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Transfer of All Western Hemisphere Cybalomiinae to Other Subfamilies (Crambidae: Pyraloidea: Lepidoptera): Elusia Schaus, Dichochroma Forbes, Schacontia Dyar, Cybalomia extorris Warren, and C. lojanalis (Dognin)


Abstract and Figures

Munroe (1995) included four genera and nine species from the Western Hemisphere in Cybalomiinae. The species were morphologically compared with Cybalomia pentadalis Lederer, the type species of Cybalomia, and all belong to other subfamilies. Accordingly, the following new and revised combinations and/or subfamilial assignments are proposed: Elusia Schaus is returned to Scopariinae; Cybalomia extorris Warren is transferred to Aethiophysa Munroe, Dichochroma Forbes and Schacontia Dyar are transferred to Glaphyriinae; and Cybalomia lojanalis (Dognin) is transferred to Diptychophora Zeller in Crambinae. A lectotype is designated for Platytes lojanalis Dognin. The adults and genitalia are figured for the first time.
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of the
M. A
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, c/o National Museum Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, P.O. Box 37012, MRC 168, Washington, DC 20013-7012, U.S.A. (e-
M. A
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service, U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, c/o National Museum Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, P.O. Box 37012, MRC 168, Washington, DC 20013-7012, U.S.A. (e-
Abstract.—Munroe (1995) included four genera and nine species from the Western
Hemisphere in Cybalomiinae. The species were morphologically compared with
Cybalomia pentadalis Lederer, the type species of Cybalomia, and all belong to other
subfamilies. Accordingly, the following new and revised combinations and/or subfamilial
assignments are proposed: Elusia Schaus is returned to Scopariinae; Cybalomia extorris
Warren is transferred to Aethiophysa Munroe, Dichochroma Forbes and Schacontia
Dyar are transferred to Glaphyriinae; and Cybalomia lojanalis (Dognin) is transferred
to Diptychophora Zeller in Crambinae. A lectotype is designated for Platytes lojanalis
Dognin. The adults and genitalia are figured for the first time.
Cybalomiinae contains 122 species,
including those transferred here (Solis
and Maes 2002) distributed in Europe,
Africa, Asia and Australia (Munroe and
Solis 1999). The known larvae feed on
species of Brassicaceae (Luquet and
Minet 1982) and Capparidaceae (Munroe
and Solis 1998). The subfamily is defined
by the following combination of charac-
ters: chaetosemata absent, concavity on
the costa of the forewing present, fovea
between Rs
and Rs
present, forewing
with Rs
in a non-apical position and a
costal crescent present, and lateral inden-
tations of sternite 2 present (Luquet and
Minet 1982). Minet (1985) discussed and
figured the morphology of cybalomiine
tympanal organs. Depressions that form
a ‘‘T’’ on sternite 2 posterior to the
tympanal organs are present. The chaeto-
semata are lacking in over 11 subfamilies
of Crambidae (Solis and Maes 2002), and
none of the species examined here share
any of the other characters listed above
for Cybalomiinae. This research examines
the morphology and placement of four
genera and nine species from the Western
Hemisphere previously assigned to Cyba-
lomiinae (Munroe 1995) (Table 1).
Type specimens of included taxa were
located (National Museum of Natural
History (USNM), Washington, D.C.; Cor-
nell Insect Collection (CUIC), Ithaca, New
York; the Natural History Museum
(BMNH), London, England), studied,
andcomparedtoCybalomia pentadalis
Lederer, the type species of Cybalomia.
Many U.S. and European museums were
* Accepted by Michael W. Gates
111(2), 2009, pp. 493–504
searched for additional material (especially
the non-U.S. monotypic genera) to no
avail. The lectotype designation is made in
accordance with Article 74.7.3 (ICZN
1999) to preserve nomenclatural stability.
Genitalia were cleared with cold 10%
KOH and dissected in water, stained with
chlorozal black, and stored in glycerin
until ready to be mounted in balsam. They
were mounted on slides ventral side up.
The phallus is small, so no attempt was
made to inflate the vesica. Adults and
genitalia and were photographed using the
Microptics photoimaging system at the
Systematic Entomology Laboratory
(USDA) located at the USNM.
The placement of the studied taxa was
determined by comparing their morphol-
ogy with taxa in other subfamilies. For
example, after Cybalomia extorris was
hypothesized to be a glaphyriine, it was
externally compared with all species in
the Western Hemisphere using the
USNM collection, the largest in the
world, and photographs of type speci-
mens in museums worldwide. Further
comparisons were made with several
genera using genitalic preparations at
the USNM.
The comparative morphological re-
search shows that all of the species
studied share characters with subfamilies
other than the Cybalomiinae. Elusia
Schaus is transferred to Scopariinae,
and Dichochroma Forbes and Schacontia
Dyar to Glaphyriinae. Cybalomia extor-
ris Warren is transferred to Aethiophysa
Munroe in Glaphyriinae, and C. lojanalis
(Dognin) is transferred to Diptychophora
Zeller in Crambinae.
