Phytoremediation: Using Green Plants To Clean Up Contaminated Soil, Groundwater, And Wastewater

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Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive compounds in soil or water. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data from Applied Natural Sciences, Inc. (our CRADA partner), indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 g/g [ppm]) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from lysimeter pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root sys...

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    • "Many scientists have focused on accumulation of heavy metals by aquatic macrophytes (Ye et al., 1997; Mays and Edwards, 2001; G ¨ othberg et al., 2002; Manios et al., 2003; Demirezen and Aksoy, 2004; Kamal et al., 2004; Espinoza-Quinones et al., 2005; Saygideger and Dogan, 2005; Fritioff and Greger, 2006; Skinner et al., 2007; Licina et al., 2007). In addition, some have also studied the phytoremediation of aquatic macrophytes for contaminated sediment and water environments (Hinchman et al., 1998; Osmolovskaya and Kurilenko, 2001; Panich-Pat et al., 2004; Gratao et al., 2005; Audet and Charest, 2007). Among aquatic macrophytes, Typha latifolia L. is a common wetland plant that grows widely in tropic and warm regions (Ye et al., 1997). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2013
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    • "To date, numerous scientists have focused on trace elements accumulation in macrophytes (e.g., Ye et al., 1997; Manios et al., 2003; Kamal et al., 2004; Fritioff and Greger, 2006; Mazej and Germ, 2009). In addition, several scholars have also studied macrophytes for phytoremediation of contaminated sediment and water (Hinchman et al., 1998; Gratao et al., 2005; Audet and Charest, 2007). Plants play an important role in wetland geochemistry through their active/ passive transport of elements. "
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    ABSTRACT: Toxic levels of trace elements in the environment have been reported worldwide over the last few decades, and their increasing concentrations are of the utmost concern because of the adverse effects on human life and ecosystems. Several plant species are able to accumulate trace elements, and may be used for monitoring and remediation of polluted sites. This study compared the capacity of trace element bioaccumulation in three wetland plants distributed worldwide: Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. The aims were to identify which species show better potential for removal and monitoring of these elements: Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn. Results showed that all species may be used as biomonitors of trace element contamination in sediment, but only P. australis and A. donax showed also a correlation with water. Overall, T. domingensis and P. australis showed a greater capacity of bioaccumulation as well as a greater efficiency of element removal than A. donax. In particular, T. domingensis and P. australis may be used for Hg phytostabilization, the former acted also as a hyperaccumulator for Hg phytoextraction and as a promising species for As phytostabilization. In contaminated wetlands, the presence of T. domingensis and P. australis may increase the general retention of trace elements, thus, their introduction is recommended for possible actions of phytoremediation and biomonitoring.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
    • "Plants with exceptional metal-accumulating capacity are known as hyperaccumulator plants [5]. Phytoremediation takes the advantage of the unique and selective uptake capabilities of plant root systems, together with the translocation, bioaccumulation, and contaminant degradation abilities of the entire plant body [3]. Many species of plants have been successful in absorbing contaminants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and various radionuclides from soils. "
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    ABSTRACT: Heavy metals are among the most important sorts of contaminant in the environment. Several methods already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated soil and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. This paper aims to compile some information about heavy metals of arsenic, lead, and mercury (As, Pb, and Hg) sources, effects and their treatment. It also reviews deeply about phytoremediation technology, including the heavy metal uptake mechanisms and several research studies associated about the topics. Additionally, it describes several sources and the effects of As, Pb, and Hg on the environment, the advantages of this kind of technology for reducing them, and also heavy metal uptake mechanisms in phytoremediation technology as well as the factors affecting the uptake mechanisms. Some recommended plants which are commonly used in phytoremediation and their capability to reduce the contaminant are also reported.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · International Journal of Chemical Engineering
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