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Life cycle and description of a new species of Amnestus Dallas (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Cydnidae) associated with the fruit of several species of ficus (Moraceae) in Mexico

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Abstract

A new species of Amnestus Dallas, A. ficus is described. Its life cycle, and immature stages are also included and illustrated. The association of Cydnidae with the fruits of various species of Ficus is reported for first time. The study is based mainly on two-year sampling in a small patch of medium rain forest on the coast of Veracruz, combined with records from Chiapas, Guerrero, and San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

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... Lis and Pluot-Sigwalt (2002) noted that the rounded and flattened head with a circular crown of setae in Cydnidae suggested that such species are well suited for pushing and digging soil and are therefore bulldozers or diggers. They usually feed on roots, fallen fruits, or seeds, such as Amnestus ficus (Mayorga and Cervantes, 2001) (Amnestinae), Schiodtella secundus (Lis, 1991) (Cephalocteinae), and Chilocoris heissi (Lis, 1994) (Cydninae). Those lineages lacking peg-like setae on the head, such as the tribe Sehirini (Sehirinae), are commonly collected from the hostplant leaves above ground (Schwertner and Nardi, 2015), feeding on the fluids of plant stems and leaves, such as Sehirus cinctus albonotatus (Dallas, 1851) and Canthophorus dubius (Say, 1825;Hertzel and Scharmann, 1973). ...
... This particular niche restriction suggests that, at least to some degree, the subfamily could be an indicator insect for the paleoenvironment. Some extant species of Amnestinae live in the soil near and feed on plants of the family Moraceae, such as Amnestus ficus (Mayorga and Cervantes, 2001), Amnestus obscurus (Mayorga and Cervantes, 2005), and Amnestus calakmulensis (Mayorga and Cervantes, 2005). Mayorga and Cervantes (2001) have reported that species of Ficus (Moraceae) were the primary food of A. ficus, especially when the fruits were mature. ...
... Some extant species of Amnestinae live in the soil near and feed on plants of the family Moraceae, such as Amnestus ficus (Mayorga and Cervantes, 2001), Amnestus obscurus (Mayorga and Cervantes, 2005), and Amnestus calakmulensis (Mayorga and Cervantes, 2005). Mayorga and Cervantes (2001) have reported that species of Ficus (Moraceae) were the primary food of A. ficus, especially when the fruits were mature. When large numbers of fruits and seeds fall to the ground, individuals of A. ficus would feed on these and females sometimes laid individual eggs inside the fruits of Ficus. ...
Article
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Burrowing bugs are distinctive, beetle-like insects of the pentatomoid family Cydnidae, noteworthy for their morphological specializations for digging and a hemiedaphic life history. However, less is known about their biological significance and the early origin of soil dwelling. Direct fossil evidence illuminating the evolutionary history of soil dwelling in cydnids is extremely rare. In this study, we report four new species of the burrowing bug subfamily Amnestinae from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, including two exhibiting specialized bulldozing and digging morphological traits on the anterior of the head and forelegs. Associated morphological features and phylogenetic placement indicate that Acanthamnestus represents the earliest unequivocal soil-dwelling cydnids and pushes back the geological record of hemiedaphic true bugs to 99 Ma. Environmental evidence, the distribution of host plants, and the fossils provide a new window for understanding the early origin of soil habits in Amnestinae and may be linked to the appearance of Moraceae.
... Froeschner (1960) revisó el género Amnestus e incluyó 20 especies distribuidas desde el oeste de Canadá, pasando por Estados Unidos de América, México, América Central, Antillas y hasta América del Sur, en Argentina. En México, se han registrado 29 especies de Amnestus; Mayorga (2002) reconoció la distribución de siete especies para el país, incluyendo la descripción de A. ficus Mayorga & Cervantes 2001;Mayorga y Cervantes (2005) describieron seis nuevas especies, incluyendo a A. rugosus y en 2014 describieron 11 nuevas especies para Chiapas y citaron dos nuevos registros A. bergrothi y A. stali para el estado; Mayorga (2015) La mayoría de las especies de Cydnidae son excavadoras con hábitos subterráneos durante casi todo su ciclo de vida, dificultando el conocimiento de su biología, ecología y comportamiento. Mientras que, para las especies de las subfamilias Sehirinae y Amnestinae, que habitan sobre la superficie del suelo, se ha obtenido más información, ya que la alimentación de ninfas y adultos se produce en estructuras aéreas como frutos y semillas de las plantas hospederas (Froeschner, 1960;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001). ...
