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The Effects of Social Media on E-Commerce: A Perspective of Social Impact Theory (PDF)

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Abstract

In recent years social media has become more and more popular all around the world. This study aims to examine the influence of social media in the e-commerce context and to find how it impacts users' visit intention and purchase intention. Through a questionnaire survey, we test and analyze the research model and its related hypotheses by making use of structural equation modeling. The results indicate that social media interaction ties and social media commitment positively affect normative social influence and informational social influence. The last one in turn influences visit intention and purchase intention in e-commerce. In conclusion, we discuss the research findings and suggest some implications for researchers and practitioners.

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... Hajli [48] determined that social relationships on S-Commerce platforms create value and identified trust as a significant factor influencing consumer behaviour. Most of the studies during 2010-2012 focussed on creating value, consumer behaviour, expectations, and motivation [49,50] on the S-Commerce platform. ...
... Issues of trust in S-Commerce [21,25,46] 2012 User participation on S-Commerce sites across cultures [49,76,77] Consumers' trust in S-Commerce [78]; S-Commerce adoption model [48] 2013 ...
... The competitive advantage in such cases is dependent on various factors such as the car condition and driver behaviour which can increase or decrease the competitive value of the platform provider. Whereas, in S-Commerce, the power of buying is transferred from sellers to buyers, who can make decisions based on the quality of the information provided and by using social networking channels [20,49], which can add competitive value to the platform based on the information provided. However, in sharing commerce, although the power seems to be in the hands of users, a lack of quality information can affect the competitive value and brand of the platform and service providers [127]. ...
Article
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Technological advances have facilitated the move from market-centric to user-centric commerce by enabling the progress towards S-Commerce from E-Commerce. Technologically advanced S-Commerce platforms have enabled collaborative commerce, which has led to the development of new commerce concepts such as sharing commerce. Unlike traditional E-Commerce or S-Commerce platforms, where the platform provider was burdened with more responsibility in ensuring the smooth flow of operations and transactions, sharing commerce offers a new approach, wherein both platform providers and users collaborate in ensuring process flow, growth, and development to co-create value and achieve sustainability. The research linking S-Commerce and sharing commerce is still in its early stages. Focussing on this aspect, this study conducts a systematic review to identify research questions relevant to S-Commerce and sharing commerce, related challenges, and the benefits of linking S-Commerce with sharing commerce. A total of 143 studies were selected using the keywords and review protocol, which were analysed to identify definitions, themes, issues, and benefits associated with S-Commerce and sharing commerce. The results obtained are explained and discussed in this study. The results provide a theoretical base for the emerging topic of sharing commerce.
... Studies show that social media peers or peer groups influence one's behavior and needs: According to Riesmeyer et al. (2021), on Instagram, users feel the pressure to conform to the requirements and aesthetic ideals of the peer group. A study of Kwahk and Ge (2012) indicates that social media interaction has a positive effect on normative and informative social influence. De Vries and Kühne (2015) and Piempek et al. (2009) show that social browsing often results in social comparison. ...
... Thus, one important question is, if the usage of social media and the resulting socially impacted mindset of users (i.e. Riesmeyer et al., 2021;Kwahk and Ge, 2012;De Vries and Kühne, 2015) influences the effectiveness of nudges applied by companies when users switch from social media to company owned channels. This potential interplay of influences from different channels has not yet been considered in the literature. ...
... The study of Kwahk and Ge (2012) indicated that social media interaction has a positive effect on normative social influence (pressure to conform to others' expectations) and informative social influence (assuming that the information received from someone corresponds to reality), and the latter also has an influence on visit and purchase intention in an e-commerce context. ...
Conference Paper
Digital nudges are used to guide users’ attention and behavior in different phases of the customer journey. This paper focuses on the application of digital nudges in the pre-purchase phase of customer journeys by analyzing the potential effect of a social norm nudge on information consumption intentions. The study further aims to explore the extent that social media usage prior to a specific task may strengthen or weaken the nudging effect. An experiment was conducted asking participants (n = 209) to imagine planning their summer vacation and inform themselves about travelling during the Covid pandemic. The results show that while age significantly affected the intention to consume information, neither the social norm nudge nor prior social media usage appeared to be effective in the chosen context. https://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2022/sig_sc/sig_sc/12/
... Specifically, social commerce features are designed to stimulate interactions among consumers, which can lead to an increased perception of social factors such as social presence, social support, or social influence (Amblee and Bui 2011;Hajli and Sims 2015;Kumar and Benbasat 2006;Zhu et al. 2010). These social factors can significantly impact consumers' buying intention by positively shaping their attitudes towards the e-commerce platform (Bai et al. 2015;Kwahk and Ge 2012;Xi et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2014). The successful influencing of social factors is hence assumed to be a key performance indicator of social commerce initiatives Wang and Zhang 2012). ...
... A structured overview of prior studies, the examined social factors and their effects can be found in Friedrich (2016) and Zhang and Benyoucef (2016). Based on the findings of prior studies, we decided to focus our analysis on the three social factors social presence, social support, and social influence, since each of them has been emphasized to significantly influence consumers' buying intention in more than one study (Bai et al. 2015;Kwahk and Ge 2012;Xi et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2014). The selected factors hence seem to be important determinants for the success of social commerce initiatives. ...
... Following Deutsch and Gerard (1955), two types of social influence can be distinguished: normative social influence and informational social influence. In the social commerce literature, normative social influence has been conceptualized as the extent, to which consumers' buying decisions are based on the expectations of others, while informational social influence has been conceptualized as the extent to which consumers accept information provided by other consumers when making their buying decisions (Kwahk and Ge 2012;Lee et al. 2011;Xi et al. 2016). ...
Article
The social commerce discipline has produced several different social commerce features that can be integrated into e-commerce platforms. Thereby, it is assumed that using multiple social commerce features in combination can better stimulate consumers’ social interactions. Yet, little is known about the effects of such strategies. This paper introduces the concept of social commerce feature richness and investigates its effects on consumers’ buying intention via social factors. The results of a controlled online experiment, in which 237 participants used variants of an e-commerce platform with functionally diverse social commerce feature sets, confirm that the social commerce feature richness positively affects social factors, which increase consumers’ buying intention. With the social commerce feature richness, we provide a novel, theoretically grounded and empirically verified concept to better understand how the use of functionally richer sets of social commerce features can maximize the success of social commerce initiatives.
... As technology can provide extensions to a brand, technology can also extend the idea of gender. Kwahk and Ge (2012) state that the Internet strengthens social circles, rather than narrowing them. Xiang and Tang (2010) state that innovation is the inventor of fashion, whilst Simmel (2001) argues that fashion is the pursuit of change and peculiarity. ...
... Gender has now become a medium and vehicle for self-expression, and it creates the basis for ideological foundations. In the past decade, social media and technology have transformed the conceptual idea of gender due to increased communication capabilities and heightened observation ( Kwahk and Ge, 2012). Gender is considered the most important characteristic related to engagement on social media due to behaviour prediction ( Shi et al., 2016). ...