It should be noted that these species
are highly derived and often differ from
the expected character states of other
subfamilies, and some have the external
‘‘gestalt’’ or a similar habitus to Cybalo-
miinae. I surmise that this was the reason
they were relegated to Cybalomiinae
(i.e., the taxon became a ‘‘dump’’ sub-
family for New World species of Cram-
bidae of uncertain affinities).
Cybalomia extorris Warren, 1892
(Figs. 1, 8–11)
Placement history.—Cybolomia [sic]
extorris was described in Pyralidae based
on two males collected by Lord Walsing-
ham from the western United States; no
Table 1. Cybalomiinae of the Western Hemisphere (Munroe 1995).
Cybalomia Lederer, 1863
extorris Warren, 1892
quadristrigalis (Fernald 1894) (Metasia) Transferred to Glaphyriinae, Aethiophysa,new
lojanalis (Dognin 1905) (Platytes) Transferred to Crambinae, Diptychophora,new
combination. Lectotype designated for Platytes
Elusia Schaus, 1940
enalis Schaus, 1940 Transferred to Scopariinae, revised combination
Schacontia Dyar, 1914 Transferred to Glaphyriinae, new combination
chanesalis (Druce, 1899)(Pionea)
replica Dyar, 1914
medalba (Schaus, 1904) (Acontia)
pfeifferi Amsel, 1956
ysticalis (Dyar, 1925) (Thelcteria)
Dichochroma Forbes, 1944
muralis Forbes, 1944 Transferred to Glaphyriinae, new combination
exact locality was given. Munroe (1995)
stated that the species was originally
described in Hypolais Guene´e, but this
was an error. The synonym C. quadris-
trigalis Fernald (1894) was described in
Metasia Guene´e from California.
Species comparison and placement.—
Externally, C. extorris is most similar to
species of Aethiophysa Munroe in Gla-
phyriinae. Munroe (1964) did not elab-
orate which characters defined Glaphyr-
iinae, but Munroe and Solis (1999)
described the subfamily as: ocelli present,
chaetosemata absent, and a three-seg-
mented labial palpus porrect. In addi-
tion, C. extorris and species in Aethio-
physa share a tuft of scales on the second
labial palpal segment and the presence of
white postmedial and medial lines on the
forewings. Cybalomia extorris has a light
brown basal color in both wings, in
contrast to species in Aethiophysa that
have a bright yellow basal color or a light
brown color in the forewing only and the
hindwing mostly white. I hereby transfer
C. extorris, and its synonym C. quad-
ristrigalis,toAethiophysa Munroe (1964)
(Glaphyriinae), new combinations. Be-
cause of the external and internal differ-
ences with many glaphyriines, this spe-
cies may require a new genus in the
course of a greatly needed subfamilial
phylogenetic study.
Genitalic morphology within glaphyr-
iine genera is unusually variable (Munroe
1964, Solis and Adamski 1998) in com-
parison to other crambid subfamilies
where it tends to be conservative. The
highly modified genitalia of C. extorris
differ considerably from other species in
Aethiophysa. The male has a very thin
valva, and the female has a long ductus
bursae with a small round signa in the
corpus bursae. Males of Aethiophysa have
broad valvae, and females have a short
ductus bursae with striations and a heavily
spinose corpus bursae throughout.
The tympanal organs place C. extorris
in Glaphyriinae. The bulla tympani are
broad, and wider than long, and the
processus tympani are prominent. Sec-
ondary venulae are present in C. extorris
as in other species of Aethiophysa. Most
glaphyriines have a fornix tympani that
is weakly sclerotized and round, but C.
extorris differs in having a fornix tym-
pani that is sclerotized and square. The
ramus tympani is sclerotized and prom-
inent in C. extorris but not in other
species of Aethiophysa and Glaphyriinae.
Material examined.—The two syn-
types of C. extorris were examined and
one was photographed at the BMNH.
Specimens at the USNM from the
following localities were examined: Ar-
izona: Mojave County. California: Argus
Mts., Surprise Canyon. Colorado: Glen-
wood Springs, Denver. Nevada: Charles-
town Mtns. Texas: Fort Davis, Davis
Mt. St. Pk, Agula Canyon, Smith Can-
yon. Utah: Richfield, Springdale, Stock-
ton, Cedar City.
Cybalomia lojanalis (Dognin 1905)
(Figs. 2–3, 12–16)
Placement history.—Cybalomia loja-
nalis was described from a series of males
(but see below) from Loja, Ecuador, by
Dognin in Platytes (Crambinae). It was
transferred by Bleszynski and Collins
(1962) to Pyraustidae [‘‘Referable to
Pyraustidae’’] without explanation or
generic assignment. Munroe (1995)
placed it in Cybalomia, but stated it
was misplaced in this genus. Munroe
(1995) in Note #23 stated, ‘‘M. Shaffer
(BMNH) has pointed out to me that this
species has cybalomiine wing pattern,
external characters, and genitalia. Al-
though it will undoubtedly require a new
genus, I place it for the time being in
Cybalomia.’’ In the BMNH catalog,
captured in LepIndex [http://www.nhm.] (Beccaloni
et al. 2003), the species is incorrectly
placed in Ptychopseustis Meyrick, an Old
World cybalomiine genus.