... En México, se han registrado 29 especies de Amnestus; Mayorga (2002) reconoció la distribución de siete especies para el país, incluyendo la descripción de A. ficus Mayorga & Cervantes 2001;Mayorga y Cervantes (2005) describieron seis nuevas especies, incluyendo a A. rugosus y en 2014 describieron 11 nuevas especies para Chiapas y citaron dos nuevos registros A. bergrothi y A. stali para el estado; Mayorga (2015) La mayoría de las especies de Cydnidae son excavadoras con hábitos subterráneos durante casi todo su ciclo de vida, dificultando el conocimiento de su biología, ecología y comportamiento. Mientras que, para las especies de las subfamilias Sehirinae y Amnestinae, que habitan sobre la superficie del suelo, se ha obtenido más información, ya que la alimentación de ninfas y adultos se produce en estructuras aéreas como frutos y semillas de las plantas hospederas (Froeschner, 1960;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001). Sin embargo, el tamaño diminuto de las especies de Amnestinae, dificulta su estudio y la información aún es escasa (Panizzi & Grazia, 2015). ...
... Vivan, Nardi, Grazia y Bento (2013) describieron los estadios inmaduros de Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker asociado principalmente a pastos. Para México, sólo se contaba con notas cortas sobre las características de algunas ninfas (Froeschner, 1960), hasta que se describieron los estadios ninfales de A. ficus (Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001), Pangaeus (Pangaeus) serripes (Westwood) (Mayorga & Cervantes, 2014) y A. morelensis (Mayorga, 2015); adicionando información de su asociación con varias especies de Ficus: F. cotinifolia Kunt, F. trigonata L.F. y F. insipida Willd., alimentándose de los frutos y semillas. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Mexico there are 29 species of Amnestus, of which six species are from Veracruz. The morphological features and illustrations of immature stages of A. rugosus are presented. Notes about the biology and behavior were included. The nymphal and adult stages of A. rugosus were found in remnants of riparian vegetation of the mesophilous forest in La Antigua river basin, Veracruz, Mexico. Twelve sites in five localities were selected and the specimens were sampled in rainy (July) and dry (April) seasons of 2012. The samples were processed in Berlese-Tullgren funnel and Winkler. A total of 419 individuals, 320 adults and 99 nymphs of A. rugosus were revised. The size and coloration of the body and punctuation patterns the immature stages of A. rugosus, A. ficus, and A. morelensis are the main differences among these species. A. rugosus is a first record from Veracruz.
... Froeschner (1960) revisó el género Amnestus e incluyó 20 especies distribuidas desde el oeste de Canadá, pasando por Estados Unidos de América, México, América Central, Antillas y hasta América del Sur, en Argentina. En México, se han registrado 29 especies de Amnestus; Mayorga (2002) reconoció la distribución de siete especies para el país, incluyendo la descripción de A. ficus Mayorga & Cervantes 2001;Mayorga y Cervantes (2005) describieron seis nuevas especies, incluyendo a A. rugosus y en 2014 describieron 11 nuevas especies para Chiapas y citaron dos nuevos registros A. bergrothi y A. stali para el estado; Mayorga (2015) La mayoría de las especies de Cydnidae son excavadoras con hábitos subterráneos durante casi todo su ciclo de vida, dificultando el conocimiento de su biología, ecología y comportamiento. Mientras que, para las especies de las subfamilias Sehirinae y Amnestinae, que habitan sobre la superficie del suelo, se ha obtenido más información, ya que la alimentación de ninfas y adultos se produce en estructuras aéreas como frutos y semillas de las plantas hospederas (Froeschner, 1960;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001). ...
... En México, se han registrado 29 especies de Amnestus; Mayorga (2002) reconoció la distribución de siete especies para el país, incluyendo la descripción de A. ficus Mayorga & Cervantes 2001;Mayorga y Cervantes (2005) describieron seis nuevas especies, incluyendo a A. rugosus y en 2014 describieron 11 nuevas especies para Chiapas y citaron dos nuevos registros A. bergrothi y A. stali para el estado; Mayorga (2015) La mayoría de las especies de Cydnidae son excavadoras con hábitos subterráneos durante casi todo su ciclo de vida, dificultando el conocimiento de su biología, ecología y comportamiento. Mientras que, para las especies de las subfamilias Sehirinae y Amnestinae, que habitan sobre la superficie del suelo, se ha obtenido más información, ya que la alimentación de ninfas y adultos se produce en estructuras aéreas como frutos y semillas de las plantas hospederas (Froeschner, 1960;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001). Sin embargo, el tamaño diminuto de las especies de Amnestinae, dificulta su estudio y la información aún es escasa (Panizzi & Grazia, 2015). ...
