Minnesota's Smokefree Policies Impact on Cessation Program Participants

ClearWay Minnesota(SM), Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address: .
American journal of preventive medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 11/2012; 43(5 Suppl 3):S171-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.028
Source: PubMed


Smokefree policies are enacted to protect individuals from secondhand smoke; however, these laws may have broader cessation effects.
This study investigated the relationship between Minnesota's local and statewide smokefree policies and quitting outcomes among cessation program enrollees.
Data were collected from 2006 to 2008 from two groups of participants (n=1644 pre-statewide law; n=1273 post-statewide law) and analyzed in 2009. Website enrollees were surveyed by Internet or telephone 6 months post-enrollment. Others were surveyed by telephone 7 months post-enrollment.
Those who enrolled in a cessation program after the statewide smokefree law were more likely to quit (p<0.05, relative risk [RR]=1.15) and were predicted to achieve a 30-day abstinence rate 4.1 percentage points greater than that achieved by those who quit pre-statewide law (30.9% vs 26.8%, respectively). Participants who quit post-statewide law were less likely to relapse and were predicted to have a relapse rate 6.4 percentage points below those who quit pre-statewide law (p<0.05, RR=0.87). Each additional year residing in or adjacent to a county with a local smokefree ordinance in place, up until the time of the statewide law, reduced the likelihood of achieving abstinence post-statewide law (p<0.001, RR=0.92) and increased the likelihood of relapse and the predicted relapse rate (p<0.05, RR=1.05).
Abstinence and relapse rates for those enrolling in cessation programs appeared more favorable after the implementation of Minnesota's statewide smokefree law, suggesting that smokefree policies may have a small but beneficial impact on cessation outcomes. Previous exposure to local smokefree ordinances may lessen this effect.

Download full-text


Available from: Lija O Greenseid, Jan 14, 2014
  • Source
    • "Over time, increased quit attempts may translate into effects on current smoking status. Some studies have indeed found effects of smoke-free laws on smoking prevalence and amount smoked, though the effects have been limited (Callinan et al., 2010; Schillo et al., 2012). However, the relationship between state policies and smoking behavior may be diluted by other factors in the environment, such as local smoke-free ordinances , or at the individual level. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In addition to their primary goal of protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke, smoke-free air laws may also encourage intentions to quit smoking, quit attempts, and cessation among smokers. However, laws may not encourage quitting if smokers feel threatened by them and react defensively. This study examined whether spontaneous self-affirmation - the extent to which people think about their values or strengths when they feel threatened - may reduce smokers' reactance to smoke-free laws, enhancing the ability of the laws to encourage quitting. We linked state-level information on the comprehensiveness of U.S. smoke-free laws (compiled in January, 2013 by the American Lung Association) with data from a U.S. health survey (Health Information National Trends Survey) collected from September-December, 2013 (N = 345 current smokers; 587 former smokers). Smoke-free laws interacted with self-affirmation to predict quit attempts in the past year and intentions to quit in the next six months: Smokers higher in self-affirmation reported more quit attempts and quit intentions if they lived in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws. There was some evidence of a "boomerang" effect (i.e., less likelihood of making a quit attempt) among smokers low in self-affirmation if living in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws, but this effect was significant only among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. For quit intentions, there was no evidence for a boomerang effect of smoke-free laws even among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. More comprehensive smoke-free laws were not associated with smoking status (former vs. current smoker) or average amount smoked per day, nor did they interact with self-affirmation to predict these outcomes. The impact of smoke-free policies on quit attempts and quit intentions may be moderated by psychological characteristics such as the tendency to spontaneously self-affirm. Follow-ups should experimentally manipulate self-affirmation and examine effects of smoke-free laws in controlled contexts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Social Science [?] Medicine
  • Source

    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · American journal of preventive medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · American journal of preventive medicine
Show more