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Two New Species of Pouteria (Sapotaceae) from the Atlantic Forest in Brazil

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This paper provides descriptions and illustrations of two new species of Pouteria from the Atlantic forest of Bahia, Brazil ( P. atlantica and P. trifida ). In addition, distribution maps and a table with main characters to distinguish the new species from related taxa are also included. Pouteria atlantica is characterized by large trichomes that cover the corolla lobes, anther's outer surface, and form tufts on the apex of anthers. Pouteria trifida is distinguished by its long petioles and trifid staminodes. Due to intense deforestation in the Atlantic forest, preliminary IUCN red list assessments are provided. Pouteria atlantica is proposed in the IUCN status critically endangered (CR), while the data for P. trifida are still insufficient.
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Two New Species of Pouteria (Sapotaceae) from the Atlantic Forest in Brazil
Author(s) :Anderson Alves-Araújo and Marccus Alves
Source: Systematic Botany, 36(4):1004-1007. 2011.
Published By: The American Society of Plant Taxonomists
URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1600/036364411X605001
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Systematic Botany (2011), 36(4): pp. 1004–1007
© Copyright 2011 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists
DOI 10.1600/036364411X605001
1004
The Atlantic forest, most of it in Brazil, is considered a
hotspot of diversity and endemism in the world and is one of
the areas with highest priority for conservation ( Mittermeier
et al. 1999 ; Myers et al. 2000 ). At present, due to human
impact, the Atlantic forest is an extremely fragmented biome
and its species richness is strongly impacted by the size and
shape of fragments and history of land use ( Metzger 2003 ;
Myers et al. 2000 ). This biome, after the Amazonian forest, is the
most important center of evolution for Sapotaceae and other
families in the Neotropics ( Pennington 1991 , 2006 ; Anderberg
and Swenson 2003 ; Swenson and Anderberg 2005 ).
Sapotaceae includes 58 genera and about 1,250 species in
subtropical and tropical areas of the world ( Pennington 1991 ;
Govaerts et al. 2001 ; Swenson et al. 2007a , 2007b ). Pennington
(1990) monographed the family for the New World and,
using a system published a year later ( Pennington 1991 ),
considered Pouteria as the largest genus of the family with
a pantropical distribution. Pouteria is a member of subfam-
ily Chrysophylloideae ( Swenson and Anderberg 2005 ) and
includes about 300 species of trees, shrubs, and even some
geoxylic shrubs. The genus is characterized by a set of fea-
tures such as eucamptodromous and/or brochidodromous
venation, absence of stipules, and the fascicled flowers are
axillary or born along the branches. The flowers have 4–11
sepals, 4–8 corolla lobes, and staminodes. Fruits are usu-
ally fleshy, classified as a berry, and their seeds have plano-
convex cotyledons that lack endosperm. Unfortunately, there
are exceptions to all of these characters.
Pennington (1991) divided Pouteria into nine sections and
six of them are confined to the Neotropics. However, recent
phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that Pennington’s
classification does not always correspond to natural groups,
likely in the case for Pouteria as well as its sections ( Anderberg
and Swenson 2003 ; Bartish et al. 2005; Swenson and Anderberg
2005 ; Swenson et al. 2007a , 2008 ). In fact, taxa in Australasia
that were included in Pouteria sensu Pennington are dis-
tantly related to the Neotropical taxa of Pouteria and there-
fore are better placed in Beccariella , Planchonella , Sersalisia , and
Van-Royena ( Swenson et al. 2007a , 2007b , 2008 ). The natural
boundaries of Pouteria are still uncertain, but it is clear that it
is restricted to the New World ( Swenson et al. 2008 ).
While carrying out a taxonomic survey of Pouteria in
the Brazilian Atlantic forest, new species of Pradosia and
Chromolucuma, genera also in the Sapotaceae were discovered
and described (Alves-Araújo and Alves, in press). This paper
aims to describe two additional novelties from this rich forest
and which are best placed in Pouteria .
Taxonomic Treatment
Pouteria atlantica Alves-Araújo & M. Alves, sp. nov.—TYPE:
BRAZIL, Bahia, Mun. Arataca, Rodovia Arataca-Una,
Serra do Peito de Moça, RPPN Palmeira/IESB, 15°0943S,
39°2037W, 800–900 m, 17 Dec 2005 (fl.), J. G. Jardim et al.
