Article

Cramming: A Barrier to Student Success, a Way to Beat the System or an Effective Learning Strategy

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Abstract

Tested the hypothesis that cramming is an ineffective study strategy by examining the weekly study diaries of 166 undergraduates. All Ss also completed an end-of-semester questionnaire measuring study habits. Ss were classified in the following study patterns: ideal, confident, zealous, or crammer. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest that cramming is an effective approach, most widespread in courses using take-home essay examinations and major research papers. Crammers' grades were as good as or better than those of Ss using other strategies; the longer Ss were in college, the more likely it was that they crammed. Crammers studied more hours than most students and were as interested in their courses as other students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Other studies have also shown that procrastination presents some benefits, too. For instance, Vacha and McBride (1993) found that students who procrastinated were more likely to cram, and that crammers did better than noncrammers by using superior study strategies to attain maximum effectiveness. Sommer (1990) asserted that high ability students maximized the effectiveness of their study time by doing a carefully-orchestrated cycle of procrastination and cramming. ...
... Although researchers in the field of social and personality psychology have recognized this new development on procrastination (e.g. Alexander & Onwuegbuzie, 2007;Bui, 2007;Howell & Watson, 2007;Hu, Huhmann, & Hyman, 2007;Vacha & McBride, 1993), few studies have expanded on this idea and that no researcher in the field of educational psychology has taken serious steps in making a reliable and valid adaptive/maladaptive academic procrastination instrument. In this study, I developed a measure that could accurately represent a distinct and independent adaptive academic procrastination construct different from the traditional maladaptive construct. ...
... These researchers found cognitive efficiency and peak experience as the dimensions of adaptive procrastination. This scale development also incorporated the factors that previous researchers (e.g., Chu & Choi, 2005;Bui, 2007;Ferrari & Diaz-Morales , 2007;Hu, et al., 2007;Vacha & McBride, 1993) considered when they argued that there were active or arousal procrastinators and there were also passive or the traditional procrastinators. These factors considered under adaptive procrastination were deliberate procrastination, preference for pressure, ability to meet deadlines, and outcome satisfaction. ...
Article
This study evaluated the factor structure and internal consistency of a new academic procrastination measure employing both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination. Two hundred fifty college students responded to a 150-item initial instrument. Factor analysis using oblique rotation revealed three subscales: Structured Procrastination, Unstructured Procrastination, and Non-Procrastination. Confirmatory Factor Analysis resulted to a new 65-item academic procrastination scale that could distinguish structured procrastination with desirable outcomes from unstructured procrastination with undesirable outcomes. The three subscales showed good internal consistency reliabilities with structured procrastination getting a reliability coefficient of α= 0.928, unstructured procrastination α= 0.914, and non-procrastination α= 0.792. A significant relationship was also found between structured procrastination and unstructured procrastination (r = .346, p <.001), which illustrated the convergent and discriminant validity of the constructs. The new academic procrastination measure had the potential to be adopted in any academic settings and could be used to investigate behavioral factors related to academic achievement's antecedents and consequences.
... R. Sommer (1968, p. 105) generated an early definition of cramming as "a period of neglect of study followed by a concentrated burst of studying immediately before an exam." Vacha and McBride (1993) assessed cramming at Gonzaga University that was measured by a diary report collected at the end of each week during the term. They operationalized cramming as "students who largely neglected studying for three or more weeks" and then exercised a "burst of study before the tests" (p. ...
... This seems intuitively plausible as stated, but notice that the statement does not focus exclusively on multiple-choice exams. On the other hand, Vacha and McBride (1993), in a larger empirical study of 166 students, stated that "our data do not support the hypothesis that students are more likely to cram if evaluation is primarily based on performance on multiple choice tests or other examinations calling for memorization" (p. 8). ...
... Moreover, Vacha and McBride (1993) reported that "most inexperienced college students heed the advice of 'experts' and avoid cramming." However, "by the time they are seniors, many appear to have discovered that cramming is an effective approach" (p. ...
