe the book will be of immense value for the diverse stakeholders, ranging from local communities to researchers, from practitioners to policy people.
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Cordyceps is a well-known and valuable fungal Chinese medicine and health food. The polysaccharides from C. sinensis have been reported as the main bioactive components, which possess antioxidant, anti-aging, and liver protective activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antioxidative and protective effects of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from cultivated Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis) on rats with liver damage induced by CCl 4 . The results indicated that cultivated O. sinensis EPS possess moderate ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities with IC 50 values of 2.00 and 3.78 mg/mL, respectively. EPS and the positive control (silymarin) could also protect rat liver from the oxidative effect induced by CCl 4 via increasing GSH levels, reducing MAD levels and decreasing serum AST and ALT activities. Moreover, the changes in histopathological liver tissue showed that EPS significantly reduced the damage induced by CCl 4 in the liver. The findings suggest that EPS possesses a significant hepatoprotective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl 4 in rats.
Chapter
An entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps sp. is not studied as systematically for bioactivity as Ganoderma, but for its pathogenic lifestyle on Lepidopteron insects. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) for centuries. Cordyceps is called Dong Chong Xia Cao in Chinese, which means winter worm-summer grass. Many different species of Cordyceps, e.g., C. sinensis, C. militaris, C. ophioglossoides, C. sobolifera, C. liangshanesis, and C. cicadicola, are being cultivated for their medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. Cordycepin, cordycepic acid, adenosine, ergosterol, and myriocin are the most effective chemical constituents produced by a variety of Cordyceps species that have numerous pharmacological and therapeutic implications, especially in terms of human health.
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Mice were given the extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) (200 mg/kg daily, p.o.) for 3 weeks. In vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the liver were acquired at weekly intervals using a surface coil. From 1 to 3 weeks, a consistent increase in the ATP/inorganic phosphate ratio, which represents the high energy state, was observed in the Cs extract-treated mice. The intracellular pH of the Cs extract-treated mice was not significantly different from that of the control mice. No steatosis, necrosis, inflammation or fibrosis were observed in the liver specimens from Cs extract-treated mice.
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The free radical theory of aging, conceived in 1956, has turned 40 and is rapidly attracting the interest of the mainstream of biological research. From its origins in radiation biology, through a decade or so of dormancy and two decades of steady phenomenological research, it has attracted an increasing number of scientists from an expanding circle of fields. During the past decade, several lines of evidence have convinced a number of scientists that oxidants play an important role in aging. (For the sake of simplicity, we use the term oxidant to refer to all "reactive oxygen species," including O2-., H2O2, and .OH, even though the former often acts as a reductant and produces oxidants indirectly.) The pace and scope of research in the last few years have been particularly impressive and diverse. The only disadvantage of the current intellectual ferment is the difficulty in digesting the literature. Therefore, we have systematically reviewed the status of the free radical theory, by categorizing the literature in terms of the various types of experiments that have been performed. These include phenomenological measurements of age-associated oxidative stress, interspecies comparisons, dietary restriction, the manipulation of metabolic activity and oxygen tension, treatment with dietary and pharmacological antioxidants, in vitro senescence, classical and population genetics, molecular genetics, transgenic organisms, the study of human diseases of aging, epidemiological studies, and the ongoing elucidation of the role of active oxygen in biology.
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The beneficial effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), on mice with hypoferric anaemia were evaluated by NMR spectroscopy. Experimental hypoferric anaemia was induced in mice by feeding with an Fe-free diet for 6 weeks. They were then given extract from cultured Cs (200 mg/kg body weight daily, orally) and were placed on an Fe-containing recovery diet (35 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 weeks. In vivo 31P and 2H NMR spectra acquired noninvasively and quantitatively at weekly intervals were used to evaluate hepatic energy metabolism and blood flow in the mice. During the 4-week Cs-extract treatment, consistent increases were observed in liver beta-ATP: inorganic phosphate value by liver 31P NMR spectroscopy, representing the high energy state, and in blood-flow rate as determined by 2H NMR spectroscopy of deuterated water (D2O) uptake after intravenous injection of D2O. The haematological variables (the packed cell volume and the haemoglobin level) and the hepatic intracellular pH, which was determined from the NMR chemical shift difference between the inorganic phosphate peak and the alpha-phosphate peak of ATP, were not significantly different between Cs-extract-treated and control mice. As blood flow and energy metabolism are thought to be linked, the Cs-extract-increased hepatic energy metabolism in the dietary hypoferric anaemic mice was concluded to be due to increased hepatic blood flow.