4909 (holotype: CEPEC; isotype: NY).
Pouteria gardnero affinis sed praecipue lenticellis absentibus,
ramis juvenibus et foliis velutino-tomentosis, calyce velutino-
tomentoso, corollae lobis extus pilosissimis, intus glabris,
antheris apice pilosis et fructibus pilis brevis distincta.
Treelets or trees 8–12 m tall, shoots villous to tomentose
of whitish to golden trichomes, lenticels absent. Leaves spi-
rally arranged, obovate to elliptic, 10–16 × 5.5–7.6 cm, charta-
ceous, upper surface tomentulose, partly glabrescent, mainly
on the midrib, lower surface villous to tomentose of whitish
to golden trichomes; base attenuate to obtuse, apex retuse to
acuminate, margin flat; venation eucamptodromous, midrib
slightly sunken on the upper surface; secondaries of 10–12
pairs; petiole 1.5–2.6 cm long, channeled, villous to tomen-
tose of whitish to golden trichomes. Flowers 5-merous, 1–3
per fascicle, axillary, bisexual; pedicel 1–2 cm long, villous
to tomentose of whitish to golden trichomes. Sepals 4–5 mm
long, ovate, densely pilose of whitish to golden trichomes on
both surfaces, apex obtuse, margin entire. Corolla cyathiform,
greenish, 3–4 mm long; tube 1 mm long; lobes 2–3 mm long,
orbicular, densely pilose on the outside, glabrous inside, mar-
gin densely pilose. Stamens 3 mm long, included in the
corolla, fixed in the tube orifice; filaments glabrous; anthers
1.8–2.0 mm long, ovate, pilose on the outside, glabrous
inside. Staminodes lanceolate, 2 mm long, densely pilose.
Ovary 2-locular, 1 mm long, whitish to golden pubescent,
angulate in cross section; style 1.7–2.0 mm long, glabrous,
included in the corolla; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Fruit 1-seeded,
1.0–2.5 cm long, obovoid, densely pilose as young, glabres-
cent when ripe; seeds laterally compressed, 8–18 mm long,
smooth, shiny, brownish; seed scar 6–14 mm long, 2–3 mm
wide. Figure 1A–H .
Additional Material Examined— BRAZIL. Bahia: Una, Reserva
Biológica do Mico-Leão-Dourado, 15°09S, 39°05W, 25 Jul 1996 (fr.),
Two New Species of Pouteria (Sapotaceae) from
the Atlantic Forest in Brazil
Anderson Alves-Araújo 1 and Marccus Alves
Laboratório de Morfo-taxonomia Vegetal, Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE,
CEP 50670-901, Recife-PE, Brazil.
1 Author for correspondence ( sapotae@gmail.com )
Communicating Editor: Victoria Sosa
Abstract— This paper provides descriptions and illustrations of two new species of Pouteria from the Atlantic forest of Bahia, Brazil
(P. atlantica and P. trifida ). In addition, distribution maps and a table with main characters to distinguish the new species from related taxa
are also included. Pouteria atlantica is characterized by large trichomes that cover the corolla lobes, anther’s outer surface, and form tufts on
the apex of anthers. Pouteria trifida is distinguished by its long petioles and trifid staminodes. Due to intense deforestation in the Atlantic for-
est, preliminary IUCN red list assessments are provided. Pouteria atlantica is proposed in the IUCN status critically endangered (CR), while
the data for P. trifida are still insufficient.
Keywords— Atlantic rainforest , Brazil , Chrysophylloideae , conservation.
2011] ALVES-ARAÚJO AND ALVES: NEW SPECIES OF POUTERIA 1005
Fig. 1. A-H. Pouteria atlantica . A. Habit. B. Detail of the midrib on the abaxial leaf surface. C. Bud. D. Open corolla showing stamens and staminodes.
E. Stamen and staminodes. F. Dorsal and ventral views of the stamen. G. Gynoecium. H. Fruit. Drawn from J. G. Jardim et al. 4909 (A-H), and Sant’Ana
et al. 624 (C). I-M. Pouteria trifida . I. Habit. J. Leaf venation. K. Axillary flowers on a shoot with lenticels. L. Corolla of a female flower. M. Fruit. Drawn
from Jardim et al. 1165 .
1006 SYSTEMATIC BOTANY [Volume 36
S.C. Sant’Ana et al. 624 (CEPEC, G, MO, NY). 01 Jun 2000 (fl., fr.), S.C.