Article
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Cramming for finals is common on college campuses, and many students seem to cram for their final in the Principles of Marketing course. This article addresses the question of defining and measuring a “cramming study strategy.” Scales are developed to assess (a) cramming for courses in general and (b) cramming specifically in the Principles of Marketing course relative to two other study strategies. Several research questions about cramming are addressed, including (a) How widespread is the practice? (b) How effective do students perceive it to be? (c) How effective is it actually, both in the short and long term, for students' GPA and grade in the Principles of Marketing course? and (d) Is there a deterioration in retention, as measured by a master test, of content learned in the Principles course from using more of a cramming study strategy? Implications are discussed, particularly in light of various pedagogical approaches to combating learning decay, and areas for future research are suggested.
... This popularly used proxy for effort has been extensively investigated in educational research. Earlier research relies heavily on self-reported data that reflect students' perceptions of effort or time spent, rather than objectively-measured effort, in learning activities (Rich, 2006). Recent advances in instructional technology enable researchers to access data capturing the actual time students spend online. ...
... Regardless of data collection methods, findings of previous literature indicate mixed results concerning the association between student performance and effort, measured by duration of time spent in studying. Thus whether extra time or effort from students enhances or harms performance remains unclear (Rich, 2006). ...
... Their findings suggest that longer time spent online is related to higher grades, but they also discuss that the time spent on online assignments only accounts for quantitative dimension of students' effort. For instance, both Rich (2006) and Calafiore & Damianov (2011) suggest that a student's GPA, an important measurement of intellectual ability, also captures time commitment and the quality of studying. That is, some students do not need more time to achieve the same learning objectives because they are able to absorb knowledge in a more effective and efficient way than others, while on the other hand students with lower ability may not study effectively (Rich, 2006;Calafiore & Damianov, 2011;Borg, Mason, & Shapiro, 1989). ...
... That is, extroverts embrace the exciting self-induced challenge and time pressure at or right before the deadline by virtue of a later start. Indeed, in a qualitative study by Schraw et al. (2007), several students reported that they intentionally delayed some tasks simply because they affectively preferred the peak experience while cramming (Brinthaupt & Shin, 2001;Sommer, 1990;Vacha & McBride, 1993) which often involves a sustained state of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). Also owing to their general positivity and optimism, extroverts tend to feel confident about achieving satisfactory outcomes within deadlines (Chu & Choi, 2005;Corkin et al., 2011;Klassen et al., 2008;Lindt et al., 2014;Schraw et al., 2007), which is another key defining feature of AP. ...
Article
What are active procrastinators like? Past research examining the Big Five personality predictors of active procrastination (AP) has found Extraversion and Emotional Stability to be predictive of such a behavioral characteristic. Yet, previous studies suffered from the fact that data were solely collected from undergraduates in academic settings using self-reports of personality. Attempting to extend the personality-AP associations among college students to working adults as well as to expand our knowledge on the personality profiles of active procrastinators according to both self- and other reports, the present study investigated the predictive effects of N = 173 full-time employees’ Big Five personality traits on their AP behaviors in the workplace via self- and supervisor-rated personality. Results revealed that Extraversion and Emotional Stability predicted AP across both rating sources and that in the supervisor-rating results only, the trait Agreeableness emerged as another (negative) predictor of AP. In light of recent developments with multimethod studies in the field of personality research, we discussed possible reasons for the current findings together with the study implications for research and practice related to AP at work.
... Even if this is contrary to popular belief, waiting until the last minute to meet a deadline may be an effective study strategy for some students and certain courses and some empirical evidence can support this rationale. For example, Vacha (1993) reported that cramming was an effective studying tactic for courses that use take-home essay exams and research papers as significant parts of the course grade. They found crammers' grades were as good as or better than those students using other study tactics. ...
Article
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Available empirical research investigating the relationship that study time has with college student performance has seen mixed results. Positive, negative, and no relationship between the two variables has been reported (G. A. Krohn & C. M. O'Conner, 200523. Krohn , G. A. and O'Conner , C. M. 2005 . Student effort and performance over semester . Journal of Economic Education , 36 : 3 – 29 . [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references; A. G. Lahmers & C. Zulauf, 200024. Lahmers , A. G. and Zulauf , C. 2000 . The secret to academic success: Hours and hours of study . Journal of College Student Development , 41 : 545 – 554 . View all references; R. M. Schmidt, 198338. Schmidt , R. M. 1983 . Who maximizes what? Study in student time allocation . American Economic Review , 73 : 23 – 28 . [Web of Science ®]View all references). At a time when there is overwhelming evidence that students are devoting less time to their studies (Higher Education Research Institute, 200321. Higher Education Research Institute . 2003 . The official press release for the American Freshmen 2002 , Los Angeles : University of California . View all references), it is critical for educators who desire to encourage and motivate their students to engage in productive study behavior to first understand the true nature of this relationship. The authors investigated the influence of a third variable, study habits. Based on a sample of business students, results showed some study habits had a positive direct relationship on student performance but others had a negative direct relationship. Results also showed 1 study habit moderated the relationship between study time and student performance positively, but another study habit moderated the relationship negatively. Discussion of the findings, implications, and directions for further research are also provided.