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During the postejaculatory interval (PEI), male rats exhibit prolonged immobility, 22-kHz vocalization, and penile erections. To test whether females modulate these behaviors, females were removed after the first or second ejaculation or left in the test chamber. Female presence during the PEI delayed exploratory behavior and facilitated vocalization and erection. Female stimulation of vocalization is consistent with the hypothesis that vocalization has a communicative function, not just a thermoregulatory one. The timing of the effect of females on erection suggests that males are sexually arousable well before they resume copulation. Therefore, erection may be better than vocalization as an indicator of the male's sexual refractoriness. The findings also challenge the conventional view that the PEI comprises absolute and relative sexual refractory periods marked, respectively, by the presence and absence of 22-kHz vocalization.
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Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly.
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In this study, an attempt was made to elucidate the combined effect of 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF), an adenosine deaminase inhibitor, with a water extract of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), on the growth curves of mouse melanoma and lung carcinoma cells. Sub-confluent cells were harvested with an EDTA trypsin solution, and resuspended to appropriate concentrations in DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Using 1x10(5) cells/2 ml in each well of a 12-well culture plate, cells were incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h in the presence of WECS alone, or WECS plus DCF in a CO2 incubator at 37 degrees C. Duplicate samples of viable cells were enumerated with a Coulter counter. The antitumor effect of WECS on the growth curves of tumor cell lines increased over 3-fold in combination with DCF. These results suggest that DCF has a remarkable reinforcement effect on the antitumor activity of WECS. DCF is a potent adjuvant for WECS.
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Water-soluble polysaccharide from ascocarps of Cordyceps sinensis was purified by ethanol fractionation and gel filtration. Purified polysaccharide, CS-I, [α] D-45.3°(c=1, H2O), gave D-galactose (phenylosazone, mp 185-187°) and D-mannose (phenyl-hydrazone, mp 199-200°) in a molar ratio of 1 : 1 by acid hydrolysis. From the results of periodate oxidation, Smith-type degradation, methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, and 13C-NMR spectrometry, it is concluded that CS-I is a highly branched galactomannan which consists of mannan core and galactosyl oligomer containing branches. The mannan core mainly contains (1→2)-α-linked-D-mannopyranosyl residues, and the branches contain (1→3), (1→5), and (1→6)-linked-D-galactofuranosyl, (1→4)-linked-D-galactopyranosyl residues. The non-reducing ends are D-galactofuranose and D-manno-pyranose, and the branching points are D-mannopyranosyl residues.
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Cordyceps militaris (Linn.) Link has been promoted on various nitrogenous media, yielding solutions which inhibit the growth of many strains of Bacillus subtilis. From the culture solutions a crystalline metabolic product, cordycepin, C10H13O3N5, has been isolated; it appears to be responsible for the total antibacterial activity of the culture solutions.
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The autoxidation of pyrogallol was investigated in the presence of EDTA in the pH range 7.9–10.6. The rate of autoxidation increases with increasing pH. At pH 7.9 the reaction is inhibited to 99% by superoxide dismutase, indicating an almost total dependence on the participation of the superoxide anion radical, O2·−, in the reaction. Up to pH 9.1 the reaction is still inhibited to over 90% by superoxide dismutase, but at higher alkalinity, O2·− -independent mechanisms rapidly become dominant. Catalase has no effect on the autoxidation but decreases the oxygen consumption by half, showing that H2O2 is the stable product of oxygen and that H2O2 is not involved in the autoxidation mechanism. A simple and rapid method for the assay of superoxide dismutase is described, based on the ability of the enzyme to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol. A plausible explanation is given for the non-competitive part of the inhibition of catechol O-methyltransferase brought about by pyrogallol.