Sant’Ana et al. 888 (CEPEC, NY).
Distribution and Habitat—Pouteria atlantica is currently
known only from a handful of localities, 300–800 m, in the
coastal Atlantic forest of southern state of Bahia, Brazil ( Fig. 2 ).
Recognition—Pouteria atlantica is easily recognized by its
whitish to golden indument on young shoots, leaves, sepals
(both surfaces) and the 1–2 cm long pedicels. Also, trichomes
cover the corolla lobes and the anther’s outer surface, and
the anther apex has a tuft of trichomes. It could possibly be
confused with P. gardneri (Mart. & Miq.) Baehni, but it is dis-
tinguished on its many pubescent parts (see above) and by
the absence of lenticels ( Table 1 ). The density of trichomes on
young shoots, leaves and pedicels can vary in natural popu-
lations of P. gardneri (Alves-Araújo and Alves, unpubl. data.),
but the presence of trichomes on the corolla and the anthers
are useful features to separate P. atlantica from P. gardneri .
Etymology— This species is named after its distribution
area, the Atlantic forest.
Conservation— There are only two restricted known popu-
lations of Pouteria atlantica in the Bahia state, Brazil. Although
they are within legally protected areas, the specimens were col-
lected near forest edges, which are in high risk of further dis-
turbance, especially by logging. Following the IUCN red list
criteria ( IUCN 2001 , 2008 ), P. atlantica is assigned a preliminary
threat status of critically endangered (CR – A1cde, B1, D2).
Pouteria trifida Alves-Araújo & M. Alves, sp. nov.—TYPE:
BRAZIL, Bahia, Ilhéus, CEPLAC-CEPEC, Northeastern
Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau–CEPEC, Área de cultivo
de cacau–cabruca, 15 Dec 1997 (fl., fr.), J. G. Jardim et al.
1165 (holotype: CEPEC; isotypes: C, MO, NY).
Pouteria subrotatae affinis, sed differt praecipue ramis juveni-
bus indumento ferrugineo, foliis supra nitida, ellipticis vel
elliptico-lanceolatis, velutino-tomentosis ubi juvenibus, glabris
ubi adultis, petiolis 2.5–5.0 cm longis, floribus subsessilibus
(pedicellis 1–2 mm longis), calyce tomentoso cum pilis fer-
rugineis, staminibus rudimentalibus et staminodiis lanceola-
tis apice trifido.
Treelets or trees up to 10 m tall, shoots pilose with ferrugi-
nous trichomes, lenticels present. Leaves distichous to spirally
arranged, elliptic to obelliptic-lanceolate, 15–29 × 8–10 cm,
Fig. 2. Map of known distribution of Pouteria atlantica Alves-Araújo & M. Alves (circle) and P. trifida Alves-Araújo & M. Alves (square), two new spe-
cies from the Atlantic forest in Brazil.
2011] ALVES-ARAÚJO AND ALVES: NEW SPECIES OF POUTERIA 1007
chartaceous, upper surface glabrous, lower surface pubescent,
partly glabrescent, sometimes finally glabrous; base attenu-
ate, apex acute to cuspidate, margin flat; venation eucampto-
dromous, midrib flat on the upper surface; secondary veins
sometimes slightly sunken, 8–14 pairs; petiole 2.7–5.0 cm
long, channeled, pubescent, glabrescent to glabrous. Flowers
5-merous, 2–5 per fascicle, axillary, unisexual (only female flow-
ers known); female flowers with short (1–2 mm long) pedicel;
pedicel velutinous to tomentose with ferruginous trichomes.
Sepals 2–3 mm long, ovate, densely and partially pilose on
the outer and inner surfaces with ferruginous trichomes, apex
acute, margin entire. Corolla cyathiform, greenish, 1.5–2.5 mm
long; tube 0.2–0.3 mm long; lobes 1.0–2.5 mm long, orbicular,
glabrous. Staminodes lanceolate (rudimentary) or trifid, 0.2–
0.3 mm long, glabrous. Ovary 5-locular, 1 mm long, golden
pilose; style 1 mm long, glabrous, included in the corolla;
stigma capitate. Only immature fruits known, globoid and
densely pilose. Figure 1I-M .
Distribution and Habitat—Pouteria trifida is known from
40–100 m in the coastal areas of the Atlantic rainforest of
southern state of Bahia, Brazil ( Fig. 2 ).