... Past research has paid prime attention to the nature, antecedents, etiology, and consequences of academic procrastination. Only a few studies and publications focus on coping strategies to help students reduce procrastination (Alexander and Onwuegbuzie, 2007;Onwuegbuzie, 2004;Sommer, 1990;Tullier, 2000;Vacha and McBride, 1993;Wang and Englander, 2010). These strategies include cognitive-oriented strategies such as identifying and prioritizing goals, allocating appropriate time and resources to each goal and cognitive reframing "in which individuals constructed explanations for their actions that framed those actions in a positive light" (Schraw et al., 2007, p. 20). ...
Article
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This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group variability pertaining to levels of procrastination predicted the group product (i.e., quality of article critique). However, cooperative groups that attained the highest levels of procrastination due to task aversiveness, on average, tended to be those with the lowest levels of performance on the group product. Groups with the lowest levels of achievement tended to be those containing students who reported procrastinating most frequently on performing administrative tasks (26.4% of the variance explained), keeping up with weekly reading assignments (8.8% of the variance explained), and writing term papers (11.8% of the variance explained). These three procrastination variables together explained 46.9% of the variance in performance. This finding suggests that level of academic procrastination appears to play an important role among graduate students with respect to the performance of cooperative learning groups.
... In educational settings, however, massed and distributed practice may be conceptualized somewhat more specifically. Massed practice might involve a student repeatedly rehearsing or reviewing the same material in 1 day (also referred to as cramming; Vacha & McBride, 1993), which may occur immediately before an exam. Distributed practice might involve spacing the same amount of study time across several days before an exam. ...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of massed and distributed practice on the acquisition of tacts and textual behavior in typically developing children. We compared the effects of massed practice (i.e., consolidating all practice opportunities during the week into a single session) and distributed practice (i.e., distributing all practice opportunities across 4 sessions during the week) on the acquisition of textual behavior in English, tacting pictures of common nouns in Spanish, and textual behavior in Spanish using an adapted alternating treatments design embedded within a multiple probe design. We also examined correct responding during probes that (a) excluded prompts and reinforcement and (b) occurred 48 hr after training each week. The results indicated that distributed practice was the more efficient training format. Maintenance data collected up to 4 weeks after training also indicated that the participants consistently displayed higher levels of correct responding to targets that had been trained in distributed format. We discuss implications for practice and potential areas for future research.
... Additionally, these findings conflict with the work of Pease (1930), and the work of Norris, Baddeley, and Page (2004), both of which found that cramming improved performance. The present study does however support the beliefs uncovered by Vascha and McBride (1993), in that cramming students in this study did perform as well as their non-cramming counterparts. ...
Article
Cramming refers to the practice of intense study in close temporal proximity to an impending exam, and is an often-utilized study method in today's fast-paced world. In the present study, researchers investigated the efficacy of cramming. In a quasi-experiment, one group of students crammed by studying immediately before a test of symbol recall, while another group of students performed a cognitive task between studying and their test. Analysis of test scores showed that there was no significant difference between cramming and non-cramming test-preparation techniques. This research might be useful to students attempting to justify cramming, or to teachers attempting to find new methods of test preparation. Pages: 11-13 The lives of Americans are amongst the most hectic in the world (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). Therefore, any time saved can potentially help relieve the stress of a busy lifestyle. One might wonder, however, whether efforts to save time impact the performance of one's daily tasks and charges. One time-saving practice is "cramming." Cramming refers to the practice where a student studies the material of an impending examination starting at some period preceding the exam, and stops studying at a time very close to the beginning of the exam, in many cases as the test materials are handed out. One of the few surveys done on the subject indicates that many students view cramming favorably (Sommer, 1968). Additionally, there are self-report data that indicate that students who engage in cramming often have high grade point averages, and believe that they perform as well or better than their non-cramming counterparts (Vascha & McBride, 1993). Creating further support for cramming is an experiment conducted by Barrouilet, Bernardin, and Camos (2004) investigating memory span. The researchers concluded that short-term memory decays as a function of time if rehearsal is not permitted. Based on this work, one might expect that if students are relying on short-term memory for the test, less time allowed to lapse between the last look at study 1 Kent Van Note (vann0114@umn.edu) is a senior in the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Minnesota. He will receive his BA in Psychology in the Fall of 2009. His interests include biological and social psychology. After graduation, Kent plans to attend graduate school and pursue a Master's Degree in Social Work.