... Vivan, Nardi, Grazia y Bento (2013) describieron los estadios inmaduros de Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker asociado principalmente a pastos. Para México, sólo se contaba con notas cortas sobre las características de algunas ninfas (Froeschner, 1960), hasta que se describieron los estadios ninfales de A. ficus (Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001), Pangaeus (Pangaeus) serripes (Westwood) (Mayorga & Cervantes, 2014) y A. morelensis (Mayorga, 2015); adicionando información de su asociación con varias especies de Ficus: F. cotinifolia Kunt, F. trigonata L.F. y F. insipida Willd., alimentándose de los frutos y semillas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Immature stages of Amnestus rugosus (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). In Mexico there are 29 species of Amnestus, of which six species are from Veracruz. The morphological features and illustrations of immature stages of A. rugosus are presented. Notes about the biology and behavior were included. The nymphal and adult stages of A. rugosus were found in remnants of riparian vegetation of the mesophilous forest in La Antigua river basin, Veracruz, Mexico. Twelve sites in five localities were selected and the specimens were sampled in rainy (July) and dry (April) seasons of 2012. The samples were processed in Berlese-Tullgren funnel and Winkler. A total of 419 individuals, 320 adults and 99 nymphs of A. rugosus were revised. The size and coloration of the body and punctuation patterns the immature stages of A. rugosus, A. ficus, and A. morelensis are the main differences among these species. A. rugosus is a first record from Veracruz. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 31-39. Epub 2017 March 01.
... The species Sehirus cinctus consumes mature fallen seeds from several host plants (Froeschner 1960 ;Sites and McPherson 1982 ), while Amnestus spp. were found feeding on fruits and seeds of Ficus colubrinae Standl. in Mexico (Mayorga and Cervantes 2001 ). ...
... In Sehirinae, females lay egg masses in shallow cracks on the soil surface (Sites and McPherson 1982 ). At least one species of Amnestinae, Amnestus fi cus Mayorga and Cervantes, lays eggs inside the fruits of Ficus (Moraceae) (Mayorga and Cervantes 2001 ). ...
... Eggs of Cydnidae are characterized by corium smooth, uniform creamy coloration and no conspicuous projections (Fig 21.16a ) (García and Bellotti 1980 ;Mayorga and Cervantes 2001 ;Vivan et al. 2013 ). Incubation time can vary from one week (García and Bellotti 1980 ;Sites and McPherson 1982 ;Riis et al. 2005b ) up to 4 weeks (Sales and Medeiros 2001 ). ...
Chapter
Burrower bugs are typical pentatomoid insects, small to medium in size, recognized by the morphological adaptations for digging. However, some cydnids live aboveground or on vegetation, feeding on falling seeds or even plant tissues. The family has a worldwide distribution, being well represented in tropical and temperate regions, known in the fossil record since at least the Late Cretaceous. Cydnidae includes more than 750 species in 93 genera, divided in six subfamilies. In the Neotropical region, 145 species are recorded and included in the subfamilies Amnestinae (38 spp.), Cephalocteinae (eight), Cydninae (97), and Sehirinae (one). The monophyly of the Cydnidae and phylogenetic relationships with other pentatomoid families are still controversial. Among the subfamilies, only Cephalocteinae has a strong support in a phylogenetic context. Burrower bugs are phytophagous and seem to be polyphagous, and although the group has been considered of little economic importance, damage to crops in the Neotropical region has been growing in the last 15 years. Because of the burrowing habits and small size of most of the species, people unnoticed its presence, limiting taxonomic characterization, host plants records, as well as damage and symptoms to cultivated plants. In this chapter, an overview of the group in the Neotropical region is presented, including an identification key for subfamilies and genera with the characterization of the commonest species.
... Froeschner (1975); subsecuentemente agregó 2 especies nuevas en Brasil: A. lenkoi y A. pequinus. Mayorga y Cervantes (2001) describieron el ciclo de A. ficus, principalmente asociado a plantas de la familia Moraceae. Mayorga y Cervantes (2001, 2005, 2014 describieron, además, 18 especies nuevas de este último género para México, así como 2 especies nuevas en Guatemala (Mayorga y Cervantes, 2009). ...
... Mayorga y Cervantes (2001) describieron el ciclo de A. ficus, principalmente asociado a plantas de la familia Moraceae. Mayorga y Cervantes (2001, 2005, 2014 describieron, además, 18 especies nuevas de este último género para México, así como 2 especies nuevas en Guatemala (Mayorga y Cervantes, 2009). Hasta ahora, en México el género Amnestus está representado por 28 especies distribuidas en los estados de Campeche, Chiapas, Durango, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Morelos, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa y Veracruz (tabla 1). ...