Recognition—Pouteria trifida is recognized by its glabres-
cent to glabrous and long petioles (2.7–5.0 cm long). The trifid
staminodes are unique among Pouteria species. The new spe-
cies could be confused with Pouteria subrotata Cronquist, but
it has pilose, ferruginous young shoots, 2.7–5.0 cm long peti-
oles, unisexual flowers, and trifid staminodes, which differ
from the pale buff indument, glabrous shoots, 1.2–2.8 cm long
petioles, bisexual flowers, and lanceolate to subulate stamin-
odes in P. subrotata ( Table 1 ).
Etymology— The species is named after the trifid
staminodes.
Conservation—Pouteria trifida is known from one voucher
at CEPEC. The sample was collected in a cocoa plantation
area in Bahia state, Brazil. Considering the limited informa-
tion from only one voucher, we are presently reluctant to pro-
pose any conservation assessment and leave it therefore as
data deficient (DD).
Acknowledgments. First author thanks to PPGBV/Capes for finan-
cial support. We also thank Dr. André Amorim, Curator of CEPEC and his
staff for all support, Jorge Fontella for helping with the Latin diagnoses,
and Regina Carvalho for illustrations.
Literature Cited
Alves-Araújo, A. and M. Alves . 2011 . Two new species and a new combi-
nation of Neotropical Sapotaceae . Brittonia 63: in press.
Anderberg, A. A. and U. Swenson . 2003 . Evolutionary lineages in
Sapotaceae (Ericales): a cladistic analysis based on ndhF sequence
data . International Journal of Plant Sciences 164: 763 – 773 .
Bartish, I. V., U. Swenson , J. Munzinger , and A. A. Anderberg . 2005 .
Phylogenetic relationships among New Caledonian Sapotaceae
(Ericales): Molecular evidence for generic polyphyly and repeated
dispersal . American Journal of Botany 92: 667–673.
Govaerts, R., D. G. Frodin , and T. D. Pennington . 2001 . World checklist and
bibliography of Sapotaceae . Kew : The Royal Botanical Garden .
IUCN . 2001 . IUCN Red lists Categories and Criteria . <www.iucnredlist.
org> . Accessed on 30 October 2010.
IUCN. 2008 . 2008 IUCN red list of threatened species . <www.iucnredlist.
org>. Downloaded on 30 October 2010 .
Metzger, J . 2003 . Como restaurar a conectividade de paisagens fragmen-
tadas? Pp. 49 – 76 in Restauração ecológica de ecossistemas naturais , eds.
P. Kageyama , R. Oliveira , L. Moraes , V. Engel , and F. Gandara .
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Mittermeier, R. A., N. Myers , P. Robles-Gil , and C. G. Mittermeier . 1999 .
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gions . Mexico City : CEMEX/Agrupación Sierra Madre .
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J. Kent . 2000 . Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities . Nature
403: 853 – 858 .
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Table 1. Characters and distribution of the two new species of Pouteria and morphologically similar taxa. 1 = Species that could be morphologically
confused with Pouteria atlantica ; 2 = Species that could be morphologically confused with Pouteria trifida ; Gc = glaucous; Gl=glabrous; Gt = glabrescent;
SA = South America; Se = sericeous; To = tomentose; Vi = villous. Text in bold font indicated character states that are more diagnostic to distinguish
P. trifida from other species.
Characters
Species Petiole
(length mm) Upper surface Pedicel
(length mm) Corolla
(length mm) Staminodes
(apex, indumentum) Anthers
Ovary
(n# locules) Distribution
Pouteria atlantica
Alves-A+raújo & M. Alves
15–26 Vi – To 10–20 3–4 entire, pilose pilose 2 Brazil (Bahia)
Pouteria gardneri (Mart. & Miq.)
Baehni1
5–10 Gc 6–25 3–4 entire, glabrous glabrous 2–3 Widespread SA
Pouteria macrophylla (Lam.)
