Primary granule exocytosis in human neutrophils is regulated by Rac-dependent actin remodeling

Dept. of Cell Biology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7.
AJP Cell Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.78). 10/2008; 295(5):C1354-65. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00239.2008
Source: PubMed


The actin cytoskeleton regulates exocytosis in all secretory cells. In neutrophils, Rac2 GTPase has been shown to control primary (azurophilic) granule exocytosis. In this report, we propose that Rac2 is required for actin cytoskeletal remodeling to promote primary granule exocytosis. Treatment of neutrophils with low doses (< or = 10 microM) of the actin-depolymerizing drugs latrunculin B (Lat B) or cytochalasin B (CB) enhanced both formyl peptide receptor- and Ca(2+) ionophore-stimulated exocytosis. Higher concentrations of CB or Lat B, or stabilization of F-actin with jasplakinolide (JP), inhibited primary granule exocytosis measured as myeloperoxidase release but did not affect secondary granule exocytosis determined by lactoferrin release. These results suggest an obligatory role for F-actin disassembly before primary granule exocytosis. However, lysates from secretagogue-stimulated neutrophils showed enhanced actin polymerization activity in vitro. Microscopic analysis showed that resting neutrophils contain significant cortical F-actin, which was redistributed to sites of primary granule translocation when stimulated. Exocytosis and actin remodeling was highly polarized when cells were primed with CB; however, polarization was reduced by Lat B preincubation, and both polarization and exocytosis were blocked when F-actin was stabilized with JP. Treatment of cells with the small molecule Rac inhibitor NSC23766 also inhibited actin remodeling and primary granule exocytosis induced by Lat B/fMLF or CB/fMLF, but not by Ca(2+) ionophore. Therefore, we propose a role for F-actin depolymerization at the cell cortex coupled with Rac-dependent F-actin polymerization in the cell cytoplasm to promote primary granule exocytosis.

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    • "Neutrophil morphology as observed by electron microscopy. Neutrophils were isolated from human peripheral blood, and processed for electron microscopy after incubation for 15 min at 37°C with vehicle (A,B) or 10 μM cytochalasin B and 5 μM fMLF (C,D) as described in Ref. (22). (A,B) The cytosol of a resting cell is filled with vesicles, with primary granules (P) staining intensely dark with DAB, while secondary (S) and tertiary (T) granules show more translucent staining. "
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