... Brinthaupt & Shin, 2001) and equally unpopular among educators (with the possible exception of teachers preparing a class for an upcoming high-stakes standardised test). Cramming is the opposite of spacing, but cramming has its own advantages (Vacha & McBride, 1993). The main advantage of cramming in the present context is that there is little time for forgetting between the time of study and the time of the test. ...
Article
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The spacing effect—that is, the benefit of spacing learning events apart rather than massing them together—has been demonstrated in hundreds of experiments, but is not well known to educators or learners. I investigated the spacing effect in the realistic context of flashcard use. Learners often divide flashcards into relatively small stacks, but compared to a large stack, small stacks decrease the spacing between study trials. In three experiments, participants used a web-based study programme to learn GRE-type word pairs. Studying one large stack of flashcards (i.e. spacing) was more effective than studying four smaller stacks of flashcards separately (i.e. massing). Spacing was also more effective than cramming—that is, massing study on the last day before the test. Across experiments, spacing was more effective than massing for 90% of the participants, yet after the first study session, 72% of the participants believed that massing had been more effective than spacing. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Cramming strategies tend to result in poor performance and atrocious rates of knowledge retention (Vacha and McBride 1993). The recent neurobiology evidence that informs testing effect gains also suggests why cramming strategies tend to fail. ...
... The results showed that with 84 days left until the exam the number of hours spent studying was a bit more than one hour per day, but with four days left until the exam the number of hours spent studying was about seven hours per day (Schouwenburg & Groenewoud, 2001). In a study by Vacha and McBride (1993), and contrary to their hypothesis, students with cramming strategies got grades as good or better than those with other strategies. One of the reasons why cramming strategies can result in high academic achievement is that there is little time to forget when cramming, thus student scores are boosted by short-lived memories (Kornell, 2009). ...
Thesis
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Students today often feel that they have too much to do and too little time. A common strategy to remedy this is to take advantage of opportunities to use “inter-time”, the time between other activities such as waiting or traveling. The aim of this thesis is to explore how studying using mobile devices in higher education can be designed for such opportunities. I choose to call this Opportunistic Mobile Studying (OMS). Using a design-based research approach this thesis discusses and proposes both scientific and practical contributions. A number of iterations of OMS have been designed, instantiated and tested in university courses and then evaluated using mixed methods. The first research question is how can OMS be designed to support students in adopting the behavior of studying at opportune moments. The results have been framed and interpreted using the Fogg Behavior Model, where behavior is the product of motivation, simplicity, and triggers. The results suggest that a key factor for motivation is procrastination, and therefore deadlines can be used to predict and suggest what students would likely be interested in studying during OMS moments. Simplicity is increased if OMS is adapted for studying in short fragmented moments, where important aspects are that content should be short, easy to access and easy to navigate. Trigger reminders were particularly appreciated and should be triggered based on time and place. Commuting is identified as a good context to build a routine of studying using OMS. The second research question is how can OMS activities and content be designed to support efficient studying in OMS situations. Study- activities identified as especially suitable for OMS situations are those that focus on preparation and repetition. These activities can enhance other learning activities and efficient studying can be accomplished even if only a little time is available. Examples of successful methods for this tested in this thesis include advance organizers and flashcards. Longer and more comprehensive studying material can be used if quick and easy navigation within the material is provided, for example, by using synchronized narrated slides such as enhanced podcasts.
... There is, however, still a discussion about whether cramming or spacing leads to a better learning performance. Studies have shown that students learning by cramming often achieve good results in exams (Vacha & McBride, 1993). This may be one of the reasons why many students prefer this way of learning, especially when preparing for a test (Sommer, 1968). ...