... Many users also use social media to acquire information about a brand, product or service. Of these users, some 49% make a purchase decision based on the information acquired ( Kwahk and Ge, 2012). Although many users purchase online due to convenience and time-saving, items can also be bought as a symbol of perceived current or future traditional identity: a purchase decision more prevalent with women ( Dittmar et al., 2004). ...
Chapter
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Gender is a concept that has evolved with time, varying its meaning and relevance regularly. Today, it manifests across many facets of life. Whilst theories of gender began as a device to categorise individuals and groups, these have evolved into a broad, complex system of identification to describe the uniqueness of the individual. Central to the discussion of gender is the question of how we can understand human conduct and experience in technologically laden marketing environments. Drawing on extant theories, the current chapter examines how the technologically mediated marketing environment (TMME) is increasingly challenging fashion and luxury marketers to reconsider their marketing communications strategies, particularly with the impact of evolving Internet technologies such as social media platforms. The concluding section offers further agenda for future research.
... However, the majority of efforts in this direction concentrates on the impacts, i.e. on investigating how the perception of social factors on e-commerce websites affects the consumers' buying behavior (Kwahk and Ge 2012;Lee et al. 2006;Shen 2012). The causal relationship between the social commerce features of a website and the consumers' perception of social factors has not been investigated to a comparable level of detail yet. ...
... As social commerce encourages consumers to interact with each other and to generate valuable content, social influence is considered as an important factor for the success of social commerce initiatives. Kwahk and Ge (2012), for instance, empirically demonstrate that informational social influence can have a positive impact on the consumers' buying behavior on social commerce websites while normative social influence has been reported to have a negative impact. Kim and Srivastava (2007) conceptually demonstrate how both types of social influence (i.e., normative and informational social influence) can be generated on e-commerce websites through the use of social commerce features such as social recommendation tools. ...
... For instance, share buttons typically enable consumers to share productrelated content on their favorite social media platforms. In this context, normative social influence is then generated when consumers use this feature to demonstrate their interests and to conform to the expectations of by important others, such as their friends (Kwahk and Ge 2012). By putting the above-mentioned examples together, it can be argued that social commerce features have the potential to generate social influence in different ways. ...
Conference Paper
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Today, several social commerce features exist, which can be integrated into e-commerce websites. Integrating such features facilitates interactions among consumers and shall positively affect the perception of social factors and the buying behavior. As social commerce features differ regarding the stimulated interactions, it is recommended to increase their effectiveness by using multiple features. However, there also exist warnings that introducing multiple features might overwhelm consumers. To study the effects of the intensity of social commerce features on the perception of social factors and the buying behavior, we present the results of a controlled experiment, in which 115 participants used variants of an e-commerce platform with differing sets of features. The findings indicate that the intensity of features might positively influence the perception of social factors and the buying behavior. The provided research model moreover allows examining the causal relations between social commerce features, social factors, and the buying behavior systematically.
... Social influence is related to the information about other people, and it may not necessarily happen via face-to-face interactions (Robins et al., 2001;Trusov et al., 2010). In contrast with the past (when people's influence was limited to their narrow social circle), social influence has broadened due to use of the Internet and social media (Kwahk & Ge, 2012). According to McKenna and Bargh (2000), from the social psychology perspective, social interaction on the Internet has four differences from real life: (a) Users can interact with others anonymously, (b) Physical distance is not important, (c) Physical appearance is not important, (d) Interaction does not need to be simultaneous. ...
... According to Kwahk and Ge (2012), social media interaction ties and social media commitment affect social influence on e-commerce. In the current study, we described social influence source and social platform activities as the factors that affect social influence on online social network sites. ...
... Social media acts as a rich information source and influences consumer decision-making through the information and opinions obtained from the connections (Power & Philips-Wren, 2011). Kwahk and Ge (2012) indicated that social media interaction ties are channels for transferring normative social influence to group members and getting more knowledge, which provides informational social influence in social network groups. Kwahk and Ge also found that social media interaction ties positively affect informational and normative social influence. ...
Article
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The purposes of this study were to determine the phase of decision-making process of sports consumers on Facebook that social influence affects the most, and investigate the most influential factor for social influence. An empirical study conducted in Turkey included 392 participants who followed their favorite football team on Facebook. The results of the structural equation model showed that social influence has the strongest effect on the evaluation of alternatives phase. Social influence source and social platform activities significantly affected social influence; social platform activities had a stronger effect. Additionally, the effect of social influence is differed for some team supporter groups. Bu çalışmanın amaçları sosyal etkinin Facebook'taki spor tüketicilerinin karar alma sürecinin en çok hangi aşaması üzerinde etkili olduğunu belirlemek ve sosyal etkiyi en çok etkileyen faktörü araştırmaktır. Türkiye'de yürütülen bu ampirik çalışmada, tuttukları takımın Facebook sayfasını takip eden 392 katılımcı yer almıştır. Yapısal eşitlik modelinin sonuçlarına göre sosyal etki en çok alternatiflerin değerlendirilmesi aşaması üzerinde etki göstermektedir. Sosyal etkinin, sosyal etki kaynaklarından ve sosyal platform aktivitelerinden anlamlı şekilde etkilendiği ve sosyal platform aktivitelerinin etkisinin daha yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. Ayrıca sosyal etkinin farklı takımların taraftarları arasında değişiklik gösterdiği görülmüştür.
... The presence of others can easily influence an individual's emotions, feelings, behaviors and attitudes. Any of the actions, real, indirect or imagined, of the individuals which can bring change in physiological states and behaviors are the social impacts [3]. Social media is build on the concept of Web 2.0 and allows users to 1) share personal information / opinion, 2) share knowledge, 3) have discussion and 4) built relationships [3,5]. ...
... Any of the actions, real, indirect or imagined, of the individuals which can bring change in physiological states and behaviors are the social impacts [3]. Social media is build on the concept of Web 2.0 and allows users to 1) share personal information / opinion, 2) share knowledge, 3) have discussion and 4) built relationships [3,5]. ...
... Social Media is a new tool for the digital generation and almost all social media applications are internet based. Social media is playing an important role in empowering citizens, organization of community activism, social good and even for the coordination in emergency situations [1][2][3]. ...
Article
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In recent years, social media has become more and more popular because it is playing an important role in empowering citizens, organization of community activism, social good and even used for coordination in emergency situations. The social media has become integral part of the current generation. In this study, we aim to analyze the influence of social media on the users. This study indicates that the social media has huge effect on the users. It is very beneficial to the current generation in multiple fields which includes education, E-commerce, marketing / advertisement, communication and social good, however, it also depicts that the information sharing on social media by the users lead to many privacy issues. Therefore, the social media users should be very careful in sharing information as it can be wrongly manipulated.