... Para México, el género solo se han descrito los estadios ninfales de Amnestus para A. ficus (Mayorga y Cervantes, 2001), por lo que el presente trabajo es una contribución más sobre los estadios ninfales del género. Amnestus ficus y A. morelensis se distinguen fácilmente por algunas de las siguientes características. ...
Article
Full-text available
Se describe una especie nueva, Amnestus morelensis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae), de Chimalacatlán, Morelos, México. Se ilustran y describen los estadios I-IV de esta especie. Se incluyen también notas acerca de su biología y de su distribución geográfica.
... Burrower bugs, as suggested by their common family name, mostly live underground and feed on plant roots, although some of them inhabit aboveground plant parts, some may be mycetophagous or cavernicolous, and some are associated with ants (e.g., Froeschner, 1975;Schaefer, 1988;Linnavuori, 1993;Lis, 1994;Lis et al., 2000;Kłys & Lis, 2013;Lis, 2015; Schwertner & Nardi, 2015; Lis & Lis, 2016). Extant species of the subfamily Amnestinae are mostly litter inhabitants in various types of humid forests, but have sometimes been found belowground or in guano in bat caves (Froeschner, 1960;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2005, 2014Eger, 2008;Mayorga & Brailovsky, 2012;Schwertner & Nardi, 2015). ...
... We are aware that our hypothesis is highly speculative and the presence of the described trichomes can simply show that the habitat could have been arboreal. However, it is consistent with the biology of some extant species of the subfamily Amnestinae, which live in the litter of various types of humid forests (Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001;Eger, 2008;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2014;Schwertner & Nardi, 2015). ...
Article
A new genus and species of burrower bug, Chilamnestocoris mixtus gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), is described from Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber. The new genus is characterized by a very long claval commissure and, therefore, is classified within the extant subfamily Amnestinae. It presents a mixture of generic characters relevant to the genus Chilocoris Mayr (Cydninae) and the genus Amnestus Dallas (Amnestinae), but also has its own autapomorphies, i.e., each cephalic marginal setigerous puncture arises from its own well-developed tubercle, and the middle and posterior tibiae are strongly compressed and flattened.
... Poco se conoce sobre la biología de estas especies; algunas se alimentan de las raíces de sus plantas hospederas, viviendo hasta 145 cm por debajo de la superfi cie del suelo; otras lo hacen de semillas y jugos de los frutos de sus hospederas que se encuentran sobre el suelo. Muchas especies son atraídas a la luz, siendo su periodo de vuelo muy corto, y en algunas especies parece estar restringido a las primeras horas después de la puesta del sol (Mayorga y Cervantes, 2001;Oliveira et al., 2000;Schuh y Slater, 1995). En el presente trabajo se describen las especies de Cydnidae presentes en el área del Centro de Investigaciones Costeras La Mancha (CICOLMA) en el estado de Veracruz. ...
... y Cyrtomenus crassus Walker. La descripción de los estados inmaduros y más datos de su biología pueden encontrarse en Mayorga y Cervantes (2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ten species of Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from the area of the Centro de Investigaciones Costeras La Mancha (CICOLMA), which belongs to Instituto de Ecología, A.C. on the coast of Veracruz are cited. Five genera are registered: Amnestus, Cyrtomenus, Dallasiellus, Melanaethus y Pangaeus and 2 new species are described, Dallasiellus rugosus sp. nov., and Melanaethus dunensis sp. nov. Most of the species were collected under the crown of Ficus spp. trees, feeding on fruits and seeds. A brief redescription of each species, and notes of their biology and distribution in the study area and in the country are included; each species is illustrated and an identifi cation key is also provided.
... Burrower bugs, as suggested by their common family name, mostly live underground and feed on plant roots, although some of them inhabit aboveground plant parts, some may be mycetophagous or cavernicolous, and some are associated with ants (e.g., Froeschner, 1975;Schaefer, 1988;Linnavuori, 1993;Lis, 1994;Lis et al., 2000;Kłys & Lis, 2013;Lis, 2015; Schwertner & Nardi, 2015; Lis & Lis, 2016). Extant species of the subfamily Amnestinae are mostly litter inhabitants in various types of humid forests, but have sometimes been found belowground or in guano in bat caves (Froeschner, 1960;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2005, 2014Eger, 2008;Mayorga & Brailovsky, 2012;Schwertner & Nardi, 2015). ...
... We are aware that our hypothesis is highly speculative and the presence of the described trichomes can simply show that the habitat could have been arboreal. However, it is consistent with the biology of some extant species of the subfamily Amnestinae, which live in the litter of various types of humid forests (Mayorga & Cervantes, 2001;Eger, 2008;Mayorga & Cervantes, 2014;Schwertner & Nardi, 2015). ...