VOLUME 111, NUMBER 2 495
Species comparison and placement.—
Examination of the type series at the
USNM and dissection of abdomens indi-
cates that the type series includes both
males and females and that it is a member
of Diptychophorini (Crambinae). Dipty-
chophorini includes seven genera (Gaskin
1986a, 1986b, 1989) defined by highly
derived elements of the genitalia, and are
in great need of revision in the Western
Hemisphere (Landry 1990). Cybalomia
lojanalis has some of the characters
currently used to define several genera,
including some genera not of the Dipty-
chophorini, so I conservatively transfer
this species to Diptychophora Zeller, as D.
Fig. 1. Cybalomia extorris Warren, 1892, Davis Mtns., Texas. Fig. 2. Cybalomia lojanalis Dognin,
female, Loja, Ecuador, Paralectotype, USNM. Fig. 3. Cybalomia lojanalis Dognin, male, Loja,
Ecuador, Lectotype, USNM. Fig. 4. Elusia enalis Schaus, Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico, USNM. Fig. 5.
Elusia enalis Schaus, El Yunque, Luiquillo Mts., Puerto Rico, Holotype, USNM. Fig. 6. Dichochroma
muralis Forbes, Amotape Mtns., N.W. Peru, Holotype, CIUC. Fig. 7. Schacontia replica Schaus,
Cordoba, Mexico, Holotype, USNM.
Fig. 8. Cybalomia extorris Warren, female, tympanal organs. Fig. 9. Cybalomia extorris Warren,
female, genitalia. Fig. 10. Cybalomia extorris Warren, male, tympanal organs. Fig. 11. Cybalomia
extorris Warren, male, genitalia, no phallus. Fig. 12. Cybalomia lojanalis Dognin, male, tympanal
organs. Fig. 13. Cybalomia lojanalis Dognin, male, genitalia. Fig. 14. Cybalomia lojanalis Dognin,
male, phallus.
VOLUME 111, NUMBER 2 497
lojanalis (Dognin), new combination.In
agreement with, and as Landry (1990) so
elegantly stated, ‘‘I have decided to place
this species under the oldest generic name
available (Diptychophora) because the
proliferation of new generic names can
only confuse the classification of this
Landry (1995) gave two synapomor-
phies for Diptychophorini: short fore-
wings (less than 23longer than wide)
and erect terminal scales on flagello-
meres. Diptychophora lojanalis has long
forewings, but it does have erect terminal
scales on its flagellomeres. In D. lojanalis
the chaetosemata are absent, but the
ocelli are prominent. The labial palpi are
slightly projecting beyond the head. The
forewing appears brown, but has a
silvery postmedial line, a black dot
apically between Rs
and Rs
, and black
dots apically in the cubital sector; the
outer margin is notched near M
, which is often the case for Dipty-
chophorini (Landry 1995).
The tympanal organs of D. lojanalis are
as described for Diptychophorini (Landry
1995: 67). The uncus and gnathos of the
male genitalia are simple; the gnathos has
short spines at the apex as in Micrelephas
Dognin (Landry 2000). The valva is
distinctly separated into costal and saccu-
lar areas. The vinculum is narrow, and the
saccus is present, not prominent. The
juxta is simple and the pseudosaccus is
absent. The coecum is two-thirds the
length of the phallus and the vesica
possesses cornuti. In the female genitalia
the ostium bursae is membranous and
cup-like, almost as broad as 7
The ductus seminalis arises close to the
ostium bursae. The ductus bursae is long,
3 times the length of the 7
segment. The
corpus bursae is membranous and round
without signa.
Material examined.—Dognin (1905)
stated that he had a series of males
in the original description. The type
series includes both males and females.
Eighteen specimens have the Dognin
printed label ‘‘Environs de Loja/Equa-
teur/87 (Lectotype, male, here designated
(USNM), bearing this locality label and
lectotype label),’’ 3 specimens also have a
handwritten label with ‘‘Platytes lojanalis
Dgn. Type’’ and several more specimens
have labels with the handwritten name
by Dognin, but not the word ‘‘Type.’’
Elusia enalis Schaus, 1940
(Fig. 4–5, 17–22)
Placement history.—Elusia is a mono-
typic genus described by Schaus in
Scopariinae from Puerto Rico.