... Kavramla ilgili deneyimleyici veya nüfuz pazarlaması gibi terimler kullanılmaya başlanmış olsa da kavramı tam olarak karşılayan bir kelime olmadığı için bu çalışmada İngilizce influencer kelimesi kullanılmıştır. ve davranışlarını etkileyebileceğini öne sürmektedir (Kwahk ve Ge, 2012). Bu teori, toplumsal davranış kalıplarının çoğunluk tarafından nasıl oluşturulduğunu ve bir bireyin belirli sosyal davranışlarının başkalarının davranışlarından nasıl etkilendiğini gösteren sosyal etki (social influence) ilkesine dayanmaktadır (Xue, 2019). ...
... Sayı; kaynak adedine işaret etmektedir. Bu üç boyutun tamamı, bireyin tutum ve davranışlarını etkilemektedir (Kwahk ve Ge, 2012). Deutsch ve Gerard's (1955) sosyal etkiyi bilgilendirici ve normatif olarak iki boyutta incelemiştir (Aktaran Tedeschi, 2017: 28). ...
Article
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Özet Günümüzde, tüketiciyle marka arasındaki etkileşimi artırmaya yönelik yapılan dijital pazarlama stratejilerinin başında sosyal etki pazarlaması gelmektedir. Sosyal etki pazarlamasının bir kolu olan influencer pazarlamasının, dijital platformlardaki markalar için organik etkileşimi sağladığı düşünülmekte, aynı zamanda tüketicinin satın alma karar sürecini kolaylaştırmaktadır. Özellikle Internet’te geçen zamanla eşgüdümlü olarak sosyal medyada kullanıcı sayılarının her geçen gün artmasıyla birlikte markaların influencer pazarlamasına yöneldiği görülmektedir. Bu araştırmada Deutsch ve Gerard’s (1955) ve Kelman’ın (1958) sosyal etki kuramlarından yola çıkarak influencerlerin tüketici üzerinde uyma, özdeşleştirme, içselleştirme, bilgilendirici ve normatif sosyal etki doğrultusunda nasıl bir sosyal etkiye sahip olduğu pazarlama açısından ortaya konulmuştur. Tüketici odaklı yapılan çalışmada örneklem grubu Y kuşağının son çeyreğinde bulunan bireyler olarak belirlenmiş ve bu grubun mensuplarıyla derinlemesine mülakatlar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın öne çıkan bulguları ise influencerin samimiyeti ve güven vermesinin tüketicilerin kendilerini influencerlerle özdeşleştirme sürecinde önemli bir yere sahip olduğu ve influencerlerin tüketicilerin satın alma niyetini olumlu yönde etkilediğidir. Abstract A prominent digital marketing strategy to enhance the interaction between consumers and brands today is social influence marketing. A branch of social influence marketing, influencer marketing is assumed to boost organic interaction on digital platforms for brands, as well as facilitating the purchasing decision making process of consumers. Brands especially head for influencer marketing with the increasing number of social media users, rising simultaneously with the time spent online. This research study adopts the social influence theories of Deutsch and Gerard (1955) and Kelman (1958) and reveals the social influence, influencers’ impact on consumers, in line with compliance, identification, internalization, informational and normative social influence, in terms of marketing. The sample group is identified to comprise from individuals from the last quarter of the generation Y in this consumer-­‐oriented study. To that end, in-­‐depth interviews are conducted with the members of said group. The main findings of the study indicate that the sincerity and reassurance of influencers have a significant place in consumers’ identification process with influencers and that influencers have a positive impact on consumers’ purchasing intentions.
... Trust in a website can be positively influenced by feedback (Ba & Pavlou, 2002;Dellarocas, 2003;Kwahk & Ge, 2012). It has long been established that buyers make their evaluations based on the opinions of others (Burnkrant & Cousineau, 1975) and feedback mechanisms can help consumers obtain that information. ...
... Journal of Socio-Informatics Vol. 8 No. 1 Feb. 2016 9 feedback improves trust in the website (Ba & Pavlou, 2002;Dellarocas, 2003;Kwahk & Ge, 2012). ...
Article
An experimental study was conducted among Japanese consumers in order to investigate the effects of nationality information in feedback on trust towards a foreign online store. Three experimental conditions were created: (1) feedback from Japanese users, (2) feedback from Thai users and (3) a control condition of no feedback. We hypothesized that showing feedback from Japanese users would result in the highest level of trust, and that an increase in trust would then result in lower perceived risk, and higher perceived usefulness and intention of use of the website. A survey was conducted in Japan, obtaining a total of 915 participants who were randomly assigned into three groups corresponding to the experimental conditions. Structural equation modeling was used in order to analyze the proposed hypotheses within a model of consumer behavior. The results indicate that showing feedback from Japanese users resulted in higher trust than showing feedback from Thai users or showing no feedback. However, feedback from Thai users did not result in an improvement of trust when compared with no feedback shown.
... Research on social commerce rather appears to be focused on the theoretical foundations and its historical evolution Zhang, 2012, Zhou et al., 2013). In addition, several studies have investigated which factors might affect the consumers' adoption of social commerce websites (Chen et al., 2014, Hsiao et al., 2010, Kwahk and Ge, 2012, Shen, 2012. While various factors, such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, trust, commitment, satisfaction, social presence, social support, or social influence, were identified to be potentially relevant, the relationship between the social commerce features integrated into a website and the perception of these factors has not been investigated systematically yet. ...
... Accordingly, we included social influence as a factor in our research model. In the literature, social influence has been found to have a positive influence on consumers' social commerce intention (Kwahk andGe, 2012, Sharma andCrossler, 2014). While empirical studies on the impacts of certain social commerce features on social influence are missing, Kim and Srivastava (2007) argue how social commerce features might increase the social influence of a social commerce website. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Social commerce, the application of social media to support e-commerce transactions, is becoming a lucrative means for e-commerce companies to increase their sales volumes. To achieve this goal, companies today can extend their e-commerce websites with a wide range of diverse social commerce features. Hence, knowledge is required how the integration of certain social commerce features stimulates consumers to adopt social commerce websites and which features might deliver the highest benefits in a particular scenario. However, current literature provides little insight about how concrete social commerce features influence the consumers’ willingness to adopt social commerce websites. To contribute to the closure of this research gap, we propose a research model that allows evaluating the impacts of social commerce features on the consumers’ adoption of social commerce websites in a systematic, comparable manner. Therefore, the research model integrates several adoption factors, taking into account utilitarian, hedonic, relational, and social determinants. We also describe how the hypotheses contained in our research model can be evaluated in an experimental setting. In so doing, we expect our research to contribute to achieving a better understanding of how certain social commerce features can improve the design of social commerce websites.
... A focus upon immediacy is appropriate for three reasons. First, there is very limited empirical evidence that looks at the relationship of immediacy and consumer-brand interactions (Kwahk and Ge, 2012), however there is evidence to suggest that immediacy influences persuasion (Miller and Brunner, 2008) and collaboration in groups (Conaway, Easton and Schmidt, 2005;Woods and Baker, 2004). Furthermore, empirical testing has shown contradictory results for the influence of immediacy upon behaviour (Jackson, 1986;Mullen, 1985;Jackson and Latané, 1982). ...