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Glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver supernatant from rats fed a Se-deficient diet for 2 weeks was 8% of control when measured with H2O2 but 42% of control when assayed with cumene hydroperoxide. Two peaks of glutathione peroxidase activity were present in the Sephadex G-150 gel filtration chromatogram of rat liver supernatant when 1.5 mM cumene hydroperoxide was used as substrate. Only the first peak was detected when 0.25 mM H2O2 was used as substrate. The first peak was absent from chromatograms of Se-deficient rat liver supernatants; but the second peak, which eluted at a position corresponding to M.W. = 39,000, appeared unchanged. The second peak thus represents a second glutathione peroxidase activity which catalyzes the destruction of organic hydroperoxides but has little activity toward H2O2 and which persists in severe selenium deficiency.
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The reaction of lipid peroxides in animal tissues with thiobarbituric acid was dependent on pH of the reaction mixture as was the case for linoleic acid hydroperoxide. The optimum pH was found to be 3.5. Taking this fact into consideration, a standard procedure for the assay of lipid peroxide level in animal tissues by their reaction with thiobarbituric acid was developed as follows. Ten percent ( tissue homogenate was mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, acetate buffer (pH 3.5), and aqueous solution of thiobarbituric acid. After heating at 95°C for 60 min, the red pigment produced was extracted with n-butanol-pyridine mixture and estimated by the absorbance at 532nm. As an external standard, tetramethoxy-propane was used, and lipid peroxide level was expressed in terms of nmol malondialdehyde. Using this method, the liped peroxide level in the liver of rats suffering from carbon tetrachloride intoxication was investigated. The results were in good agreement with previously reported data obtained by measuring diene content.
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An artificial complex of amino acids (C I) was made by mixing 18 synthetic amino acids, according to the kinds and contents the amino acid contained in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Sacc., It showed the same sedative action as the natural C. sinensis, as indicated by the spontaneous activity inhibition in mice (photocell method). However, the action of commercial complex amino acid injection (12 X, total amino acid components are similar to C I) was more attenuated than that of C I. Comparing amino acid components of 12 X with C I, the latter was found to contain 5 times as much glutamic acid, tryptophan and tyrosine as those of 12 X. Another artificial amino acid complex (C II) consisting of the above mentioned 3 amino acids, also showed the same sedative action. This suggests that tryptophan is the principal component by orthogonal test. However, C II did not enhance the phagocytic action of mononucleophagocyte as the natural C. Sinensis did in the clear rate test of carbon granule from mice serum.
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A warm water-extract (ECS) prepared from dried Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc., a Chinese traditional medicine, was tested for antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC), allogeneic to ICR mice and Meth A fibrosarcoma (Meth A), syngeneic to BALB/c mice were used as the target tumor cell lines. Mice were inoculated i.p. with 1 x 10(6) EAC or 1 x 10(5) Meth A on Day 0, and ECS or saline (control) was injected i.p. to the mice from Day 1 to Day 4. ECS-treatment increased the median survival time of the allogeneic mice inoculated with EAC to 316% of the control. Eight of the 10 ECS-treated mice survived on the 60th day (Day 60) after EAC implantation. ECS-treatment also increased the median survival time of the syngeneic mice inoculated with Meth A to 312% of the control. Half of the ECS-treated mice survived on Day 60. On the other hand, no cytotoxic effect of ECS was found on either EAC or Meth A in vitro. The antitumor effect of ECS seen in the allogeneic mice was significantly reduced when the mice received whole body X-irradiation (5 Gy) before EAC implantation. These results suggest that the antitumor effect of ECS may be mediated through its immunomodulating action.
Article
A water-insoluble extracellular glucan (CO-1) was isolated from the precipitate formed on incubation of the culture filtrate of Cordyceps ophioglossoides at 37 degrees for 19 h. CO-1 was homogeneous as judged by h.p.l.c., electrophoresis, and ultracentrifugation, and the average molecular weight was determined by h.p.l.c. to be 632,000. The 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. and the i.r. spectra indicated that the glucosidic linkages in CO-1 were beta. From the results of methylation analysis, Smith degradation, n.m.r. studies, and enzymic hydrolysis, it was concluded that CO-1 is composed of a backbone of (1----3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl residues with a beta-D-glucopyranosyl group attached to O-6 of every second D-glucopyranosyl residue of the backbone. CO-1 strongly inhibited the growth of Sarcoma 180 solid-type tumor. CO-1 polyalcohol, which was prepared by Smith degradation of CO-1, exhibited more-potent antitumor activity than CO-1. The absorption maximum of Congo Red shifted significantly in the presence of CO-1.