Species comparison and placement.—
Redescripton from the type specimens:
ocelli present, chaetosemata absent, labial
palpi slightly upturned (not porrect as in
other scopariines), maxillary palpi extend-
ing to tip of labial palpi (in most
scopariines the maxillary palpi are much
shorter and do not reach tip of labial
palpi). Male genitalia with a pointed
uncus with hairs. Gnathos small, equal
in length to the uncus with short hairs on
dorsal tip. Valvae with a pointed, thin
costal projection and a sclerotized U-
shaped area at base. Juxta quadrate
pointed posteriorly. Phallus with two long
cornuti, maniaca scobinated. Female gen-
italia with a sclerotized, finely spinulose
antrum; ostium bursae scooplike, ventral
margin more anteriorly located than
dorsal margin; 7
segment slightly scler-
otized near ostium bursae; ventrally duc-
tus bursae at level of anterior margin of 7
segment, with two lateral finger-like pro-
jections or diverticula, and dorsally with
ductus seminalis; ventrally corpus bursae
with a slit-like signum, dorsally with a
signum composed of long spines. Appen-
dix bursae absent.
I transfer Elusia enalis Schaus back to
Scopariinae, revised combination. Exam-
ination and dissection of the type spec-
imen and dissection of additional mate-
rial indicate that E. enalis Schaus is a
Fig. 15. Cybalomia lojanalis Dognin, female, tympanal organs. Fig. 16. Cybalomia lojanalis
Dognin, female, genitalia. Fig. 17. Elusia enalis Schaus, male, tympanal organs. Fig. 18. Elusia
enalis Schaus, male, phallus. Fig. 19. Elusia enalis Schaus, male, genitalia. Fig. 20. Elusia enalis
Schaus, El Yunque, Luiquillo Mts., Puerto Rico, Holotype, genitalia with phallus still in place.
VOLUME 111, NUMBER 2 499
member of the Scopariinae (Chapman
1912, Munroe 1972, Minet 1982, Yoshiyasu
1985, Nuss 1998).
Elusia enalis shares characters with two
major genera in the New World, Scoparia
Haworth and Eudonia Billberg as dis-
cussed by Nuss (1998). It has a distally
pointed uncus and cornutus of the phallus
like Scoparia, but it does not have the
distal extension of the sacculus. Elusia
enalis is similar to Eudonia females that
corpus bursae, but it differs from Eudonia
males because it lacks cornuti in the
phallus, no free distal extension of the
sacculus, and a dorsally rounded uncus.
Elusia enalis differs from species in these
two genera by the slightly upturned labial
palpi and the presence of a pointed, thin
costal projection in the valvae.
Material examined.—Specimens at the
USNM from the following localities were
examined: Puerto Rico, Dominica, Brit-
ish Virgin Islands, French Guiana, To-
bago, and Guyana. Seven specimens
from Puerto Rico were dissected and
compared to the dissected type. Prelimi-
nary study indicates that it is likely that
some of these specimens are not E. enalis
and the material at the USNM is a
complex of species. In addition, this
species can easily be misidentified as a
phycitine (Pyralidae) based on external
characters, and most of the specimens at
the USNM were discovered in the Phy-
citinae collection.
Dichochroma muralis Forbes, 1944
(Figs. 6, 23–24)
Placement history.—Dichochroma is
another monotypic genus with one spe-
cies, muralis, described by Forbes (1944)
from Peru. In his discussion, he indicated
that it differs from known Pyraustinae
and compares it with species of Dicho-
gama and states that D. muralis ‘‘is
clearly a development of Dichogama,….’’
In LepIndex [
entomology/lepindex] (Beccaloni et al.
2003), the taxon is incorrectly placed in
Species comparison and placement.—
Examination of the holotype female and
study of the dissected genitalia indicate
that Dichochroma is a member of the Gla-
phyriinae based on the tympanal organs
and head structures. The head is descaled
with a three-segmented labial palpus
closely appressed to the frons. Ocelli are
present, and chaetosemata are absent.
The tympanal organs place D. muralis
in the Glaphyriinae. In the tympanal
organ, the bulla tympani is broad and
the processus tympani is prominent. The
fornix tympani is sclerotized and square,
not round as is usually the case in
glaphyriines. The ramus tympani is
sclerotized and prominent. Secondary
venulae are present as in species of
Aethiophysa and Eupoca Warren. The
female genitalia of the Glaphyriinae are
highly derived, but most have a sclero-
tized collar as does D. muralis, with
additional armature in the corpus bur-
sae. The male is unknown.
Material examined.—Holotype label
data: Amotape Mts., N. W. Peru/ H. &
D. L. Frizzell/ Holotype, Dichochroma,
muralis, Forbes/ HOLOTYPE, Cornell
U., No. 7045/ Genitalia slide female, by
JAL, USNM. A survey of other collec-
tions in the U.S. and Europe failed to
yield additional specimens of this species
from Peru, but specimens from other
areas in the Western Hemisphere may be
undiscovered species in this genus.