... SIT has been tested in both social psychology (DiFonzo, Bourgeois, Suls and Homan, 2013;Lee, Kim and Kim, 2011;DeWall, Twenge, Bushman, Im and Williams, 2010;Miller and Brunner, 2008;Pedersen et al., 2008;Latané andL'Herrou, 1996, 1996;Jackson and Latané, 1982) and marketing literature (Kwahk and Ge, 2012;Naylor et al., 2012) resulting in supportive evidence that at least one of the social forces proposed by the theory (strength, immediacy and number of sources) affect consumers' behaviour. ...
Article
This paper proposes that Social Influence Theory is an appropriate approach for understanding social media interaction. Increasingly organisations are looking for ways to develop an effective presence in social media in order to increasing awareness, customer satisfaction, sales and consumer engagement with the brand. The influence of interpersonal interaction upon attitude, beliefs and behaviour, has been studied within social psychology. Different forms of immediacy: physical, temporal and social are theorised as exerting distinct influences upon individual behaviours. This paper reviews the concept of social influence and introduces social impact theory (SIT) a conceptual framework to guide research enquiry and inform practice within the social media marketing. It examines in detail the concept of immediacy and indicates how an understanding of immediacy might explain Facebook behaviours.
... Second, different impact directions have been identified between the same factors, such as trust positively affects perceived usefulness (Hajli 2014), or perceived usefulness positively affects trust (Hajli 2012d). Third, different outcome variables, such as consumers' sharing intention (Chen et al. 2014;Liu et al. 2013a), buying intention (Kwahk and Ge 2012;Lu and Fan 2014), or continuance intention (Jang et al. 2013;, have been used to explain consumers' adoption of social commerce. As a consequence, the current social commerce literature does not provide a clear understanding of what factors influence consumers to adopt to social commerce. ...
... For example, examining consumers' intention/behavior to collaborate online or to support other consumers. Future research on social commerce adoption should also consider to examine more than one consumer intention/behavior, such as demonstrated by Chen et al. (2014), Hsiao et al. (2010), Kwahk and Ge (2012), and . By combining the identified influence factors and outcome variables, researchers may develop a more complete understanding of consumers' behaviors in social commerce. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Social commerce, the use of social media in e-commerce, has become an attractive means for companies to generate business value from consumers' online social interactions. However, many e-commerce companies today are still trying to understand which factors drive consumers to participate in social commerce. While first empirical studies have examined one or more factors that influence consumers' adoption of social commerce, the findings of these studies are scattered across the literature base, sometimes not transparent, and not straightforwardly comparable. To synthesize these findings, we conduct a systematic literature review. After analyzing 38 academic publications, we contribute a comprehensive and structured list of factors that influence consumers' adoption of social commerce. The results of our work provide implications for future research to develop a more complete understanding of consumers' adoption of social commerce. Practitioners can use our results to improve the effectiveness of their social commerce initiatives.
... Aligned with the notion of the instrumental approach is the consumer approach to social impact. The connection between the social impact of business decisions and behaviors and the relationships between customers and organizations is increasingly recognized as being relevant (Kwahk & Ge, 2012). This can largely be attributed to an increasing appreciation of the importance of relationships between consumers and organizations to the marketing function (Buttle & Maklan, 2019). ...
Article
Social impact can be understood as the real or perceived, intended or unintended, relational and agentic consequences that emerge from organizational decisions or actions for individuals, communities, and societies. Inherent here is the recognition that social impact aligns with consequences, whether it be on individuals, communities, and societies, and that these consequences stem from organizational decisions and behaviors. Drawing on wider social impact scholarship, this paper identifies two approaches—instrumental and consumer—that have provided lenses on how organizations make decisions about social impact and related consequences, and the level of involvement stakeholders have in these decisions. This paper proposes that the understanding of social impact should evolve to reflect the relational worldview advocated in the public relations discipline, which is one that emphasizes the importance of organizations, individuals, and communities contributing to a fully functioning society. A relational lens shows that social impact can be understood as changes—whether they be intended or unintended, anticipated or unanticipated, positive or negative—in the way people live, experience, sustain, and function within their society, resulting from organizational decisions and consequent behaviors as co-determined by organizations and their stakeholders. The relational approach requires the adoption of a relational perspective on identifying, predicting, evaluating, managing, and reporting on social impact, operationalized via the seven-step Relational Framework of Social Impact conceptualized in this paper. While social impact is a relatively new term in the public relations literature, this paper highlights how public relations scholarship is well placed to enrich the social impact discipline due its emphasis on fostering a fully functioning society.
... The extensive usage of SM is because of its interactivity and relationship-building potential with customers. Hence, it is evident to study SM in the context of e-commerce (Kwahk & Ge, 2012). In the marketing arena, the utmost goal of every marketer is to create, deliver value, and build a strong relationship with customers (Kotler & Keller, 2016). ...
Article
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The goal of this research is to look into the relationship between social media marketing activities and brand attachment in the online marketing business, based on the indirect effect of perceived value and self-brand connections. For this reason, the study has used self-administered questionnaires to collect the data from 425 males from the major cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, and Sialkot. Furthermore, based on the PLS-SEM technique the empirical findings show that social media marketing activities positively affect perceived value, self-brand connections, and brand attachment. Perceived value has a significant positive impact on brand attachment and mediates the influence of social media marketing activities on brand attachment. In addition to this, self-brand connections have a positive effect on brand attachment, and self-brand connections mediate the relationship between them. Thus, firms employing social media marketing activities successfully in their branding build upon a positive perception of the brand in the customer's mind resulting in customer attachment with the brand. This study can assist the e-commerce managers and brand managers in building strong customer attachment via perceived value and self-brand connections.
... Millennials commonly create photos as a form of UGC (Ana & Istudor, 2019). Kwahk and Ge (2012) stated that many shoppers harness social media and UGC to make key purchase decisions and to acquire information about a brand, product or service. They added that social media interactions can also be a tool to develop fashion trends, which can lead to online purchases. ...
Chapter
The growth of user-generated content (UGC) within fashion brands’ online platforms has increased consumers’ awareness of service failure and impacted their level of involvement and attitude towards recovery strategies. However, a limited number of studies have explored the value and antecedents of UGC on service failure and recovery strategies in the fashion industry. The aim of the chapter is to explore the online behaviour of fashion customers in relation to UGC and their attitudes towards a firm’s response after a negative service experience, considering a range of recovery strategies that can be adopted. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the resulting managerial implications and solutions, and draws some conclusions for both marketing professionals and academics.
... Efek dari e-commerce adalah terjalinnya hubungan antara pembeli dan penjual di toko online. (Kwahk & Ge, 2012). ...
