European frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae; EFB) is an invasive aquatic plant species that has quickly spread within Michigan, yet the detrimental effects to wetland ecosystems remain largely unknown. With funding provided by the Water Resources Division of the Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, the Michigan Natural Features Inventory worked with Central Michigan University as they developed an adaptive management plan for EFB. Our work focused on gathering and compiling EFB occurrence data, synthesizing information about the effects of EFB and other aquatic invasive plant species on native species and ecosystem functioning, identifying important knowledge gaps, and developing a research framework to address those information needs. We gathered and aggregated 8,214 records of known EFB status in the U.S. and Canada, with 3,916 unique occurrences being from Michigan. The limited information about the potential effects of EFB and other aquatic invasive plant species on native plants and animals and ecosystem processes was synthesized from available literature. Based on our literature search, we identified several important information needs regarding the impacts of EFB on wetlands: the effects of EFB on other organisms; effects of EFB on ecosystem processes; influence of EFB density and patch size on organisms and processes; interaction of EFB with other invasive species; conditions driving EFB occurrences; ecosystem resiliency to invasion; and effects of EFB to ecosystem services and human values. Five research objectives were proposed to address these knowledge gaps: 1) compare plant and animal communities between wetlands with and without EFB populations; 2) compare measures of ecosystem processes between wetlands with and without EFB populations; 3) examine associations between ecosystem variables and EFB density and patch size; 4) assess if EFB populations interfere with recreational use of wetlands; and 5) evaluate if EFB is affecting ecosystem services. We suggested several elements to strengthen study designs and increase the likelihood of detecting ecological patterns. Study designs should include reference sites representing naturally functioning wetlands as a comparison to wetlands containing EFB populations. The study areas should encompass the range of the invasion gradient (i.e., from well-established, high density to recent, low density sites) and types of wetlands containing EFB (e.g., coastal and inland; marshes, lakes, and ponds). Sampling should be replicated spatially (e.g., across EFB distribution in Michigan) and temporally (e.g., over multiple years) to the greatest extent possible to account for natural variation. We also recommend study designs that evaluate EFB effects to native species, ecological processes, ecosystem services, and human values concurrently. We suggested several measures of organismal communities and ecological functioning and associated sampling methodologies to address the proposed research objectives. Sampling of plant, macroinvertebrate, fish, herptile (frogs, toads, and turtles), and bird (waterfowl, waterbirds, and shorebirds) communities and indicators of ecological processes, such as water chemistry (e.g., DO, pH, nutrients), water movement (e.g., fluctuations, flow), and physical/structural variables (e.g., biomass, soils, light penetration), is recommended to understand potential impacts from EFB. Measuring species and processes across EFB density and size gradients may assist in determining if there are EFB population thresholds at which detrimental impacts to native species and normal ecosystem processes occur. Stakeholder engagement is needed to understand the effects of EFB on human values, such as recreational use. Finally, we recommended developing a conceptual model to describe the interaction of ecosystem processes, ecosystem services, human values, and EFB. New knowledge gained about alterations to processes associated with EFB could then be incorporated into the model to predict resulting changes to ecosystem services and human values.