Eyma1
15–24 Gc 10–15 6.5–9.5 entire, glabrous glabrous 5 Widespread SA
Pouteria trifida Alves-Araújo &
M. Alves
27–50 Gl – Gt 1–2 1.5–2.5 trifid , glabrous not seen 5 Brazil (Bahia)
Pouteria subrotata Cronq. 2 12–28 Gl – Gt 1.0–1.5 3.2–3.5 entire, glabrous glabrous 5 Northern SA
Pouteria decussata (Ducke)
Baehni2
1–2 Se 4–7 4.0–4.5 entire, glabrous glabrous 3 Brazil (Pará)
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Sapotaceae is historically known as having a tricky and challenging taxonomy due to tangled morphologic heterogeneity. Consequently, this resulted in a large number of described genera and binomials. After Pennington’s Flora Neotropica work, several of those nomenclature issues were resolved. Nevertheless, many binomials remain unsolved and up for typification. Thus, following the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants, we propose 74 new lectotype designations, four of these are second-step typifications.
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Based on recent collections and fieldwork efforts, we provide an updated list of Sapotaceae of Espírito Santo state, Brazil and, in addition, we present the expanded geographical distribution of Manilkara multifida T.D. Penn. and Pouteria atlantica Alves‐Araújo & M.Alves, two endangered tree species from Atlantic forest with a poorly known biology. They are new records for Espírito Santo state‐Brazil and southeastern Brazil. We also emend the species original description by providing descriptions and images of the fruits and seeds for both species, as well as maps of the current geographical distributions, color photographs, and taxonomic comments.
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Sapotaceae is a large family of angiosperms which has predominantly tree species, and worldwide distribution in subtropical and tropical regions. The Neotropics are one of the greatest centers of diversity of Sapotaceae, and in Brazil, the family comprises 12 genera and 234 species, of which 103 species are endemic. We present here a taxonomic treatment for the native species of Sapotaceae from the State of Paraná, with an identification key, descriptions, geographic distribution, phenology, illustrations, and current conservation status for all taxa. Twenty-two species were documented in Paraná, belonging to seven genera. The richest genus was Pouteria with 11 species, followed by Chrysophyllum with five species and Pradosia with two species. The genera Diploon, Ecclinusa, Manilkara, and Sideroxylon have only one species each. Pouteria guianensis and Pouteria ramiflora are new records for the state. The Atlantic Rain Forest is the richest vegetation type with six genera and 13 species, followed by the Seasonal Forest with three genera and nine species. The Araucaria Forest and Cerrado have two genera each, the former with three species and the latter with two species. Out of 22 species, one has been mentioned as endangered (EN), one is vulnerable (VU), one is near threatened (NT), nine are least concern (LC), and ten have not been evaluated (NE).
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A new species assigned to the genus Pouteria is described and illustrated. Pouteria citriodora is morphologically related to Pouteria procera but differs from itmainly by its axillary and isolated flowers (3-15-flowered in P. procera), calyx aestivation quincuncial (convolute/contorted in P. procera), longer tube corolla (5.0-7.3mmlong vs. 1.75-3.5mmlong in P. procera), and fruits with whitish dots on the surface and a very distinctive Citrus-like smell. Herein environmental, geographic distribution and conservation data for the new species are provided. In addition, a key to species of Pouteria with 5-merous flowers from Bahia state-Brazil is presented.
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This paper provides descriptions and illustrations of two new species of Sapotaceae (Pradosia longipedicellata and Chromolucuma apiculata) from Bahia, Brazil, a new combination (Chromolucuma congestifolia), and a new identification key for Chromolucuma. Pradosia longipedicellata is distinguished from other congeners by its clustered fascicles of flowers on pedicels 2–3 cm long at the apices of the shoots, and a corolla that is 7–8 mm long. Chromolucuma apiculata is distinguished by glabrous shoots and leaves, short petioles (10–15 mm long), and stipules 5–8 mm long with apiculate apices, while its close relative C. congestifolia has a lower leaf surface with trichomes usually restricted to the midrib and stipules 3–6 mm long with acute apices. Due to intense deforestation in the Amazonian and the Atlantic forests, preliminary IUCN Red List assessments are provided. Pradosia longipedicellata and Chromolucuma congestifolia are proposed the IUCN status Vulnerable, while the data for C. apiculata are still insufficient (Data Deficient).