Article
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi minat beli secara online pada jejaring media sosial Instagram khususnya pada produk Fashion serta untuk mengetahui apakah ada perbedaan minat beli berdasarkan perbedaan gender yaitu pria dan wanita. Penelitan ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif-kualitatif yang menggunakan Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer yang didapatkan dengan cara mengembangkan kuesioner. Untuk mendapatkan data yang dibutuhkan maka penelitian ini menggunakan 370 data responden dengan 24 item pernyataan yang telah melalui proses validasi. Hasil penelitian ini menemukan bahwa ada 4 faktor yang mempengaruhi minat beli secara melalui jejaring media sosial Instagram yaitu Faktor Sales Promotion, Faktor Customer Service, Faktor Visual Merchandising, dan Faktor Payment. Berdasarkan uji independent t-test ditemukan adanya perbedaan terhadap beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi minat beli secara online melalui jejaring media sosial Instagram khususnya pada produk Fashion yaitu pada faktor sales promotion dan faktor visual merchandising yang menyatakan pria dan wanita memiliki preferensi mereka masing-masing khususnya pada kedua faktor tersebut. Kata Kunci: Instagram, Media Sosial, Minat Beli, Toko Online
... This analysis shows that, given the features of the participation of celebrities and enterprises and the recommendation system, social media provides myriad opportunities for online marketing. Indeed, Chinese internet users have also been increasingly relying on the Internet and mobile social media to gain information before making consumption decisions (Kwahk and Ge 2012). Therefore, practically, social media marketing can be facilitated when celebrities and companies promote products to followers as well as when a product's promotional information is searched or reposted many times and recommended as a hot topic to users. ...
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Exemplified by Wolf Warrior 2 (2017), Dying to Survive (2018), and The Wandering Earth (2019), a group of popular Mainland Chinese films labelled baokuan (爆款) has emerged since the mid-2010s. These baokuan movies are known in China for their extremely high domestic box office takings and overwhelmingly positive online word-of-mouth from audiences. Using a combination of Internet studies, film marketing studies, and audience studies, this article focuses on why these baokuan films enjoy great popularity assisted by the Internet and social media in China. It argues that social media has brought two major changes: new strategies for film marketing, which predominantly rely on online promotion, and the blurring of the roles of film audiences and marketers. These changes jointly enable a film’s prestige to be continuously escalated and circulated.
... From these definitions, it very well may be outlined that there are two key components in social trade -utilizing online networking and the inclusion of merchants and customers. [8] It says internet based life exercises, for example, "rating and reviewing", "forums and networks" and "suggestion and referrals" define the "trust" and afterwards increment the aim to purchase. ...
... E-commerce ini dapat mencakup beberapa kegiatan diantaranya marketing, penjualan, pembelian, distribusi dari sebuah produk yang dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan sistem elektronik seperti Internet atau jaringan komputer yang lain (Rahmati, 2009). Mekanisme teknologi tersebut dapat dioperasikan di mana saja oleh semua negara di dunia karena sudah mempunyai standar yang bersifat universal (Kwahk & Ge, 2012). E-commerce merupakan bagian dari bisnis elektronik yang memiliki cakupan e-business yang lebih luas, tidak hanya sekedar bidang perniagaan tetapi juga mencakup pengkolaborasian mitra bisnis, pelayanan pada nasabah, lowongan pekerjaan dan lain-lain (Siregar, 2010). ...
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The Shopee marketplace is one of the growing marketplaces in Indonesia. The Shopee marketplace is currently being used by Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) for sales promotion. In the city of Blitar itself, the MSMEs that have used Shopee as a sales promotion media are MSME Sambel Pecel and Bumbu Gado-Gado Kuncit in Blitar. This research is a qualitative descriptive study. The data analysis techniques used were reduction, data exposure, and conclusion drawing. Research conducted shows that the Shopee marketplace as a sales promotion media for SMEs Sambel Pecel and Bumbu Gado-Gado Kuncit In Blitar is still not optimal. The Shopee marketplace as a sales promotion at MSMEs Sambel Pecel and Bumbu Gado-Gado Kuncit must be further improved so that admins can serve consumers more optimally so that consumer purchasing power increases.
... Literature has examined social impact theory in the context of social media. Kwahk and Ge (2012) found that the transfer of information and knowledge on social media, that is informational social influence, impacts user's online behavior. Chang et al. (2018) suggested that an individual's political attitude is influenced by the social media information, however, the immediacy (as defined as close relationships between an individual and a source) does not have an influence on political attitude change. ...
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The debate surrounding protesting National Football League (NFL) games began with player Colin Kaepernick’s decision not to stand for the national anthem in response to increased police violence toward people of color in the United States. Public use of social media has cast players’ behavior of kneeling or sitting during the anthem into an international spotlight and led to individuals’ participation in political consumerism, including boycotting the NFL. The goal of this research is to examine the role of a hashtag in political consumerism through the lens of social impact theory and its relation to individuals’ consumption practices. Using social network and content analysis, this study examined a 4-day sample of tweets and accompanying hashtags that included #BoycottNFL during 9 days of the 2017 NFL season. Findings of this study suggest that the line between lifestyle and contentious political consumerism is blurred. Boycotting the NFL is contentious political consumerism, but it consists of lifestyle political consumerism through the individualized behavior of creating a tweet, which inadvertently is a part of collective action. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that accompanying hashtags demonstrated three types of political consumerism sentiment (i.e., political-, civic-, and consumption-related) that change the tone of a tweet, which may alienate actors who are focused on the consumption practices of the collective action. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... A report released by Pew research in 2014 showed that about 50% of US online users consider online reviews before making their decisions (Kristen, 2014). Kwahk and Ge (2012) reported that 70% of consumers visit social media websites such as message boards, social networking sites and blogs to get information on a company, brand or product and about 49% of these customers make a purchase decision based on information gathered from social media sites. ...
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Religious activities are a common topic of discussion on various platforms and online forums in Nigeria. These online interactions shape opinions and attitudes of tourist to a religious destination. The use of electronic word of mouth has become a factor in influencing behavioural intention. Hence, this study investigated the relationship between the use of eWOM and tourist revisiting intention to a religious destination and the effect of the use of eWOM on the relationship between Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioural control and Revisit intention of visitors to religious destinations. The hypotheses for the study was tested using a Hierarchical Regression model. The essence was to examine the effect of each variable on revisit intention as they are entered into the regression equation. The findings show that the combination of the use of eWOM, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and even attitude has a strong influence on revisiting intention. However, the use of eWOM has a weak effect on revisit intention of religious tourists. The study recommends that managers of religious events pay more attention to the experience rather than focusing on using eWOM as a promotional tool, although it may attract new visitors, it will not make them come back.
... This method allows consumers to try out a purchased item to determine suitability or return it within a specified time. The grace period given for a product to be tried out is also considered a factor in evaluating the effectiveness of money-back guarantee (Yanhong, Zilberman & Heiman, 2014) Money back Guarantee (MBG) has a significant effect on consumers' attitude to pay for items online Electronic Word of Mouth Kwahk and Ge (2012) reported that 70% of consumers visit social media websites such as message boards, social networking sites and blogs to get information on a company, brand or product and about 49% of these customers make a purchase decision based on information gathered from social media sites. Yoo et al 2015 were of the opinion that EWOM is an effective marketing tool for e-commerce sites, and it is necessary for maintaining customer confidence in the customer-to-customer e-business. ...