Preprint
A new genus and species of burrower bug, Chilamnestocoris mixtus gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), is described from Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber. The new genus is characterized by a very long claval commissure and, therefore, is classified within the extant subfamily Amnestinae. It presents a mixture of generic characters relevant to the genus Chilocoris Mayr (Cydninae) and the genus Amnestus Dallas (Amnestinae), but also has its own autapomorphies, i.e., each cephalic marginal setigerous puncture arises from its own well-developed tubercle, and the middle and posterior tibiae are strongly compressed and flattened.
... The females of Cydnidae can lay a single egg underground (García and Bellotti 1980 ;Riis et al. 2005 ), egg masses in shallow cracks on the soil surface (Sites and McPherson 1982 ), or inside the fruits of Ficus (Moraceae) (Mayorga and Cervantes 2001 ). After that, incubation time can vary from 1 to 4 weeks. ...
... Feeding of host plants through suction, for both nymphs and adults, includes roots, ground pods, aboveground structures, fallen seeds, and fruits. Plants of several families have been reported as hosts (Timonin 1958 ;Becker 1967 ;Riis et al. 2005 ;Mayorga and Cervantes 2001 ;Chapin et al. 2006 ), ranging from small-sized plants, such as A. hypogea , to larger-sized ones, such as Eucalyptus spp. Very often these insects are reported as agricultural pests and, depending on the population level, the symptoms of their occurrence can be checked on the shoots, whose leaves turn yellow and dry (Gallo et al. 2002 ;Riis et al. 2005 ;Oliveira and Malaguido 2004 ;Pereira et al. 2012 ). ...
Chapter
In this chapter we present an overview of the morphology,ontogeny, reproduction and feeding of the 28 higher level categories (infraorder/superfamily/family/subfamily) of true bugs occurring in the Neotropical Region, which are treated in greater detail in Section II.
... The females of Cydnidae can lay a single egg underground (García and Bellotti 1980 ; Riis et al. 2005 ), egg masses in shallow cracks on the soil surface (Sites and McPherson 1982 ), or inside the fruits of Ficus (Moraceae) (Mayorga and Cervantes 2001 ). After that, incubation time can vary from 1 to 4 weeks. ...
... Feeding of host plants through suction, for both nymphs and adults, includes roots, ground pods, aboveground structures, fallen seeds, and fruits. Plants of several families have been reported as hosts (Timonin 1958 ; Becker 1967 ; Riis et al. 2005 ; Mayorga and Cervantes 2001 ; Chapin et al. 2006 ), ranging from small-sized plants, such as A. hypogea , to larger-sized ones, such as Eucalyptus spp. Very often these insects are reported as agricultural pests and, depending on the population level, the symptoms of their occurrence can be checked on the shoots, whose leaves turn yellow and dry (Gallo et al. 2002 ; Riis et al. 2005 ; Oliveira and Malaguido 2004 ; Pereira et al. 2012 ). ...
Chapter
In this chapter we present an overview of the morphology, ontogeny, reproduction, and feeding of the 28 higher-level categories (infraorder/superfamily/ family/subfamily) of true bugs occurring in the neotropical region, which are treated in greater detail in Sect. 2.2 .
... En México se reconocen y se examinaron 6 especies: A. brunneus Signoret, 4 machos que se distribuyen en Chiapas; A. ficus (Mayorga & Cervantes 2001) 22 machos y 18 hembras con distribución en Veracruz y Tamaulipas. A. pallidus Zimm; 1 macho de Hidalgo; A. pusio (Stal) 30 machos y 36 hembras con distribución en Chiapas y Morelos; A. pussilus Uhler 4 machos y 3 hembras de Veracruz y A. uhleri Distant 5 machos y 6 hembras de Veracruz y Chiapas. Depositadas en la CNIN. ...
... Froeschner (1960) revisó Amnestus e incluyó en este género 20 especies distribuidas desde el oeste de Ontario, Canadá, pasando por Estados Unidos de América, México, América Central, Antillas y hasta América del Sur, en Argentina. Mayorga y Cervantes (2001Cervantes ( , 2005Cervantes ( , 2014) describieron, además, 18 especies nuevas de este último género para México, así como 2 especies nuevas en Guatemala (Mayorga y Cervantes 2009, Mayorga 2015) Hasta ahora, en México el género Amnestus está representado por 29 especies distribuidas en los estados de Campeche, Chiapas, Durango, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Morelos, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa y Veracruz. 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A http://zoobank.org/6C45D3BE-2B13-41DE-A902C7CE49F7F59B ...
Article
Full-text available
Four new species of Amnestus Dallas, 1851 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae) from the Mexican states of Veracruz and Oaxaca are described and illustrated.