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Aging is the progressive accumulation of changes with time that are associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age. These time-related changes are attributed to the aging process. The nature of the aging process has been the subject of considerable speculation. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the sum of the deleterious free radical reactions going on continuously throughout the cells and tissues constitutes the aging process or is a major contributor to it. In mammalian systems the free radical reactions are largely those involving oxygen. Dietary manipulations expected to lower the rate of production of free radical reaction damage have been shown (i) to increase the life span of mice, rats, fruit flies, nematodes, and rotifers, as well as the "life span" of neurospora; (ii) to inhibit development of some forms of cancer; (iii) to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; and (iv) to slow development of amyloidosis and the autoimmune disorders of NZB and NZB/NZW mice. In addition, studies strongly suggest that free radical reactions play a significant role in the deterioration of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems with age. The free radical theory of aging provides reasonable explanations for age-associated phenomena, including (i) the relationship of the average life spans of mammalian species to their basal metabolic rates, (ii) the clustering of degenerative diseases in the terminal part of the life span, (iii) the beneficial effect of food restriction on life span, (iv) the greater longevity of females, and (v) the increase in autoimmune manifestations with age. It is not unreasonable to expect on the basis of present data that the healthy life span can be increased by 5-10 or more years by keeping body weight down, at a level compatible with a sense of well-being, while ingesting diets adequate in essential nutrients but designed to minimize random free radical reactions in the body.
Article
The inhibiton of type A and B MAO in rat forebrain crude membrane preparation by MD780515, (3-(4-[(3-cyanophenyl)methoxy]phenyl)-5-(methoxymethyl)-2-oxazolidinone-Centre de Recherche Delalande, France) has been investigated in vitro with 5-hydroxytryptamine and beta-phenylethylamine as substrates. The inhibition of the high-affinity binding of [3H]harmaline, a specific marker of type A MAO, was also studied. In the experimental conditions used, MD780515 appeared to be a pure mixed MAO inhibitor (MAOI) of 5-HT deamination, both Km and Vmax being altered [Ki (Dixon) = Ki, (slope) = 2 nM; Ki (intercept) = 12 nM]. Phenylethylamine oxidation could be considered to be noncompetitively inhibited by MD780515 (Ki (slope) = 78 nM; Ki (intercept) = 103 nM). Dixon and intercept replots were hyperbolic, suggesting that, at high concentrations, PEA could be deaminated by both forms of MAO. This hypothesis was confirmed by biphasic inhibition curves of 80 microM-PEA obtained when MD780515, clorgyline, harmaline and deprenyl were used at MAOIs. MD780515 was a potent inhibitor (IC50 = 1-2 nM) of [3H]harmaline binding. Comparatively, clorgyline, 'cold' harmaline and Lilly 51641 inhibited 3H ligand binding, with IC50 of 5, 7 and 40 nM respectively. In conclusion, MD780515 is a reversible, specific and potent type A MAOI.
Article
Variations of monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B were studied during aging in 27 human subjects (age range 17-93 years) in 18 brain structures of temporal cortex, frontal gyrus, hippocampal formation, striatum, cerebellum, and brainstem. [3H]Ro41-1049 and [3H]lazabemide were used as selective radioligands to image and quantify MAO-A and MAO-B respectively by enzyme autoradiography. Postmortem delay or time of tissue storage did not affect MAO-A or MAO-B levels. There was, moreover, no evidence of sexual dimorphism. A marked age-related increase in MAO-B was observed in most structures. This increase started at the age of 50-60 years. Before this age, MAO-B levels were constant in all structures studied. MAO-B-rich senile plaques were observed in some cortical areas but they did not significantly influence the age-related MAO-B increase. Surprisingly, no age-related MAO-B changes were observed in the substantia nigra. In contrast to MAO-B, no clear age-related changes in MAO-A were observed, indicating an independent regulation of the two isoenzymes, also suggested by the cross-correlation analysis of these data.
