Cysteine synthase (CysM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an O-phosphoserine sulfhydrylase: Evidence for an alternative cysteine biosynthesis pathway in Mycobacteria
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Journal of Biological Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 4.57).
10/2008; 283(46):31567-74. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M804877200
The biosynthesis of cysteine is a crucial metabolic pathway supplying a building block for de novo protein synthesis but also a reduced thiol as a component of the oxidative defense mechanisms that appear particularly vital in the dormant state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We here show that the cysteine synthase CysM is, in contrast to previous annotations, an O-phosphoserine-specific cysteine synthase. CysM belongs to the fold type II pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, as revealed by the crystal structure determined at 2.1-angstroms resolution. A model of O-phosphoserine bound to the enzyme suggests a hydrogen bonding interaction of the side chain of Arg220 with the phosphate group as a key feature in substrate selectivity. Replacement of this residue results in a significant loss of specificity for O-phosphoserine. Notably, reactions with sulfur donors are not affected by the amino acid replacement. The specificity of CysM toward O-phosphoserine together with the previously established novel mode of sulfur delivery via thiocarboxylated CysO (Burns, K. E., Baumgart, S., Dorrestein, P. C., Zhai, H., McLafferty, F. W., and Begley, T. P. (2005) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 11602-11603) provide strong evidence for an O-phosphoserine-based cysteine biosynthesis pathway in M. tuberculosis that is independent of both O-acetylserine and the sulfate reduction pathway. The existence of an alternative biosynthetic pathway to cysteine in this pathogen has implications for the design strategy aimed at inhibition of this metabolic route.
Available from: Uma Gautam
- "The cysteine biosynthetic pathway comprises of two arms critical for response to redox stress , . The alternative cysteine pathways utilizes thiocarboxylates for cysteine synthesis, which are more resistant to oxidative stress – the type of environment found within the MΦ . Genes encoding CysM and CysO, which are part of the alternative cysteine pathway, exhibit up regulation upon oxidative stress in both Mtb and Mtb:ΔRv2745c (comp). "
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ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Over the course of its life cycle in vivo, Mtb is exposed to a plethora of environmental stress conditions. Temporal regulation of genes involved in sensing and responding to such conditions is therefore crucial for Mtb to establish an infection. The Rv2745c (clgR) gene encodes a Clp protease gene regulator that is induced in response to a variety of stress conditions and potentially plays a role in Mtb pathogenesis. Our isogenic mutant, Mtb:ΔRv2745c, is significantly more sensitive to in vitro redox stress generated by diamide, relative to wild-type Mtb as well as to a complemented strain. Together with the fact that the expression of Rv2745c is strongly induced in response to redox stress, these results strongly implicate a role for ClgR in the management of intraphagosomal redox stress. Additionally, we observed that redox stress led to the dysregulation of the expression of the σH/σE regulon in the isogenic mutant, Mtb:ΔRv2745c. Furthermore, induction of clgR in Mtb and Mtb:ΔRv2745c (comp) did not lead to Clp protease induction, indicating that clgR has additional functions that need to be elucidated. Our data, when taken together with that obtained by other groups, indicates that ClgR plays diverse roles in multiple regulatory networks in response to different stress conditions. In addition to redox stress, the expression of Rv2745c correlates with the expression of genes involved in sulfate assimilation as well as in response to hypoxia and reaeration. Clearly, the Mtb Rv2745c-encoded ClgR performs different functions during stress response and is important for the pathogenicity of Mtb in-vivo, regardless of its induction of the Clp proteolytic pathway.
Available from: sciencedirect.com
- "Diffraction quality crystals of CysM were obtained using the protocol as described . Before data collection crystals were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, without the addition of any cryoprotectants . "
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ABSTRACT: The Silences of the Archives, the Reknown of the Story.
The Martin Guerre affair has been told many times since Jean de Coras and Guillaume Lesueur published their stories in 1561. It is in many ways a perfect intrigue with uncanny resemblance, persuasive deception and a surprizing end when the two Martin stood face to face, memory to memory, before captivated judges and a guilty feeling Bertrande de Rols. The historian wanted to go beyond the known story in order to discover the world of the heroes. This research led to disappointments and surprizes as documents were discovered concerning the environment of Artigat’s inhabitants and bearing directly on the main characters thanks to notarial contracts. Along the way, study of the works of Coras and Lesueur took a new direction. Coming back to the affair a quarter century later did not result in finding new documents (some are perhaps still buried in Spanish archives), but by going back over her tracks, the historian could only be struck by the silences of the archives that refuse to reveal their secrets and, at the same time, by the possible openings they suggest, by the intuition that almost invisible threads link here and there characters and events.
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ABSTRACT: It is generally agreed that the current automatic incident detection algorithms do not achieve the desirable levels. The widespread adoption of mobile phone use among the motoring public suggests considerable potential for incident reporting through mobile phones. The primary advantages of mobile phones are their low cost compared with the cost of a network-wide sensing system. And they are abundant. In this paper, we first explore an approach to simulate incident detection via mobile phone based on a stochastic modeling of section-wide lane traffic systems, which is the real-time estimation of the incident-induced traffic congestion and then discuss the numerical results.
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