... According to Froeschner, the biology of Cydnidae has been well studied, but the information is fragmented and only a few complete life cycles have been described [2] . Mayorga and Cervantes described Amnestus ficus and their immature stages; they also described their association with fruits and seeds of Ficus cotinifolia Kunth (Moraceae), as food source [5] . The same authors described in detail the nymphs and adult stages of Pangaeus (Pangaeus) serripes (Westwood), adding notes about their biology and their interaction with several Ficus species [6] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Pangaeus contains 23 species, eight have been registered in Mexico, and six of them in Veracruz. Immature stages of P. docilis and P. piceatus were found in remnants of riparian vegetation of the mesophilous forest in La Antigua river basin, Veracruz. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the nymphal and adult stages of Pangaeus species are presented. Information about the biology of Cydnidae and ecological notes are included as well. P. piceatus is a new record for Veracruz and P. docilis is a new record for Mexico. Introduction The Cydnidae family is distributed worldwide, and it is well represented in temperate and tropical regions [1]. It includes five subfamilies: Amnestinae, Cydninae, Garsauriinae, Scaptocorinae and Sehirinae [2]. The Cydninae subfamily contains approximately 90 genera and 300 species [3]. Mayorga noted that, all of these subfamilies are present in Mexico, except for Garsauriinae, and they are represented by 12 genera [3]. These hemipterans are characterized by their tricobothria arrangement on several posterior abdominal segments, the anterior wing venation with radial cells and the absence of hamus [2] ; also the pronotum presents a lateral submarginal row of setigerous punctures [1]. Pangaeus Stål is distinguished for the presence of a sharply impressed row extending from one anterior angle to the other, having a distinctive transverse submedian impression with one row of punctures [2, 4]. Pangaeus is divided into two subgenera: Pangaeus (Pangaeus) Stål and Pangaeus (Homaloporus) Uhler. The first one contains 17 species distributed from southern Canada to southern Guatemala; three of these species are found in Mexico: P. impressus (Froeschner), P. piceatus Stål and P. serripes (Westwood). The Pangaeus (Homaloporus) subgenus includes six species distributed from west Texas and New Mexico to northern Guatemala; five of them are present in Mexico: P. tuberculipes (Froeschner), P. congruus (Uhler), P. rugiceps Horvath, P. bilineatuss (Say) and P. setosus (Froeschner) [2]. According to Froeschner, the biology of Cydnidae has been well studied, but the information is fragmented and only a few complete life cycles have been described [2]. Mayorga and Cervantes described Amnestus ficus and their immature stages; they also described their association with fruits and seeds of Ficus cotinifolia Kunth (Moraceae), as food source [5]. The same authors described in detail the nymphs and adult stages of Pangaeus (Pangaeus) serripes (Westwood), adding notes about their biology and their interaction with several Ficus species [6]. Vivan et al. described the immature stages of Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, which feeds on host plants' roots sap [7]. In this study, the description and illustration of the nymphal stages of P. piceatus Stål and P. docilis (Walker) are presented in detail and some biological notes are added. Specimens were collected during a project conducted in riparian forests. Nymphs and adults were found in leaf litter in riparian vegetation, as part of the remnants of the mesophilous forest in central Veracruz, México. P. docilis is reported as a new record for Mexico.
... The lack of research on the forms of young Cydnidae is evident since few species had their immatures described in detail. Immature Amnestinae were studied by Froeschner (1960) and Mayorga & Cervantes (2001), who emphasized that many of these insects do not present fossorial legs as it commonly occurs in other species in this family. For Sehirinae, the first descriptions were done for immatures of Tritomegas bicolor (Linnaeus) (as Sehirus bicolor) (Southwood 1949, Southwood & Hine 1950, Stokes 1950, Paul 1953). ...
Article
Nymphs and adults of the burrower bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker feed on vegetal sap of their host plants through the roots, and little is known on the morphology and biology of its immature stage. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the immatures of S. carvalhoi by describing the egg and the morphology of each instar. Eggs of S. carvalhoi have a smooth chorion surface without visible micropylar processes. The presence of five instars was confirmed by the coefficient of determination (R 2 > 0.95) and by the growth constant (K between 1.2 and 1.6). Nymphs have an elliptical body and fossorial scythe-like forelegs. The tarsi are absent as in adults, and the prototarsal insertion region becomes visible only in the fourth instar. Nymphs from first to fourth instar of S. carvalhoi showed the presence of 1 + 1 trichobothria in urosternites III to VII, close to the anterior margin and inside the spiracles; besides these trichobothria, fifth instars presented 1 + 1 pre-trichobothria in urosternites III to V located posteriorly, almost in the row of spiracles close to the posterior margin of the urosternites. This is the first detailed morphological record of immatures belonging to Scaptocoris.