Conference Paper
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Forgetting is one of the common problems in learning. While students might grasp an idea when it is being presented in a lecture they might only vaguely remember it two weeks later and they might have completely forgotten it when the final exams are due. One way out of this is concentrated learning right before the test, also called cramming, massing or bulimic learning in order to highlight the fact that knowledge is only retained for a very brief time. Another approach is spaced repetition learning in which learning items are presented in growing intervals in such a way that the students never really forget and that knowledge is reinforced with each repetition. This paper presents a study in which learning items were incorporated into a mobile learning game in order to make the spaced repetition approach as transparent as possible to the students. The game was used in a database lecture and students reported good usability and learning efficiency.
... Further another study by Rakes & Dunn (2010) concluded that when students have less self-regulation and intrinsic motivation, there is an increase in procrastination Previous studies have paid major attention to the nature, etiology, consequences and antecedents, of academic procrastination. Only few investigators emphasis on coping strategies to help students decrease procrastination Vacha & McBride, 1993;Alexander & Onwuegbuzie, 2007;Wang & Englander, 2010). These approaches contain cognitive-oriented approaches like as prioritizing and identifying goals, assigning suitable resources and time to each goal and cognitive reframing in which individuals fabricated clarifications for their activities that outlined those activities in an optimistic light" . ...
Article
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The present investigation was conducted to examine the relationship between academic procrastination and academic performance among university students. The respondents of the study were 380 university students were selected via convenient sampling technique. The results show that: there exists significant difference between male and female university students in their academic procrastination; there exists significant difference between male and female university students in their academic performance. Further that there exists a significant negative relationship between academic procrastination and academic performance of university students. Moreover, the dimensions of academic procrastination such as time management, task aversiveness, sincerity and personal initiative were negatively related to academic performance of students. The result indicates that those who have higher level of academic procrastination they have lower academic performance.
Article
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ABSTRACT... Objectives: To determine the efficacy of Local Education System and GCSE system by comparing the scores obtained by first yearMBBS students of both streams of education in the first professional exam. The study also determined the effect of education systems on the study habits of these students. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad. Period: June 2015 to June 2016. Methods: Students of first year MBBS were interviewed by the researcher by using a close ended questionnaire to compare the study habits between the two groups. First professional exam scores and study habits were noted and compared in both the groups of students coming from two different educational systems by applying Independent Sample T test and Chi Square (χ2 ) test of independence, respectively, using SPSS 21 version. Results: After analysing the data gathered, it was found that students from both the systems performed equally in the first professional exams irrespective of their educational background, hence there is no relationship between the type of secondary education and performance in professional examinations. Similarly, there was no association between the study habits and the system of education. Our study concludes that study habits are personal traits and vary from one student to another student. Conclusion: The performance of students cannot be calculated simply through the system of education because of the complex and intermingled associations between cognitive, affective and contextual factors in higher education. This study concludes that predictability of academic success based on education system attended is questionable.
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This paper presents ethnographic data on the social world of a group of four college-student crack-cocaine users. A comparative theory of modes of crack using is developed, grounded in strategic comparisons among these data and previously published accounts of the lives of impoverished “street” users. Two social-organizational conditions shielded the campus users from the kinds of crack-related trouble observed in other settings: the security of their social, economic, and physical environment and the boundedness of the spheres of their social lives. Additionally, two related ways of understanding crack served to limit trouble: orienting to crack as a social object to be used only in leisure rituals and the understanding that crack should not impinge on spheres of life outside the using group.
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The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages, identifying 33 initial categories and 29 macrothemes. Findings were validated by member checks. The authors describe in detail informants' perceptions of procrastination, which were used to construct a 5-component paradigm model that includes adaptive (i.e., cognitive efficiency, peak experience) and maladaptive (i.e., fear of failure, postponement) dimensions of procrastination. These dimensions, in turn, are related to conditions that affect the amount and type of procrastination, as well as cognitive (i.e., prioritizing, optimization) and affective (i.e., reframing, self-handicapping) coping mechanisms. The authors propose 6 general principles and relate them and the paradigm model to previous research. Limitations of the research are discussed, as well as implications for future theory development and validation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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With the introduction of teaching quality audits, attention is being directed towards methods of assessment. In the present study students were asked what qualities they perceived in continuous assessment and examinations. This was considered important in light of the view that assessment techniques can be used to motivate students. It appeared that in many respects students regarded the former as being fairer, and measuring a greater range of abilities. The main findings were that students' reactions varied according to age and gender, but that overall the view was that continuous assessment should not be involved in much more than half of their grade measurement.