Schacontia Dyar, 1914
(Figs. 7, 25–29)
Placement history.—The type species,
S. medalba Schaus, was described in
Schoenobiinae, subsequently transferred
to Epipaschiinae by Munroe (1958), and
finally transferred to Cybalomiinae by
Munroe (1995), with the note ‘‘subfamily
placement tentative.’’
Fig. 21. Elusia enalis Schaus, female, tympanal organ. Fig. 22. Elusia enalis Schaus, female,
genitalia. Fig. 23. Dichochroma muralis Forbes, female, tympanal organ. Fig. 24. Dichochroma muralis
Forbes, female, genitalia.
VOLUME 111, NUMBER 2 501
Fig. 25. Schacontia replica Schaus, female, tympanal organ. Fig. 26. Schacontia replica Schaus,
female, genitalia. Fig. 27. Schacontia pfeifferi Amsel, male tympanal organ. Fig. 28. Schacontia
pfeifferi Amsel, male phallus. Fig. 29. Schacontia pfeifferi Amsel. Male genitalia.
Species comparison and placement.—
The moths are small and shiny with a
very subtle wing pattern. Schacontia
replica Schaus is figured here because
the pattern is more prominent than in the
holotype of S. medalba. The external
morphology, genitalia, and, most con-
vincingly, the tympanal organs indicate
that Schacontia is a member of the
Glaphyriinae. The bulla tympani are
broad, wider than long, and the proces-
sus tympani are prominent. Most gla-
phyriines have a fornix tympani that is
weakly sclerotized and round; in species
of Schacontia the fornix tympani is
sclerotized and square, and secondary
venulae are present as in species of
Aethiophysa. The ramus tympani is
sclerotized and prominent in species of
Schacontia but not in other species of
Aethiophysa and Glaphyriinae.
Schacontia Dyar currently comprises
five species from Central and South
America (Munroe 1995). Study of this
genus, with descriptions of several new
species and their immatures reared in
Costa Rica, is on-going.
Material examined.—The type species,
S. medalba, was examined as well as all
the type specimens of the five species
listed in Table 1.
I thank Marie Metz (Systematic Ento-
mology Laboratory, USDA) for the
photographs and plates. Rick Hoebeke
(Cornell Insect Collection, Cornell Uni-
versity, Ithaca, New York), Kevin Tuck,
and Michael Shaffer (Natural History
Museum, London, England) provided
access to type specimens in their care
and were excellent hosts during my visits
to their collections. I also thank the
collection managers of Lepidoptera col-
lections worldwide (too numerous to
list), who provided access and help, in
searching for rare specimens, although
many were not located in their collec-
tions. I am grateful for constructive
reviews by R. Kula and T. J. Henry
(Systematic Entomology Laboratory,
ARS, USDA), B. Landry (Muse´um
d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzer-
land), and M. Nuss (Staatliche Naturhis-
torische Sammlungen, Museum fu¨r Tier-
kunde, Dresden, Germany) that greatly
improved the clarity of the manuscript.
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... In the New World there are currently six recognized genera of Diptychophorini that include 25 species (see Nuss et al., 2020). The New World fauna of Diptychophorini, except Microcausta Hampson, 1895 was revised by Gaskin (1986a, b;1989) with additions by Landry (1990) and Solis (2009). The genus Diptychophora Zeller, 1866 includes nine New World species occurring from the United States of America in Arizona south to the southern State of Santa Catarina in Brazil. ...
... The Neotropical fauna was revised by Gaskin (1986a). Landry (1990) added two new species and Solis (2009) transferred an additional species from Cybalomiinae to Diptychophora. Although synapomorphies have not been presented for the genus yet, D. powelli Landry (1990) as well as the species transferred by Solis (2009), i.e. ...
... Landry (1990) added two new species and Solis (2009) transferred an additional species from Cybalomiinae to Diptychophora. Although synapomorphies have not been presented for the genus yet, D. powelli Landry (1990) as well as the species transferred by Solis (2009), i.e. D. lojanalis (Dognin, 1905), do not exhibit the typical valva shape of Diptychophora and hence may require new genera or transfers to other existing genera. ...
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The Brazilian fauna of Diptychophora Zeller, 1866 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae sensu lato, Crambinae) is reviewed. Consisting of three species based on the literature (D. diasticta Gaskin, 1986, D. kuhlweinii Zeller, 1866 and D. subazanalis Błeszyński, 1967), this fauna is augmented with three new species (Diptychophora galvani sp. n. from Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais, D. planaltina sp. n. from the Federal District, and D. ardalia sp. n. from Bahia), that are described and illustrated. The female of D. diasticta is also described and illustrated for the fi rst time. A partial CO1 barcode sequence is provided for D. diasticta.
... introduction Schacontia Dyar, 1914: 400 represents a small cluster of species recently transferred to the Glaphyriinae (Solis 2009) (Figs 1-12). Both the male genitalia and the external appearance of described Schacontia are atypical for pyraloids, so much so that the type species was originally described by Schaus as a member of the noctuid genus Acontia Ochsenheimer (as "Acontia? ...