Article
Six new species of Amnestus Dallas from the Mexican states of Campeche, Chiapas, Hidalgo, and Veracruz are described. Illustrations of adults and diagnostic characters of the head, prosternal carina, pronotum, legs, parameres, and methatoracic scent gland are provided. Distribution and notes about their biology are included.
Article
The genus Amnestus is one of the most diverse genera of burrowing bugs. In recent years it has been possible to obtain great quantities of specimens, including some new species, due to collecting in special habitats and using different trapping techniques. In this paper we describe eleven new species for the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Full descriptions, illustrations of dorsal habitus, fore and hind legs, prosternal carina, external scent efferent system, and paramere of the new species: A. carinopilosus, A. chiapensis, A. cristobalensis, A. denticulatus, A. laevifemoralis, A. longinoi, A. lorenae, A. marcelae, A. puncticarinatus, A. santiagensis, A. septemclavatus, are included. Amnestus bergrothi and Amnestus stali are redescribed, also illustrated, and lectotypes assigned, because they were originally described based on females. The original description of Amnestus dallasi is also included, because it was described based on one female and it is the only specimen known. Brief descriptions of the other 14 Mexican known species and their distribution are also included. A key and a general discussion to separate the 28 Mexican species are also provided.
Article
In this paper we describe two new species in the genus Amnestus, Amnestus henryi and Amnestus zacki, and we register new localities for 10 species of burrowing bugs for the fauna of Guatemala; two of these species correspond to new records, Amnestus pusio (Stål), and Dallasiellus reflexus Froeschner. We include a brief description of the 28 species known for Guatemala, mentioning old and new records; new species are fully described and illustrated, and drawings of the male genitalia, scent gland opening, fore, and hind legs of males are also presented. A key to separate the 28 Guatemalan species of burrower bugs is provided.
Article
The immature stages of Pangaeus (Pangaeus) serripes are described for the first time. Immature stages are illustrated and notes about their biology are included. Morphological features of the legs of the nymphs are associated with the fossorial habit of the Cydninae. Both adults and nymphs have been reared and found feeding on fallen fruits and seeds of several species of figs in Mexico.
Article
An update to the catalogue of the Cydnidae (Hemiptera) of the Western Hemisphere (Froeschner 1960) is given. A total of 6 genera and 21 species are listed together with their synonyms. References are given for the original descriptions and the subsequent taxonomic position, the location of types, and the geographic distribution. A comprehensive bibliography is provided.
Article
Chilocoris capensis n. sp. collected from fallen ripe figs of broom cluster fig Ficus sur Forsskål, 1775, the first burrower bug species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865 recorded in the Republic of South Africa, is described and compared with Chilocoris laevicollis Horváth, 1919, the morphologically most closely allied Afrotropical species. Additionally, an annotated checklist of burrower bug species recorded in the Republic of South Africa is provided. The known biology of Afrotropical Chilocoris species is briefly summarized.
Article
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Resumen Se reporta por primera vez la presencia de la chinche, Cyrtomenus crassus Walker, alimentándose de tubérculos de coquillo amarillo, Cyperus esculentus L., en el Estado de México, la cual afecta el desarrollo y diseminación de esta maleza. El coquillo amarillo es considerado como una de las malezas más agresivas a nivel mundial, debido a su amplia distribución, agresividad, y métodos de reproducción. Por lo anterior, el descubrimiento de agentes potenciales de forma natural es importante como medida de control biológico, como en este caso C. crassus.
Article
Based on a series of laboratory experiments the effects of four rhyparochromids (Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae) species on seed germination of four species of figs (Moraceae) were tested. Rhyparochromids considerably reduced seed germination depending on the species and the species of fig; it varied from 60 to more than 90%. Seed germination was also affected by agaonids (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae); the proportion of seeds damaged by agaonids varied from 44 to 63%.
Article
Full-text available
Similar morphological adaptations have arisen independently across separate lineages within the fig wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) in response to the extreme selective pressure provided by the morphological constraints of their host fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae). Evidence is forwarded that supports the convergence of female head shape between two distinct fig wasp lineages, the Agaoninae (pollinators) and Sycoecinae (non-pollinators), utilizing the same host Ficus species (section Gagolychia). In contrast to the vast majority of the non-pollinating fig wasps, that oviposit from the outside of the fig, the Agaoninae and Sycoecinae must negotiate the fig ostiole for internal oviposition, with the result that these independent lineages are simultaneously exposed to the selective pressure imposed by ostiolar morphology. Selection will favour a head shape that facilitates successful penetration of the fig cavity and this has resulted in the evolution of similar head shapes in the two lineages. Female head shape in both subfamilies was found to correlate with fig size, with elongate heads associated with large fig size. Given that ostiole bract arrangement is uniform within section Galoglychia, it appears that ostiole length may be the main factor contributing to head shape determination. The high degree of co-adaptation of head shape suggests that both the Sycoecinae and Agaoninae have coevolved with their host Ficus species.