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... The more channels there are, the greater the effect that people can get from social networking groups. This can be also interpreted as more social media interaction ties can bring higher group pressure and lead one to conform to the group (Kwahk and Ge, 2012). According to Social Impact Theory, the more important a group is, the closer the distance is between the group and oneself; therefore, the more likely it is for one to conform to the group's normative pressures (Latane, 1981). ...
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Purpose Social media remarkably changed the way of interaction between the consumers and organizations. The increased acceptance of social media has given rise to social commerce (s-commerce) and s-commerce usage is gradually increasing over the last few years. The progressive development of technologies suggests that s-commerce will become the mainstream for marketing and a literature survey indicates that there have not been many studies in this area. The purpose of this paper is to predict the factors influencing consumer intention towards the adoption of s-commerce. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a survey approach with reference to important behavioural factors such as satisfaction, ethics, trust, enjoyment/easiness, social pressure and awareness. The research model was developed to be in line with the available literature. The data were collected using a five-point Likert scale and the research model was tested using least square regression. Findings The results showed that user intention is significantly and positively related to perceived trust, enjoyment/easiness, social pressure, satisfaction and awareness. Also, “intention” was found to be a significant mediating factor for actual usage. Research limitations/implications First, the questionnaire was a “snap-shot” instead of longitudinal study. Second, future research should use other moderating variables that may affect the usage of social media. Also the study could apply a variant of research methods to include other techniques such as interviews, which allow for deeper understanding of the problem and issues. Practical implications Social media represents an important platform for electronic commerce and has one of the most metamorphic impacts on business. Therefore, investigating the usage of s-commerce with reference to important behavioural factors could provide valuable information for companies in establishing policies and strategies. It could also be useful for management studies and researchers in understanding the consumers’ attitude towards usage of social media for commercial purposes. Social implications S-commerce creates opportunities for firms. Based on findings this research provides insights with major implications for marketers, who would like to generate direct sales on social network platforms. Originality/value Existing literature focusses largely on the effectiveness of social media. Only a handful has endeavoured to analyse s-commerce systems and the literature on consumers’ behaviour in using s-commerce is not mature yet. This study is one of the few studies in this field, and aims to predict and explain the user acceptance of social media for commercial purposes.
... Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) explore the predominant concern of business executives as to how they can make profitable use of applications like Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life and Twitter but despite an active interest; it is not easy to find the precise methods of monetization. Kwahk and Ge (2012) examine how social media influences the users' visit intention and purchase intention. This kind of technological shift makes knowledge management a very powerful tool as it knocks the door of e-commerce. ...
Chapter
Social media technologies have been embraced by individuals and organizations on such a massive scale in the last decade that knowledge sharing and application has molded into a totally new paradigm. It has not only changed the social discourse of communication but also affected the knowledge management strategies of organizations. This raises quite a number of fundamental challenges out of which three are being dealt in this chapter. The first challenge is whether knowledge management has fully embraced social media as a channel of mass reach the way it did in case of other means of mass communication. The second one is the question of speed and extent of knowledge sharing in social media. The third challenge is whether social media strategy can provide a high advantage to smaller and newer companies in comparison to older but larger organizations. It is apparent that the commercial aspect of social media is easy for a tête-à-tête but difficult to articulate and design the right strategy because it needs a lot of refinements owing to inherent complexities in the process. Link: http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/challenges-of-knowledge-management-amidst-rapidly-evolving-tools-of-social-media/159476
... Este aspecto reviste una especial importancia, tomando en consideración que la web social representa una porción significativa en los resultados de búsqueda de Google [21], lo que indica que los motores de búsqueda redirigen a los turistas a las redes sociales tales como Facebook y Twitter [18,22]. Recientemente Kwahk y Ge [23] investigaron el impacto de los medios sociales sobre la intención de visita y la intención de compra en el comercio electrónico, demostrando empíricamente que existía una relación indirecta entre estos dos factores. ...
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El papel de los medios sociales en la gestión empresarial constituye actualmente un tema de creciente interés tanto para académicos como para profesionales. La Web 2.0 se ha revelado como una importante fuente de innovación que contribuye al desempeño organizacional y a la mejora de la competitividad de las empresas del sector turístico. A pesar de ello, se han encontrado evidencias que revelan las dificultades y barreras a la entrada de estas tecnologías en las empresas del sector turístico y en relación con ello se identifican distintos niveles de adopción de soluciones Web 2.0 por parte de las mismas. De acuerdo con lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la implantación y uso de las herramientas Web 2.0 en las empresas hoteleras del norte de España identificando las oportunidades derivadas del uso de estas herramientas y las líneas en las que se debe mejorar parte de estas empresas para aprovechar la Web 2.0 y ser más competitivas.
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The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) pandemic has seriously impacted the performance of all types of businesses. It has given a tremendous structural boost to e‐commerce enterprises by forcing customers to online shopping over visiting physical stores. Moreover, customer expectations of the digital and operational capabilities of e‐commerce firms are also increasing globally. Thus, it has become crucial for an e‐commerce enterprise to reassess and realign its business practices to meet evolving customer needs and remain sustainable. This paper presents a comprehensive performance evaluation framework for e‐commerce enterprises based on evolving customer expectations due to the COVID‐19 pandemic. The framework comprises seven primary criteria, which are further divided into 25 sub‐criteria, including two sustainability factors, namely, environmental sustainability and carbon emissions. The evaluation approach is then practically demonstrated by analyzing the case of three Indian e‐commerce firms. The results are obtained using a multi‐criteria decision‐making (MCDM) method, namely, Fuzzy VIKOR, to capture the fuzziness of the inherent decision‐making problem. Further, numerical analysis is conducted to evaluate and rank various e‐commerce enterprises based on customer expectations and satisfaction benchmarks. The findings explain the most important criteria and sub‐criteria for e‐commerce businesses to ensure customer expectations along with their economic and environmental sustainability.
Chapter
This study presents an empirical investigation as to the key determinants of purchase intention towards clothing on Instagram. A conceptual model has been created, based upon the relevant literature and research questions of this study, which has subsequently been evaluated through a quantitative methodology. A convenience sample of 200 Thai customers was selected in order to complete the questionnaire. The accumulated data was analysed via multiple regression in order to test the study's hypotheses. The results suggest that four aspects contribute positively towards customer purchase intentions (perceived social value, perceived price value, perceived quality value and perceived benefits) while, in contrast, risk perceptions have been found to adversely impact upon customer purchase intentions. Two other aspects, perceived emotional value and electronic word of mouth, have been found to have no significant influence upon purchase intentions.