... Schacontia was originally described in the Schoenobiinae, retained there by Amsel (1956), transferred to the Epipaschiinae (Pyralidae) by Munroe (1958), and then tentatively transferred to the Cybalomiinae (Munroe 1995). It was most recently transferred to the Glaphyriinae by Solis (2009) based in part on the external morphology and genitalia, but mostly based on the morphology of the tympanal organs. Solis (2009: 493) characterized the subfamily with the following combination of characters: chaetosemata absent; concavity on the costa of the forewing present; fovea between Rs 2+3 and Rs 4 present; forewing with Rs 4 in a non-apical position and a costal crescent present; and lateral indentations of Sternite 2 present (Luquet and Minet 1982). ...
... A somewhat more variable group, including S. ysticalis (Dyar, 1925) and several undescribed species, appeared to bear similarities to Schacontia in forewing pattern and, in modified form, features of the male valva, tegumen, and gnathos. Bearing in mind that member species of Schacontia have been placed in several subfamilies prior to the genus' transfer to Glaphyriinae by Solis (2009), and in the interest of being thorough, type species of all 33 known glaphyriine genera were examined as outgroup candidates. We also surveyed types of Cybalomia Lederer, 1863 and a range of crambid subfamilies in order to mine specific character systems for putative synapomorphies of Schacontia and to ensure proper character polarization. ...
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The Neotropical genus Schacontia Dyar (1914) is reviewed and revised to include eleven species. Schacontia replica Dyar, 1914, syn. n. and Schacontia pfeifferi Amsel, 1956, syn. n. are synonymized with Schacontia chanesalis (Druce, 1899) and eight new species are described: Schacontia umbra,sp. n., Schacontia speciosa,sp. n., Schacontia themis, sp. n., Schacontia rasa, sp. n., Schacontia nyx,sp. n., Schacontia clotho, sp. n., Schacontia lachesis, sp. n., and Schacontia atropos, sp. n. Three species, Schacontia medalba, Schacontia chanesalis, and Schacontia ysticalis, are re-described. An analysis of 64 characters (56 binary, 8 multistate; 5 head, 13 thoracic, 13 abdominal, 25 male genitalic, and 8 female genitalic) scored for all Schacontia and three outgroup species (Eustixia pupula Hübner, 1823, Glaphyria sesquistrialis Hübner, 1823, and Hellula undalis (Fabricius, 1781)) retrieved 8 equally most parsimonious trees (L=102, CI=71, RI=84) of which the strict consensus is: [[[[medalba + umbra] + chanesalis] + speciosa] + [ysticalis + [rasa + themis + [atropos + lachesis + nyx + clotho]]]]. The relevance of male secondary sexual characters to the diagnosis of Schacontia species is discussed.
... 5) The tribes Pyraustini and Spilomelini are elevated to subfamily level (Minet 1982). 6) The subfamily Cybalomiinae is deleted from the North American region, its lone species transferred to Glaphyriinae (Solis 2009). 7) The genera in the subfamily Ancylolomiinae (in MONA) are placed in the Crambinae (Landry 1995;). ...
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An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America north of Mexico is presented, including 861 Crambidae and 681 Pyralidae with 1542 total species. It includes all new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983. The Notes section provides the seminal citations, data and/or commentary to all changes since 1983 for easy and future reference. In addition, this list proposes seven new generic combinations, the transfer of a phycitine species, Salebria nigricans (Hulst), to Epipaschiinae and its syn. n. with Pococera fuscolotella (Ragonot), and three new records for the United States. Purposefully, no new taxa are described here, but we found a gradual increase of 10% in the number of species described since 1983. Finally, we also include a list of thirteen species not included or removed from the MONA list. Many higher-level changes have occurred since 1983 and the classification is updated to reflect research over the last 30 years, including exclusion of Thyrididae and Hyblaeidae from the superfamily and recognition of Crambidae and Pyralidae as separate families. The list includes multiple changes to subfamilies based on morphology such as the synonymization of the Dichogamini with the Glaphyriinae, but also incorporating recent molecular phylogenetic results such as the synonymization of the Evergestinae with the Glaphyriinae.
Dicepolia Snellen (syn. Endolophia Hampson) is revised to include thirteen species distributed in the Neotropics and Madagascar. The genus is diagnosed and differentiated from similar Neotropical Pyraloidea. The two previously described species, the type species D. roseobrunnea (Warren) (tropical South America) and D. rufitinctalis (Hampson) (Central and South America), are redescribed. Seven new species are described: D. aerealis sp. nov., D. amazonalis sp. nov., D. artoides sp. nov., D. bicolor sp. nov., D. cuiabalis sp. nov., D. vaga sp. nov. and D. venezolalis sp. nov. Four Malagasy species are transferred to Dicepolia: D. marginescriptalis (Kenrick) comb. nov., D. marionalis (Viette) comb. nov., D. munroealis (Viette) comb. nov., and D. rufeolalis (Mabille) comb. nov. Two continental African species are transferred from Endolophia to other odontiine genera: Emprepes sudanalis (Zerny) comb. nov. and Tegostoma aequifasciale (Zerny) comb. nov. D. roseobrunnea is identified as the "rosada da oiticica," a historical seed-boring pest of Licania in northeastern Brazil; published observations of larval morphology and behavior are summarized. Habitus and genitalia of all species are illustrated, and a key to the Neotropical species is given.