Article
An analysis of lygaeid bugs feeding upon the seeds of figs is presented based on observations in South Africa and the West Indies. The known lygaeid fig fauna comprises approximately 46 species contained in 31 genera and four subfamilies. The majority of species are in the subfamily Rhyparochrominae (nine tribes), although most arboreal species belong to the subfamily Heterogastrinae. This fig fauna is grouped into four components: 1. arboreal seed predators, 2. obligatory terrestrial seed predators, 3. frequent facultative terrestrial seed predators, and 4. accidental terrestrial seed predators. A discussion is included of wing polymorphism relative to Ficus habitats and of the possible effect of lygaeid seed predation upon the reproductive potential and spatial relationships of individual trees.
Article
The feeding habits of Sehirus cinctus were studied using the hedge nettle Stachys palustris. Descriptions and measurements of egg clusters and the five nymphal instars are given.
Article
The life history of the burrower bug Sehirus cinctus cinctus (Palisot de Beauvois) was studied in Illinois, and the immature stages were described. The bug was also reared from egg to adult under laboratory conditions, and precopulatory behavior, and maternal care of eggs and young instars, were observed. The female occasionally provided her 1st instars with the seeds. Adults of this univoltine subspecies overwinter in soil associated with their mint host plant, Lamium purpureum Linn. They become active in early April and reproduce shortly thereafter. The female lays her eggs in a loose cluster in a chamber in the soil and guards them during incubation. The 1st instars are highly gregarious and often cluster around and on the female. Older nymphs are also gregarious but decreasingly so as they mature, and usually leave the chamber during the second stadium. Nymphs and adults fed on seeds of L. purpureum. On seeds of L. purpureum, and at 23.9 ± 1.1°C and 16L:8D, total developmental time averaged 53.21 days. The incubation period averaged 10.21 days. Durations of the five nymphal stadia averaged 5.29, 6.26, 6.53, 9.70, and 15.22 days, respectively.
Article
The effect of fluctuations in temperature and moisture supply on hard seeds of nine tropical coastal sand dune legumes, including herbs (Schrankia atiadrivalvis, Macropiilium atropurpureum and Canavalia rosea), and shrubs (Acacia farncsiana, A. macracantha, Mimosa chaetocarpa, Indigoftra sujjruticosa, Crolalaria incana and Chamaecrista chamaecrutoides), has been studied under laboratory and field conditions. Using a fluctuating temperature gradient bar seeds buried in sand were exposed to various amplitudes of diurnal temperature fluctuation over an extended period of time and seed germinability was examined at intervals. Germination percentage increased considerably in most species as a consequence of treatment with marked effects occurring at temperature fluctuations greater than 20°C and becoming detectable after 45 days. In several species the effect of applying wetting and drying cycles was to lower the amplitude of temperature fluctuation necessary to soften the seeds. Species can be grouped into physiological groups on the basis of differences in seed response to temperature fluctuations. It is suggested that these differences may help to explain the mechanisms distinguishing the different colonization patterns observed in tropical sand dune systems.
Some insects from the Chilibrillo bat caves of Panama
  • A N Caudell
Caudell, A. N. 1924. Some insects from the Chilibrillo bat caves of Panama. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 12: 133-136.
Revisión Genérica de la Familia Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) para México, con un listado de las especies Mexicanas conocidas. Tesis Maestría, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
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Mayorga, M. C M. 2000. Revisión Genérica de la Familia Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) para México, con un listado de las especies Mexicanas conocidas. Tesis Maestría, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. p. 47.
La Vegetación de la Estación Biológica El Morro de la Mancha, Veracruz
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Novelo, R. A. 1978. La Vegetación de la Estación Biológica El Morro de la Mancha, Veracruz. Biotica 3/1: 9-23.
True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) Classification and Natural History
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Schuh, R. T. and J. A. Slater. 1995. True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) Classification and Natural History. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. pp. 220–225.
Some notes on the early stages and biology of Sehirus bicolor (L.) (Hemiptera: Cydnidae)
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Southwood, T. R E. 1949. Some notes on the early stages and biology of Sehirus bicolor (L.) (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). Entomol. Mon. Mag 85: 39-41.
Food plant and habits of Sehirus cinctus P
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  • J R Bueno
Torre-Bueno, J. R. 1935. Food plant and habits of Sehirus cinctus P.B. Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc 30: 81-83.