Chapter
Social media commerce has changed the way of commerce globally; customers are affected more and more by social media, in decision making for buying a product or a service. While in the past people were affected by traditional marketing ways like newspapers, televisions and radios for buying a product, nowadays, through social media customers can find feedbacks and reviews on social media and can see thousands of photos of a single product with less a minute of searching in a social networking sites like. With the growth of social media's impact on businesses, social commerce has become a trending way of making commerce. In this paper it demonstrated a platform for businesses to make commerce through Facebook which is called Facebook commerce.
Chapter
Social media commerce has changed the way of commerce globally; customers are affected more and more by social media, in decision making for buying a product or a service. While in the past people were affected by traditional marketing ways like newspapers, televisions and radios for buying a product, nowadays, through social media customers can find feedbacks and reviews on social media and can see thousands of photos of a single product with less a minute of searching in a social networking sites like. With the growth of social media's impact on businesses, social commerce has become a trending way of making commerce. In this paper it demonstrated a platform for businesses to make commerce through Facebook which is called Facebook commerce.
Chapter
Gender is a concept that has evolved with time, varying its meaning and relevance regularly. Today, it manifests across many facets of life. Whilst theories of gender began as a device to categorise individuals and groups, these have evolved into a broad, complex system of identification to describe the uniqueness of the individual. Central to the discussion of gender is the question of how we can understand human conduct and experience in technologically laden marketing environments. Drawing on extant theories, the current chapter examines how the technologically mediated marketing environment (TMME) is increasingly challenging fashion and luxury marketers to reconsider their marketing communications strategies, particularly with the impact of evolving Internet technologies such as social media platforms. The concluding section offers further agenda for future research.
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Chapter
Social media technologies have been embraced by individuals and organizations on such a massive scale in the last decade that knowledge sharing and application has molded into a totally new paradigm. It has not only changed the social discourse of communication but also affected the knowledge management strategies of organizations. This raises quite a number of fundamental challenges out of which three are being dealt in this chapter. The first challenge is whether knowledge management has fully embraced social media as a channel of mass reach the way it did in case of other means of mass communication. The second one is the question of speed and extent of knowledge sharing in social media. The third challenge is whether social media strategy can provide a high advantage to smaller and newer companies in comparison to older but larger organizations. It is apparent that the commercial aspect of social media is easy for a tête-à-tête but difficult to articulate and design the right strategy because it needs a lot of refinements owing to inherent complexities in the process.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel widmet sich den Mechanismen sozialen Einflusses, d. h., wie wir durch andere Menschen in unserem Denken und Handeln beeinflusst werden. Sozialer Einfluss liegt bereits vor, wenn sich allein durch die Anwesenheit anderer Personen unser Leistungsverhalten verändert, auch wenn jene uns gar nicht absichtlich beeinflussen wollen. Dies wird unter den Stichworten „soziale Erleichterung“ und „soziale Hemmung“ dargestellt. Ob andere Personen eine Mehr- oder Minderheitsmeinung uns gegenüber vertreten, wirkt ebenfalls als sozialer Einfluss (eine direkte Beeinflussungsabsicht kann, muss hier aber nicht vorliegen) und wird im Anschluss besprochen. Im letzten Teil des Kapitels geht es um den klassischen Fall sozialen Einflusses, den absichtlichen, taktisch klug eingefädelten Beeinflussungsversuch.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of participation in social media networks on theatrical movie attendance, with particular attention paid to the fear-of-missing-out (FoMO) and social media social capital. Using an online survey (N = 472), it was determined that the direct social utility of the theatrical experience was a better predictor of theatrical attendance than social media FoMO or social capital. However, both bridging social capital and FoMO were predictors of the post-viewing social media sharing of the film experience, with bridging social capital best predicting social media sharing. Furthermore, FoMO did not moderate the relation between bridging social capital and social media sharing, suggesting these traits exert influence on social media behaviors independently. While participation in social networks did not influence theatrical movie attendance, it was an important predictor of social media conversations after viewing, with the opportunity to maintain and build bridging social capital exerting the greatest influence on social media sharing.
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Amazon Alexa and Google Home are a potential source of digital evidence, partly because of their popularity. In additional, these devices are also always-on and listening to our day-to day conversations. Therefore, in this chapter we study Amazon Alexa and Google Home, the two most popular speakers. We will discuss how the voice service of these two devices work, what all information these devices potentially record, and where this information stored. Then, we will compare the accessibility of data stored locally on each device as well as data stored remotely associated with the specific device. The goal of the research is to see if the information collected by these smart devices could potentially have substantial value in a forensics investigation.
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Evidence collected from social media presents valuable information that should not be overlooked. Evidence can be captured from social media using multiple methods including searching publicly viewable content, reviewing content metadata, soliciting and investigating interactions with other users, and utilizing legal holds. After the evidence is gathered, it can be utilized in various ways. Social media evidence can be used to create a timeline of events, show intent or conspiracy, and establish connections between persons. Digital forensics investigations can be used to collect such evidence. The evidence accumulated from social media is far-reaching and widely advantageous. However, there are many legal issues that can affect the collection and ultimate legal admissibility of this evidence. Evidence must be collected using careful, correct procedures and in a manner that ensures its integrity. The ethical implications of the collection of social media evidence also plays a role in these digital forensics investigations. These issues can present adverse circumstances for cases. Nonetheless, social media offers various avenues for the collection and use of its data as evidence within a digital forensics investigation. The advantageous and disadvantageous aspects of this use are discussed in this chapter.
Having change in our wallet is quite common when we pay cash when shopping. This study examines the phenomenon whereby people choose to buy a product with a price that matches the amount of change they have in their wallets. The study uses a series of experiments to investigate whether this “change-matching heuristic” helps customers make purchase decisions. The findings confirm that the change-matching heuristic increases consumers’ processing fluency. The findings also confirm that the compromise and attraction conditions may dilute the influence of the change-matching heuristic.
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Social commerce is rapidly growing owing to widespread Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 applications in electronic commerce. Today, social commerce is approximately known both in terms of practical as well as theoretical area; and little effort has been made to determine the current state of the studies in this new research area. In this paper, we systematically review studies in social commerce to have a better understanding of social commerce. We perform two stage processes and identify 81 studies in stage 1 and 55 studies in stage 2 that related to social commerce based on the research protocol. The results reveal that academic research in the area of social commerce has started since 2007. Studies are in different themes, but most of them are related to customer behavior, social commerce website design, and social commerce adoption. This study shows that social commerce is promising research area; it specifies the direction for future research by identifying research gaps based on the results of the systematic review and investigating the studies related to the main topics in recent four years.