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The phylogeny of the Sapotaceae was investigated by DNA sequence analysis of the chloroplast gene ndhF. Three or possibly four main evolutionary lineages were identified. Sarcosperma is the sister group of all other Sapotaceae, which together form two strongly supported monophyletic groups. One large clade with strong support is comprised of the tribes Isonandreae, Mimusopeae, and Sideroxyleae, and also includes the genus Capurodendron of tribe Chrysophylleae. The second large clade with strong support is formed by the tribes Chrysophylleae and Omphalocarpeae, as well as Diploon of tribe Sideroxyleae. Weak support was found for a position of the genus Xantolis as sister to the Chrysophylleae-Omphalocarpeae, but this genus could equally well constitute a separate evolutionary lineage. The relationships between many of the genera within each of the larger clades are still unclear, but based on the results, a discussion of diagnostic characters in the Sapotaceae from a cladistic perspective is presented.
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We present a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships in Planchonella (Sapotaceae, Chrysophylloideae) using nrDNA (ITS) data analysed with parsimony jackknifing and Bayesian inference. Results from these two approaches yield similar majority-rule consensus trees. Planchonella (formerly included in Pouteria) is a monophyletic genus of trees and shrubs with 60 species currently recognised. They are distributed in Australia (13 spp.), New Caledonia (32 spp.), the Pacific islands (10 spp.), and New Guinea (5 spp.), but more molecular research is needed in order to identify all members in New Guinea and Malesia. Three strongly supported clades and several subclades were recovered by our analysis. Two clades are restricted to New Caledonia. Within these are eight recently discovered species that are described here (P. crenata, P. glauca, P. latihila, P. luteocostata, P. mandjeliana, P. povilana, P. roseoloba, P. rufocostata), each with a conservation assessment. Our molecular phylogeny shows that some of these taxa, initially believed to be conspecific or closely related, represent separate lineages that deserve species rank. Two of these species are restricted to areas with near-future mining activities, which is why urgent conservation assessments are needed. Several subspecies or varieties of P. myrsinifolia and P. cotinifolia are recognised in Australia. Neither of these two species is monophyletic in its present circumscription, and for this reason P. cotinifolia var. pubescens is given species rank here as P. pubescens. We also amend the generic description of Planchonella, a genus best distinguished on a character combination of stamens positioned just below (rarely in) the tube orifice, a multi-seeded fruit, and foliaceous cotyledons embedded in endosperm.
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We present the first cladistic study of the largely tropical family Sapotaceae based on both morphological and molecular data. The data were analyzed with standard parsimony and parsimony jackknife algorithms using equally and successive weighted characters. Sapotaceae are confirmed to constitute two main evolutionary lineages corresponding to the tribes Isonandreae-Mimusopeae-Sideroxyleae and Chrysophylleae-Omphalocarpeae. The Sideroxyleae are monophyletic, Isonandreae are polyphyletic as presently circumscribed, and as suggested by the analyses, the subtribe Mimusopeae-Mimusopinae has evolved within the Mimusopeae-Manilkarinae, which hence is also paraphyletic. Generic limits must be altered within Sideroxyleae with the current members Argania, Nesoluma and Sideroxylon. Argania cannot be maintained at a generic level unless a narrower generic concept is adopted for Sideroxylon. Nesoluma cannot be upheld in a narrow or broad generic concept of Sideroxylon. The large tribe Chrysophylleae circumscribes genera such as Chrysophyllum, Pouteria, Synsepalum, and Xantolis, but the tribe is monophyletic only if the taxa from Omphalocarpeae are also included. Neither Chrysophyllum nor Pouteria are monophyletic in their current definitions. The results indicate that the African taxa of Pouteria are monophyletic and distinguishable from the South American taxa. Resurrection of Planchonella, corresponding to Pouteria section Oligotheca, is proposed. The African genera Synsepalum and Englerophytum form a monophyletic group, but their generic limits are uncertain. Classification of the Asian genus Xantolis is particularly interesting. Morphology alone is indecisive regarding Xantolis relationships, the combined unweighted data of molecules and morphology indicates a sister position to Isonandreae-Mimusopeae-Sideroxyleae, whereas molecular data alone, as well as successive weighted combined data point to a sister position to Chrysophylleae-Omphalocarpeae. An amended subfamily classification is proposed corresponding to the monophyletic groups: Sarcospermatoideae (Sarcosperma), Sapotoideae (Isonandreae-Mimusopeae-Sideroxyleae) and Chrysophylloideae (Chrysophylleae-Omphalocarpeae), where Sapotoideae circumscribes the tribes Sapoteae and Sideroxyleae as well as two or three as yet unnamed lineages. Morphological characters are often highly homoplasious and unambiguous synapomorphies cannot be identified for subfamilies or tribes, which we believe are the reason for the variations seen between different classifications of Sapotaceae. © The Willi Hennig Society 2005.
