Comparative analysis of emm type pattern of Group A Streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India and their association with closely related SIC, a streptococcal virulence factor

Department of Experimental Medicine & Biotechnology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.
BMC Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 10/2008; 8(1):150. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-150
Source: PubMed


Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of life threatening diseases in humans and the incidence of such infections is high in developing countries like India. Although distribution of emm types of GAS in India has been described, there is a lack of data describing either the comparative distribution of emm types in throat versus skin isolates, or the distribution of certain virulence factors amongst these isolates. Therefore in the present study we have monitored the emm type pattern of Group A streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India. Additionally, the association of these isolates with closely related sic (crs), a multifunctional compliment binding virulence factor, was also explored.
Of the 94 (46 throat and 48 skin) isolates analyzed, 37 emm types were identified. The most frequently observed emm types were emm49 (8.5%) and emm112 (7.5%) followed by 6.5% each of emm1-2, emm75, emm77, and emm81. Out of 37 emm types, 27 have been previously reported and rest were isolated for the first time in the Indian Community. The predominant emm types of throat (emm49 and emm75) samples were different from those of skin (emm44, emm81 and emm112) samples. After screening all the 94 isolates, the crs gene was found in six emm1-2 (crs1-2) isolates, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing and expression analysis. Despite the polymorphic nature of crs, no intravariation was observed within crs1-2. However, insertions and deletions of highly variable sizes were noticed in comparison to CRS isolated from other emm types (emm1.0, emm57). CRS1-2 showed maximum homology with CRS57, but the genomic location of crs1-2 was found to be the same as that of sic1.0. Further, among crs positive isolates, speA was only present in skin samples thus suggesting possible role of speA in tissue tropism.
Despite the diversity in emm type pattern of throat and skin isolates, no significant association between emm type and source of isolation was observed. The finding that the crs gene is highly conserved even in two different variants of emm1-2 GAS (speA +ve and -ve) suggests a single allele of crs may be prevalent in the highly diverse throat and skin isolates of GAS in India.

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    • "However, in these recent two Mumbai-based cross-sectional surveys only a minority of the isolates recovered had the genetic capability to produce SIC or DRS (one isolate of emm1 and 3 isolates of emm12; Table 2). Similar studies conducted on isolates from different parts of India showed that emm1 and emm57 (SIC-positive types) are in general rarely recovered; and in some studies emm12, a DRS-positive type, was recovered [28-33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an etiological agent for the immune mediated sequela post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). In some populations PSGN is recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It was found that a significantly greater proportion of subjects with past history of PSGN than without the history exhibited seroreactions to streptococcal antigens called streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) and to distantly related SIC (DRS). These antigens are expressed by major PSGN-associated GAS types. We therefore predicted that in populations such as India, which is endemic for streptococcal diseases and which has high prevalence of CKD and ESRD, greater proportions of CKD and ESRD patients exhibit seroreaction to SIC and DRS than healthy controls. Methods To test this we conducted a SIC and DRS seroprevalence study in subjects from Mumbai area. We recruited 100 CKD, 70 ESRD and 70 healthy individuals. Results Nineteen and 35.7% of CKD and ESRD subjects respectively were SIC antibody-positive, whereas only 7% of healthy cohort was seropositive to SIC. Furthermore, significantly greater proportion of the ESRD patients than the CKD patients is seropositive to SIC (p=0.02; odds ratio 2.37). No association was found between the renal diseases and DRS-antibody-positivity. Conclusions Past infection with SIC-positive GAS is a risk factor for CKD and ESRD in Mumbai population. Furthermore, SIC seropositivity is predictive of poor prognosis of CKD patients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · BMC Nephrology
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    • "The emmL gene polymorphisms have also been identified in human GGS isolates [6]. Several emm and emmL types of streptococci have been reported in India [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The major virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of streptococcal strains include M protein encoded by emm and emm-like (emmL) genes and superantigens. In this study, the distribution of emm, emmL and superantigen genes was analyzed among the streptococcal strains isolated from the patients of acute pharyngitis. The streptococcal strains were isolated from the throat swabs of 1040 patients of acute pharyngitis. The emm and emmL genes were PCR amplified from each strain and sequenced to determine the emm types. The dot-blot hybridization was performed to confirm the pathogens as true emm nontypeable strains. The presence of eleven currently known superantigens was determined in all the strains by multiplex PCR. Totally, 124 beta-hemolytic streptococcal strains were isolated and they were classified as group A streptococcus (GAS) [15.3% (19/124)], group C streptococcus (GCS) [59.7% (74/124)] and group G streptococcus (GGS) [25.0% (31/124)]. Among 124 strains, only 35 strains were emm typeable and the remaining 89 strains were emm nontypeable. All GAS isolates were typeable, whereas most of the GCS and GGS strains were nontypeable. These nontypeable strains belong to S. anginosus [75.3% (67/89)] and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis [24.7% (22/89)]. The emm and emmL types identified in this study include emm12.0 (28.6%), stG643.0 (28.6%), stC46.0 (17.0%), emm30.11 (8.5%), emm3.0 (2.9%), emm48.0 (5.7%), st3343.0 (2.9%), emm107.0 (2.9%) and stS104.2 (2.9%). Various superantigen profiles were observed in typeable as well as nontypeable strains. Multiplex PCR analysis revealed the presence of superantigens in all the typeable strains irrespective of their emm types. However, the presence of superantigen genes in emm and emmL nontypeable strains has not been previously reported. In this study, presence of at least one or a combination of superantigen coding genes was identified in all the emm and emmL nontypeable strains. Thus, the superantigens may inevitably play an important role in the pathogenesis of these nontypeable strains in the absence of the primary virulence factor, M protein.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
    • "The sfb gene proportion was also comparable to published data with the frequency ranging between 50-70 per cent in all clinical isolates16. We could not find any GAS isolate positive for sic gene in contrast to closely related sic (crs) and distantly related sic (drs) genes encoding this protein reported recently from India and Japan1517. It has been reported that all M1 and M57 strains have sic (crs); and all M12 and M55 strains have sic (drs) and hence express the respective proteins18. "
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    ABSTRACT: Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis, especially among children, leads to high prevalence of rheumatic fever (RF)/rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in India, as compared to the western world where invasive diseases are common. GAS encodes numerous virulence factors that cause diseases by exhibiting extraordinary biological diversity. Hence, we studied the virulence factors genes of GAS isolated from the throat of children with pharyngitis and also asymptomatic carriers. Fifty GAS isolates cultured from throats of north Indian children aged 5-15 yr with mild pharyngitis (20), severe pharyngitis (24) and asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers (6), during 2000-2003 along with reference M1 strain were emm typed and characterized for virulence factors genes by PCR. The presence of virulence factors was also checked for their association with emm type in pharyngitis. Twenty emm types, six sequence types, and one non-typeable strain were found circulating in north India. The five most prevalent types were emm 74 (12%), 11 & StI129 (8% each) and emm 68 and NS292 (6% each). The spe B gene was found to be significantly higher (P=0.0007) in opacity factor (OF) negative isolates. emm 3, 11, 77, 86, 87, 109 and StI129 showed maximum virulence factors genes. GAS isolates collected from throats of children from north India possess highly virulent antigens. This study also supports concept of isolate-associated virulence rather than type relatedness.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
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