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Consumer satisfaction has been cited to be an important determinant of repeat business. Therefore, it is important for businesses and other stakeholders to have insights about the factors influencing consumer satisfaction. The aim of this research is to explore these factors in the social commerce (SC) context. The research identifies the key predecessors of customer satisfaction, and gaining insights about the nature of their relationship with each other and with consumer satisfaction. Using a positivist paradigm and employing a quantitative approach, this study uses paper- and web-based surveys to collect research data. The study sample consist of Saudi Arabian students who have experience with SC websites and are studying either in Saudi Arabia or Australia. In total, 372 responses are collected. The collected data are analysed using the partial least squares (PLS) regression method to address the research questions and test the research hypotheses. Overall, the results support the theoretical model proposed in this study; that is, all factors affecting consumer satisfaction in SC are found to have a significant impact on consumer satisfaction. Specifically, it is found that word-of-mouth (WOM) is the factor affecting both trust and social influence most strongly, and trust is the factor affecting consumer satisfaction most strongly. Since trust is most strongly affected by WOM, it seems imperative that SC enterprises pay special attention to consumer feedback and responses. These findings are consistent with those of the current literature. This study provides insights into aspects of SC that have not previously been fully investigated. The SC phenomenon has been studied from the standpoint of consumer intention and behaviour but not in terms of consumer satisfaction. This study attempts to xiii fill this gap, along with the gap that exists in terms of defining the concept of consumer satisfaction in SC settings. It is expected that the proposed framework in this study would improve the understanding of the factors affecting consumer satisfaction and the structural relationships between these factors. In addition, this research is expected to act as a guide for SC businesses to help them better meet consumer requirements, which ultimately may lead to an increase in sales revenue. The results of the quantitative analysis need to be interpreted within the limitations of the study. The sample for this research only consisted of students. The researcher acknowledges the limitation that students comprise only a subset of all consumers, and the findings from this research may not be generalised to all SC users.
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p>ABSTRACT The development of information technology has touched various joints of human life, especially the development of the internet. The development of the internet forms a new world where every individual has the right and ability to interact with other individuals indefinitely. The objectives of the research are (1) The influence of service quality on consumer satisfaction in accessing online shop website, (2) To know the influence of attitude and trust toward online shop shop user and (3) Influence of satisfaction to consumer loyalty online shop. Data analysis method used is included in the category of quantitative data analysis is a data analysis using statistical instruments. Statistical instruments used are Chi Square Test and performed using SPSS (Statistical Package For Social Science) software. The results of model fit testing showed that the four factors (cultural, economic, social and ethical) that have the most contigency coefficient on consumer behavior in accessing online shop site are Social variables. This means showing a group of people or individuals having a relationship between consumers with each other in choosing products through an online shop site and building good communication in choosing products and knowing the risks faced when buying products through online shop site. Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Use of On-Line Website Access Shop</p
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This study presents an empirical investigation as to the key determinants of purchase intention towards clothing on Instagram. A conceptual model has been created, based upon the relevant literature and research questions of this study, which has subsequently been evaluated through a quantitative methodology. A convenience sample of 200 Thai customers was selected in order to complete the questionnaire. The accumulated data was analysed via multiple regression in order to test the study’s hypotheses. The results suggest that four aspects contribute positively towards customer purchase intentions (perceived social value, perceived price value, perceived quality value and perceived benefits) while, in contrast, risk perceptions have been found to adversely impact upon customer purchase intentions. Two other aspects, perceived emotional value and electronic word of mouth, have been found to have no significant influence upon purchase intentions.
Chapter
Neue Formen der Kommunikation und Interaktion haben alltägliche Verhaltensweisen von Individuen stark verändert. Dank Internet und seiner wohl prägnantesten Ausprägung der letzten Jahre, den Social Media, erleben wir neue Kommunikations- und Interaktionsformen, sowohl im privaten Bereich als auch in den Märkten. So wird die traditionelle One-to-Many-Logik zunehmend abgelöst durch eine Many-to-Many-Logik, in der der Vernetzungs- und Partizipationsgrad stark angestiegen ist. Diese Entwicklung wird vorangetrieben durch die rasanten technologischen Neuerungen, die es ermöglichen, ortsunabhängig und in Echtzeit am digitalen Geschehen teilzunehmen.
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Two meta-analyses were conducted to Investigate the effectiveness of the Fishbein and Ajzen model in research to date. Strong overall evidence for the predictive utility of the model was found. Although numerous instances were identified in which researchers overstepped the boundary conditions initially proposed for the model, the predictive utility remained strong across conditions. However, three variables were proposed and found to moderate the effectiveness of the model. Suggested extensions to the model are discussed and general directions for future research are given.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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The relationship between on-line communities and on-line brands is investigated by examining how on-line brand community's characteristics affect community commitment and brand loyalty-in particular, how the hosting type of an on-line brand community affects the relationships between characteristics and community commitment. A survey of 250 respondents revealed that their community commitment was significantly influenced by their community interaction and the rewards for their activities, but not by information quality and system quality. The analysis shows that the hosting type of a community has a significant moderating effect and that community commitment increases brand loyalty. Interpretations and implications of the findings, as well as future research directions, are discussed.
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As with all relationships, it is commonly agreed on that partners in business must have a high degree of commitment towards their relationship. If commitment is lacking, the relationship will soon come to an end. Affective commitment, that is commitment based on attraction between partners, is to be preferred over calculative commitment. The latter form of commitment is based on constant weighing of the benefits of a relationship with a partner against the costs of that relationship. Relationships based solely on calculative commitment are also most likely not to last for an extended time. This paper identifies theoretical antecedents and consequences of commitment in relationships in a services context. The results of an empirical study reveal that affective commitment is related to trust in the partner’s honesty and benevolence, quality of the outcome of the service process, and customer satisfaction with the service being delivered. The quality of the service process has an indirect effect on affective commitment, as it is related to satisfaction. Furthermore, it is shown that affectively committed customers have a much stronger intention to stay in a relationship with a service provider than calculatively committed customers.
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Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is sometimes heralded for its power to break down social boundaries and to liberate individuals from social influence, group pressure, and status and power differentials that characterize much face-to-face interaction. We review research conducted within the framework of the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) demonstrating that this is not always the case. When communicators share a common social identity, they appear to be more susceptible to group influence, social attraction, stereotyping, gender typing, and discrimination in anonymous CMC. Although CMC gives us the opportunity to traverse social boundaries, paradoxically, it can also afford these boundaries greater power, especially when they define self- and group identity.
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This study used Social Impact Theory to explore sources and functions of interpersonal influence in Computer-Mediated Communication. Participants were 43 female and 17 male graduate students ranging from 25 to 60 years of age. In each of five distinct graduate classes (n1=15, n2=11, n3=10, n4=12, n5=12) delivered online at a research university, participants engaged in anonymous and computer-mediated discourse and then nominated peers who were directive and/or influential (positive and negative) during the online interaction. High numbers of peer nominations were expected to characterize participants perceived as emanating social impact. Four interpersonal factors were chosen as strength operants in accordance with Social Impact Theory and were, therefore, expected to predict social impact. Of the four, assertiveness and exaggeration were significant, while emotional intensity and sensitivity were not. Two factors, contribution total and word total, were chosen as immediacy operants in accordance with Social Impact Theory. Both factors were found to be significant predictors of social impact. Implications of these findings relative to online learning and interpersonal influence as it occurs in an online context are discussed.
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