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We present a molecular phylogeny of 26 out of the 28 currently accepted genera in the subfamily Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae) using parsimony, parsimony jackknifing, and Bayesian inference. A data matrix of 8984 characters was obtained from DNA sequences of seven chloroplast loci, two nuclear loci, indels coded as binary characters, and morphology. Our phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that Chrysophyllum, Pouteria, and Pradosia, as well as some sections within Chrysophyllum and Pouteria, are all polyphyletic. These taxa were previously described largely on the basis of unique combinations of states for a set of morphological characters. Mapping some of these characters onto one of the most parsimonious trees indicates that the symplesiomorphic flower in the subfamily was probably 5-merous, had stamens inserted in the tube orifice, staminodes, seeds with foliaceous cotyledons, exserted radicle, and endosperm. These characters have subsequently been lost multiple times and cannot be used as synapomorphies to support broad generic concepts. Despite the high degree of homoplasy some well-defined clades can be described on the basis of alternative character state combinations. Also, many of these well-supported clades appear to be restricted to particular geographical areas (e.g. all taxa in Australasia form a monophyletic group). Hence, we suggest that the segregate genera Aningeria, Malacantha, and Martiusella may ultimately be resurrected, and probably also Donella and Gambeya, but their circumscriptions are still unclear. One species, Chrysophyllum cuneifolium, may have originated from a hybridization event between continents where the maternal genome (cpDNA) comes from South America and the nuclear genome comes from Africa. © The Willi Hennig Society 2008.
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The phylogeny of a representative group of genera and species from the Sapotaceae tribe Chrysophylleae, mainly from Australia and New Caledonia, was studied by jackknife analyses of sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The phylogeny conflicts with current opinions on generic delimitation in Sapotaceae. Pouteria and Niemeyera, as presently circumscribed, are both shown to be nonmonophyletic. In contrast, all species currently assigned to these and other segregate genera confined to Australia, New Caledonia, or neighboring islands, form a supported clade. Earlier classifications in which more genera are recognized may better reflect relationships among New Caledonian taxa. Hence, there is need for a revision of generic boundaries in Chrysophylleae, and particularly within the Pouteria complex, including Leptostylis, Niemeyera, Pichonia, Pouteria pro parte (the main part of section Oligotheca), and Pycnandra. Section Oligotheca have been recognized as the separate genus Planchonella, a monophyletic group that needs to be resurrected. Three clades with strong support in our jackknife analysis have one Australian species that is sister to a relatively large group of New Caledonian endemics, suggesting multiple dispersal events between this small and isolated tropical island and Australia. The phylogeny also suggests an interesting case of a relatively recent and rapid radiation of several lineages of Sapotaceae within New Caledonia.
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Current generic limits in Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae) from Australia, New Caledonia and the Pacific islands have been shown not to correspond to monophyletic groups. In particular, revisions of generic boundaries are necessary for Pouteria and Niemeyera. We present the first cladistic study of a large representative sample from these areas based on (i) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequence data, and (ii) combined data of nrDNA and morphology. The data were analyzed with parsimony jackknifing using equal weights and gaps coded as binary characters. Our results from the two data sets are highly congruent and morphological data often increase support as well as tree resolution. A basal polytomy prevents hypotheses of intergeneric relationships, but several groups receive strong support, and hence, four segregates of Pouteria (Beccariella, Planchonella, Sersalisia and Van-royena) are resurrected. Four others, Albertisiella, Bureavella, Iteiluma and Pyriluma are rejected. Niemeyera is redefined as a small genus confined to Australia. Generic limits within the sister group to Niemeyera are still unclear, a group that includes Leptostylis and Pycnandra. Furthermore, Van-royena may have originated from an intergeneric hybridization event. Traditionally used and newly identified morphological characters are scrutinized for their diagnostic value. For instance, the position of stamen insertion within the corolla tube is a strong indication of generic relationship. Unique synapomorphies are rare and genera must be distinguished on character state combinations. Following the results, several taxonomic combinations are necessary (Beccariella brownlessiana, B. macrocarpa, B. singuliflora, B. vieillardii, Pichonia daenikeri, Planchonella asterocarpon, P. dothioense, P. myrsinifolia, P. myrsinodendron and P. xylocarpa). © The Willi Hennig Society 2007.
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Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.