Article
The process of aging presents itself with various alterations in physiological events. Among many theories, the free radical (FR) theory of aging which reflects the FR damage to cellular components is accepted as one of the most important theories. Recently, the increases in catecholamine metabolism in aging have also attracted attention, and monoamine oxidase (MAO), a key enzyme in this process has been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of FR species via MAO, a possible source of FRs, in physiological aging by determining the lipid peroxidation products (LPP) (malondialdehyde, diene conjugates) and antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in young (3 months old, n=10) and aging (16-18 months old, n=10) rat brain tissues of Swiss male albino rats. In the second part of the study, the same parameters were determined after the acute administration of MAO inhibitors (deprenyl and pargyline, 25 mg/kg i.p.) to investigate whether these agents have any beneficial effects in reducing oxidant stress via inhibition of MAO. In old rat brains, MAO activities showed a significant increase (P=0.000) in addition to an insignificant increase in LPP, while SOD (P=0.007) and CAT activities showed a decrease with advancing age. After the acute administration of both deprenyl and pargyline, a significant decrease in the MAO activities of both young (P=0.0002 for each) and aging rats (P=0.0002 for deprenyl and P=0.0001 for pargyline) were observed. It was noted that deprenyl causes a significant increase in CAT activity (P<0.05) but a significant decrease in SOD activity (P<0.05) in young rats, while it causes only a significant increase in SOD activity in aging rats (P<0.05). Both deprenyl and pargyline cause a significant decrease in conjugated diene levels of aging rats (P<0.05). These results confirm the role of catecholamine oxidation and MAO activity as one of the causative factors in increased oxidant stress during aging. By reducing the oxidant stress observed in aging brain, MAO inhibitors, especially deprenyl, may contribute to the control of the aging process.
Article
It was first reported in China that injection of a low dose of D-galactose into mice could induce changes which resembled accelerated aging. The aging model shows neurological impairment, decreased activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, and poor immune responses. However, the underlining mechanism remains largely unknown. D-galactose is a reducing sugar that can form advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in vivo. To investigate the role of AGE in this aging model, a group of 5-month-old C57 mice were injected daily with D-galactose, D-galactose modified AGE-lysine (AGE-lysine), L-glucose, L-lysine, or control buffer for 8 weeks. Two additional groups were treated with the AGE formation inhibitor, aminoguanidine. The results show that D-galactose, L-glucose, and AGE-lysine treated mice had a significant increase in serum AGE levels, memory latency time and error rate, and skin hydroxyproline content. Similar to aged controls, these mice also had a significant decrease in motor activity, lymphocyte mitogenesis, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity. The aminoguanidine treated D-galactose-injected mice, however, showed no significant changes in these parameters in comparison with young controls. These data indicate that D-galactose and L-glucose form AGEs in vivo and that elevated AGEs may accelerate the aging process. The fact that both D-galactose and AGE treated mice resemble aged mice suggests that advanced glycation, at least partially, accounts for the mechanism of this aging model.
Article
Cordyceps sinensis is a herb medicine in China for the treatment of general debility after sickness and for persons of advanced age. In the present study, cordyceps sinensis was extract by phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and dialyzed overnight against PBS using a membrane cut off at 3,500 dalton molecular weight. The resulting macromolecule fraction (defined as CS) was assayed in anesthetized rats for hypotensive effects and in isolated aorta for vasorelaxant effects. Intravenous injection of CS (8,16, 24 and 32 mg/kg, respectively) suppressed significantly the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner. 32 mg/kg of CS induces the maximal hypotensive response with a 58 +/- 4 mm Hg (from 107 +/- 6 to 49 +/- 3 mm Hg) change in MAP and a over 45 min action duration. In aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine treatment with CS between 0.5 and 500 microg/ml induced dose dependent relaxation. Maximal vasorelaxant response evoked by 150 microg/ml CS was 68.9 +/- 7.3%. Furthermore, CS-induced vasorelaxation is mediated by the endothelium possibly by stimulating the release of the nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. In conclusion, the present study revealed that presence of a constituent in CS which reduces MAP by relaxing the vascular beds directly. However, the effect may be caused by a single active ingredient or by the combined action of many active agents found in the extract.