Based on a phylogenetic analysis, a new species, here described, is placed in genus Micrelephas Dognin. Micrelephas longicilia Landry & Becker, sp. n. occurs from Guatemala south to Paraná, Brazil [HT from Bahia, Brazil]. It differs markedly from other described species of Micrelephas in the wider and relatively shorter forewings with a produced apex and with clear submedian and postmedian transverse lines. It is assigned to Micrelephas on the basis of several characters, including a previously recognized synapomorphy of the male genitalia, i.e. the presence of short fine spines on the gnathos dorsally toward apex. The males also share with several (or all) other species of Micrelephas a furrow containing long, presumably androconial scales on the upper surface of the hindwing along the basal half of M1, a series of very long setae along the ventral edge of the valva, and a costal projection on the valva. Catharylla interrupta Zeller, 1866, comb. n. and Argyria mesodonta Zeller, 1877, comb. n. are transferred to Micrelephas Dognin, 1905. Argyria mesozonalis Hampson, 1919, syn. n. and Argyria antonialis Schaus, 1922, syn. n. are synonymized with Micrelephas interruptus (Zeller). A key to the ten species of Micrelephas is provided.
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Thirty-one species of Glaphyriinae (Crambidae: Pyraloidea) from Costa Rica are reviewed, including nine new species: Aureopteryx olufsoni, Eupoca haakei, Glaphyria tetra spina, Glaphyria spinacrista, Glaphyria stellaspina, Glaphyria spinasingularis, Lipocosma rosalia, Lipocosma pitilla, and Lipocosma fonsecai. Lipocosma teliferalis Dyar is a junior synonym of Lipocosma punctissimalis Dyar, Lipocosma plagalis Schaus is a junior synonym of Lipocosma ausonialis (Druce), and Parambia gleanealis Dyar is a junior synonym of Parambia gnomosynalis Dyar. A key to the identification of Costa Rican species is provided. The presence of a pseudognathos in the male genitalia and modified scales on the area between CuA2 and CuP of the hind wing are discussed.
LepIndex is essentially a computerised and updated version of the Natural History Museum's (NHM) card index archive to the scientific names of the living and fossil butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) of the world. With about 137,441 species known so far, the Lepidoptera represent approximately 10% of the 1,413,000 or so known species of living organisms on this planet (Wilson, 1992). Although attempts have been made to catalogue all published Lepidoptera names (eg the Lepidopterorum Catalogus published in parts between 1911 and 1939), none of the catalogues begun in the last 100 years has been completed. When LepIndex is fully operational it will be the only comprehensive global catalogue of this ecologically and economically important group of insects available. LepIndex will enable anyone with access to the Internet to quickly find information such as who named a butterfly or moth species and where the original description was published.
States National Museum. TJie followint; apparently undescribcd species have mostly been received from Mr. Roberto Miiller, of Mexico City, for identification. I have been assisted in placing some of the species by Sir George F. Ilampson and Mr. William Schaus. Their assistance is specially acknowledged under each heading. All the species are from Mexico excei)t in one famil}', the Cochlidiidae, where species from Costa Rica and Brazil are described. Superfamily PAPILIONOIDEA. Family SATYRID^. Genus EUPTYCHIA Hubner. EUPTYCHIA PERTEPIDA, new species. Dark gray; a reddish shade over the middle of the fore wing, espe-cially marked along the median vein and the bases of veins 3 and 4; a diffused band of erect scales across the disk beyond the median vein, cut by the reddish veins. Hind ^ving with the diffused reddish shade outwardly; two elongated blackish spots on the margin between veins 3 to 5. Beneath the fore wings are reddish on the lower half; two brown lines cross the disk, and there is a row of submarginal lunate dusky spots. Ilind wing brown-gray, the two median lines wavy and irregular, with a faint similar subbasal line, the outermost line followed by a bright reddish shade. A submarginal row of silvery scaling in a waved and broken line, crossing two velvet}' black oval spots on the margin, on which the silver forms irregularl}' geminate spots. Expanse, 35 mm. Female similar, but the whole discal area of fore whig overspread willi bright brownish red, the Imes of the underside slightly indicated, the SOX mark absent. Hind wings red on the outer third. Underside as in the male. Expanse, 40 mm.
Diptychophora huixtla from Chiapas, Mexico, and Diptychophora powelli from Guerrero, Nayarit, and Oaxaca, Mexico, are described as new species. The two species can readily be distinguished from each other and from other Diptychophorini by their wing patterns and features of the genitalia.