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The purpose in this study was to examine the relationships among procrastination, flow, and academic achievement. The data were collected from 172 Korean undergraduates. The results indicated that there was not a relationship between students' procrastination and academic achievement and that, even though procrastination increased the likelihood of flow-like experiences, the procrastinators were not likely to perform better in an examination because of flow. The implications of this study are discussed.
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a need of a pedagogical and psychological support for Polish students to develop by them their style of studying, especially for first and second course students with aspect to academic cramming. Moreover, the paper was aimed to show the examples of organizational frames for such sup- port successful practiced at American universities. Material and methods: The questionnaire investigation on coping with stress and attitude to academic cramming was car- ried out among 200 Polish students. The results were validated with histograms and Cronbach's alpha and then compared with known from literature results of analogous research on 161 American students using 95% confidence intervals. The survey of American academic sites was made in aspect of a pedagogical and psychological support for students. Results: It was stated that Polish students are quite similar to their American peers, so they both need similarly extensive support in the matter. Conclusions: Polish universities should develop organi- zational forms for a pedagogical and psychological support for their students. It seems that American experience can be helpful there.
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A procrastinação acadêmica é um grande problema para estudantes universitários, especialmente nos Estados Unidos. Este artigo discute teorias de motivação e analisa a investigação sobre os fatores, incluindo gênero e cultura, que podem influenciar na procrastinação. Um conjunto abrangente e comparativo de estudos é recomendado.
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The purpose in this study was to examine whether or not the effect of active procrastination on academic achievement is significantly different according to how long before the examination students begin cramming and whether or not active procrastinators get a better grade than passive procrastinators when they begin to cram the day before an examination. The data were collected from 172 Korean undergraduates. The results show that there was no significant difference in academic achievement among the 3 groups of active procrastinators in terms of how much cramming they did, but there was a significant difference in academic achievement between active procrastinators and passive procrastinators in the group who began cramming only 1 day or less before the examination. The implications of this study are discussed.
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Postsecondary education has undergone dramatic changes in the past 30 years or so. When I began teaching at the college level in the mid-1980s I went to class clutching my scribbled notes and a piece of chalk. If I scheduled it well in advance, a few times each semester I could have someone wheel in an overhead or film projector. Students typed papers and I provided handwritten feedback. I typed exams on a stencil, duplicated them on a mimeograph machine, and painstakingly graded each one by hand. Those were not the good old days. Today we have seemingly endless options available to us when it comes to the delivery of course material and the assessment of student learning. As instructors, we create learning environments rich in information from many sources. We encourage our students to engage with the material and become active learners rather than passive recipients of knowledge. As our views of teaching and learning continue to evolve, it is tempting to discard less exciting and more traditional methods altogether as we embrace the future. I would argue that the decidedly old-fashioned quiz, however, deserves a place in this brave new world of education.
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Sharing the results of her four-year research journey in simple, jargon-free language, Pryce-Jones exposes the secrets of being happy at work. Focuses on what happiness really means in a work context and why it matters to individuals and organisations in both human and financial terms. Equips readers with the information, knowledge and skills to make the most of the nearly 100,000 hours that they'll spend at work over a lifetime. Demystifies psychological research through a fascinating array of anecdotes, case studies, and interviews from people in the trenches of the working world, including business world-leaders, politicians, particle physicists, and philosophers, sheep farmers, waitresses, journalists, teachers, and lawyers, to name just a few.
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This study examined passive and active procrastination among undergraduate anatomy students in terms of background variables, motivational beliefs (i.e., belief about the speed of knowledge acquisition, self-efficacy, and task value), and grades. Factor analysis revealed three discrete factors of active procrastination, one of which was closely tied to passive procrastination and behavioral procrastination. Analyses indicated that the relations to motivational beliefs and grades were markedly different for, on the one hand, two factors of active procrastination (positive relations) and, on the other hand, passive procrastination and the third factor of active procrastination (negative relations). After controlling for academic ability, only passive procrastination was a statistically significant predictor of grades. Results imply that the dimensions of active procrastination that appear adaptive for learning may not reflect behavioral procrastination, whereas the dimension of active procrastination that involves behavioral procrastination lacks adaptive associations.
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