Article
To investigate the role of melatonin in D-galactose-induced amnesic mice, the avoidance/escape and water maze tests were performed to evaluate their learning and memory function. Spectrophotometry was employed to determine the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the brain. The present results demonstrate that D-galactose-induced amnesic mice had significantly decreased learning and memory function. The reduced activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and increased levels of TBARS were found in brain tissue of the amnesic mice. Melatonin, administered (ig) at doses of 0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg to the D-galactose-treated mice for 3 months, was sufficient to block these changes. These data suggest that D-galactose is involved in accelerating the brain aging process by elevating free radical generation and reducing antioxidative enzyme activities in vivo. Furthermore, the antioxidative activity of melatonin on the D-galactose-treated mice may account for, at least partially, the improvement of learning and memory function in the aging and amnesic model.
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/32414/1/0000491.pdf
Article
The aim is to study the neuroprotective effects of CE, a special extract from Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm. var. bracteatum (Willd.), on memory deficits in senescent mice induced by consecutive injection of d-galactose and NaNO(2) for 60 days. Oral administration of CE (2.5 mg kg(-1), 5 mg kg(-1)) started from 47th day of the experiment. Water maze test was used to evaluate the learning and memory function of mice. The contents of MDA and GSH and the activities of SOD and GSH-px in brain tissue were determined using different biochemical methods. The alterations in hippocampus morphology were assessed. Immunoreactive cells of Tau-2 and NT-3 in the hippocampus were counted by immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that combined injection of d-galactose and NaNO(2) induced memory impairment of mice. In addition, SOD and GSH-px activities and GSH level decreased while MDA level increased in mouse brain. Tau-2 positive neurons increased while NT-3 positive neurons decreased remarkably in the hippocampus. Administration of CE for 14 days significantly improved the cognitive deficits and the biochemical markers mentioned above and reduced the histological lesions in mouse brain. These results suggest that CE is worth testing for further preclinical study aimed for senescence and dementia.
Article
Lycium barbarum, a famous Chinese medicinal herb, has a long history of use as a traditional remedy for male infertility. Polysaccharides are the most important functional constituent in L. barbarum fruits. We systematically investigated the effect of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on rat testis damage induced by a physical factor (43 degrees C heat exposure), on DNA damage of mouse testicular cells induced by a chemical factor (H2O2), and on sexual behavior and reproductive function of hemicastrated male rats. The results showed that LBP provided a protective effect against the testicular tissue damage induced by heat exposure. When compared with negative control, a suitable concentration of LBP significantly increased testis and epididymis weights, improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and raised sexual hormone levels in the damaged rat testes. LBP had a dose-dependent protective effect against DNA oxidative damage of mouse testicular cells induced by H2O2. LBP improved the copulatory performance and reproductive function of hemicastrated male rats, such as shortened penis erection latency and mount latency, regulated secretion of sexual hormones and increased hormone levels, raised accessory sexual organ weights, and improved sperm quantity and quality. The present findings support the folk reputation of L. barbarum fruits as an aphrodisiac and fertility-facilitating agent, and provide scientific evidence for a basis for the extensive use of L. barbarum fruits as a traditional remedy for male infertility in China.
Article
In this study, the edible mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. were sequentially extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ultrasonic water-bath (75 degrees C), and the water extract was further isolated by Sephadex G-100 to afford a petroleum ether extract (PE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE), ethanol extract (EE), glycoprotein (GP) and a purified polysaccharide (PS). In combination with component analysis, the isolated PS showed d-Glc, d-Man, l-Ara and d-Gal in a molar ratio of 8:90:1:1. The average molecular weight of PS was determined as approximately 8.3 x 10(4). The immunomodulatory potentials of these samples (PE, EAE, EE, GP and PS) at three dose levels on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA) were studied. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with 100 microg OVA alone or with 100 microg OVA dissolved in saline containing these samples (100, 200 or 400 microg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (day 28), concanavalin A (Con A)- and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific antibody in serum were investigated. These samples, except for PS, significantly enhanced the Con A- and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in OVA-immunized mice at a suitable dose (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were significantly enhanced by these extracts and PS compared with the OVA control group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 or p < 0.001).
Catalase VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH: Germany
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Structure and antitumor activity of an alkali-soluble polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis
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Cordycepin, a metabolic project from cultures of cordyceps militaris (Linn.) link. Part 1. Isolation and characterisation
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The senile changes of male rats
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The senile changes of male rats
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