Frons and scape rosy pink; vertex yellowish buff; labial palpus on outer surface rosy pink, on inner surface yellowish buff; maxillary palpus yellowish buff; antenna of male very narrowly bipectinate, light buff; thorax and abdomen above rosy pink with some buff scales; body beneath whitish buff; legs light yellowish buff. Forewing above light yellowish buff; costa broadly pink in basal third; sparse fuscous dusting in basal angle; traces of a fuscous discocellular bar; a fuscous postmedial line, concave outward opposite cell, convex and wavy from M 2 , to Cu 2 , then retracted nearly to base of Cu 2 , then wavy and oblique inward to inner margin; entire space beyond postmedial line deep rosy pink except for a narrow yellow crescent on outer margin in front of tornus; fringe yellow. Hind wing above yellowish buff; a small fuscous sub-basal patch; a fuscous postmedial line, excurved to Cu 1 , then broken, irregular and obsolescent; space beyond postmedial line rosy pink from apex to Cu 1 . Markings of under surface like those of upper surface, but pink areas replaced by violaceous grey. Expanse 19 mm.
The subfamily Glaphyriinae is briefly discussed. To the six nominal genera placed here by Forbes a further 18 described nominal genera are added, together with the following 13 new genera, 1 new generic name and 32 new species:–Scybalista amazonica, n. sp., Brazil; S. himerta, n. sp., Peru; Aethiophysa, n. g., type-sp. Homophysa lentiflualis Zeller; Aethiophysa consimilis, n. sp., southeastern U. S. A.; Ae. surinamensis, n. sp., Guiana; Ae. acutipennis, n. sp., Brazil; Ae. delicata, n. sp., Florida; Xanthophysa, n. g., type-sp. Botis psychialis Hulst; Abegesta, n. g., type-sp. Orobena reluctalis Hulst; Abegesta concha, n. sp., Arizona; Scybalistodes, n. g., type-sp. Glaphyria periculosalis Dyar; Scybalistodes vermiculalis, n. sp., Arizona; S. regularis, n. sp., Arizona; S. reducta, n. sp., Tres Marias Is.; S. violetalis, n. sp., Chiapas; S. rivuloides, n. sp., Tres Marias Is.; Stegea, n. n., for Egesta Ragonot nec Conrad, type-sp. Homophysa eripalis Grote; Stegea mexicana, n. sp., Mexico; S. clarkei, n. sp., Colombia; S. jamaicensis, n. sp., Jamaica; Paregesta, n. g., type-sp. P. californiensis, n. sp., California; Nephrogramma, n. g., type-sp. Homophysa reniculalis Zeller; Chilomima, n. g., type-sp. Pyrausta clarkei Amsel; Chilozela, n. g., type-sp. Loxostege bifilalis Hampson; Macreupoca, n. g., type-sp. M. penai, n. sp., Chile; M. spectralis, n. sp., Chile; Contortipalpia, n. g., type-sp. C. masculina, n. sp., Brazil; Eupoca definita, n. sp., Brazil; E. micralis, n. sp., Mexico; Vinculopsis epipaschia, n. sp., Peru; Aureopteryx infuscatalis, n. sp., Bolivia; Lipocosmopsis, n. g., type-sp. Lipocosma intermedialis Barnes and McDunnough; Lipocosmodes, n. g., type-sp. Lipocosma fuliginosalis Fernald; Heptalitha, n. g., type-sp. H. boliviensis, n. sp., Bolivia; Dicymolomia micropunctalis, n. sp., California; D. grisea, n. sp., Florida; Lipocosma forsteri, n. sp., Bolivia; L. teutonialis, n. sp., Brazil; L. saralis, n. sp., Bolivia; L. antonialis, n. sp., Bolivia; L. coroicalis, n. sp., Bolivia; L. isola, n. sp., Tres Marias Is. The following additional taxonomic changes are made: Aethiophysa lentiflualis Zeller is separated from the South American Homophysa invisalis Guenée, which is not identified; Abegesta remellalis (Druce) is considered distinct from A. reluctalis (Hulst); Phlyctaenia prusalis Druce is referred to Scybalistodes; Stegea salutalis (Hulst) is separated from S. eripalis (Grote); Eupoca Warren is separated from Scybalista Lederer, and bifascialis (Walker), sanctalis (Schaus), polyorma (Meyrick), and chicalis (Schaus) are referred to it; Symphysa glorialis Schaus is transferred to Aureopteryx Amsel; Ambia argyractalis Schaus, A. enallasialis Dyar, A. enantialis Dyar, A. enareralis Dyar, Aulacodes odulphalis Schaus, Lipocosma punctissimalis Dyar, and L. teliferalis Dyar are transferred to Heptalitha; Ambia metalophota Hampson is transferred to Dicymolomia Zeller; Glaphyria calla Kaye and ausonialis Druce are transferred to Lipocosma Lederer.