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Fairness Reactions to Personnel Selection Techniques in France and United States

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The authors examined the bases for fairness reactions to different selection practices and considered cross-cultural differences in these reactions by comparing respondents from 2 cultures. College students ( N = 259) from France and the United States rated the favorability of 10 selection procedures and then indicated the bases for these reactions on 7 procedural dimensions. Selection decisions based on interviews, work-sample tests, and resumes were perceived favorably in both cultures. Graphology was perceived more favorably in France than in the United States, but even French reactions toward graphology were somewhat negative. The perceived face validity of the selection procedure was the strongest correlate of favorability reactions among both samples. Beyond comparing the results from each culture, the discussion addresses implications for multinational companies establishing selection systems in foreign countries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Steiner and Gilliland (2001) claimed that the perception of applicants might vary across nations and cultures. In this context, applicant reactions to 10 common and popular selection methods (interviews, résumés, work samples, biodata, written ability tests, personal references, personality tests, honesty tests, personal contacts and graphology) examined through Steiner and Gilliland's instrument (1996) in US and France (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), in United States and Singapore (Phillips & Gully, 2002), in Spain and Portugal (Moscoso & Salgado, 2004), Italy (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007), Greece (Nikolaou & Judge, 2007), and in Netherlands (Anderson & Witvliet, 2008). The above cited studies pointed out that except some minor discrepancies; results concerning fairness perceptions among countries were similar. ...
... • First, it is to investigate applicant reactions to 10 popular selection methods by using the same method with Steiner and Gilliland (1996) in Turkey that has somewhat different cultural values as compared to above mentioned countries that have been studied before. ...
... • USA and France (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996) • USA and Singapore (Phillips & Gully, 2002) • Spain and Portugal (Moscoso & Salgado, 2004) • Italy (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007) • Greece (Nikolaou & Judge, 2007) • Netherlands (Anderson & Witvliet, 2008) In all of these researches, the questionnaire improved by Steiner and Gilliard (1996) was used by translating to local country's language. By doing so, levels of the reactions to 10 selection methods namely, interviews, résumés/CV, work sampling test, biographical information, written ability test, personal references, personality tests, honesty tests, personal contacts and graphology analysis were tried to be determined. ...
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Mevcut çalışmada, 240 üniversite son sınıf öğrenciden oluşan bir örneklemde, 10 personel seçim yöntemine yönelik adalet tepkileri incelenmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre, personel seçim yöntemleri arasında en olumlu değerlendirilen yöntemler; özgeçmişler, iş-örnek testleri, dürüstlük testleri ve yazılı yetenek testleridir. Diğer yandan, kişisel bağlantılar, grafoloji ve kişisel referanslar sırasıyla en olumsuz yöntem olarak tespit edilmiştir. Personel seçim prosedürlerinin bilimsel kanıtları, algılanan geçerliliği ve uygulama fırsatı, süreç uygunluk derecelerini tahmin etmek için en güçlü prosedürel adalet boyutlarıdır. Çalışmanın bulguları, diğer ülkelerde personel seçim yöntemlerine adalet tepkisini belirlemek için benzer metodolojileri kullanan çalışmaların bulguları ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Ayrıca, demografik faktörlerin süreç uygunluğu ve prosedürel boyutlara etkisi tartışılmıştır.
... Lors du processus de recrutement, les candidats sont amenés à porter un regard sur les outils utilisés pour décider de leur sélection ou de leur rejet. La théorie de la Justice organisationnelle (JO) s'est particulièrement intéressée aux perceptions de ces derniers au cours du processus de sélection (Gilliland, 1993;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Trois dimensions de la justice procédurale ont été proposées : la pertinence de la procédure par rapport à l'emploi ; l'opportunité de montrer ses points forts ; le traitement interpersonnel et la bienséance des questions posées. ...
... Le choix des outils de sélection participe largement à l'expérience de justice des candidats : selon le modèle proposé par Gilliland (1993), quatre dimensions de justice procédurale s'appliquent aux techniques de sélections : sa pertinence par rapport à l'emploi, l'opportunité pour le candidat de démontrer ses compétences, le traitement interpersonnel et la bienséance des questions. A l'aune de ces dimension, les tests d'honnêteté, les contacts personnels et la graphologie sont par exemple les techniques perçues les moins favorablement (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Dès 1993, Smither, Reilly, Millsap & Stoffey ont conclu que les simulations, les entretiens et les tests cognitifs obtenaient des scores de favorabilité plus élevés que d'autres méthodes. ...
... Dès 1993, Smither, Reilly, Millsap & Stoffey ont conclu que les simulations, les entretiens et les tests cognitifs obtenaient des scores de favorabilité plus élevés que d'autres méthodes. En France comme aux Etats Unis, les entretiens, les CV, les échantillons de travail sont les méthodes de sélection évaluées le plus positivement (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Anderson & Witvliet (2008) ont comparé en 2008 les scores de favorabilité de ces différentes méthodes dans plusieurs pays et ont conclu aux similarités dans les réactions des candidats. ...
Conference Paper
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On joue mieux avec un ballon gonflé … et si c’était aussi vrai dans le domaine du recrutement ? Recruterait-on mieux avec des outils plus innovants ? Cette question classique conserve toute son actualité dans un contexte de renforcement de la lutte contre les discriminations et de promotion de la diversité sur le lieu de travail : les expérimentations se multiplient à l’heure actuelle pour parvenir à un recrutement plus inclusif, respectueux de la diversité (recrutement sans CV, exploitation des possibilités d’appariement offertes par les données massives, CV vidéo, CV anonyme…). A l’heure actuelle, le CV demeure l’outil de présélection le plus fréquemment utilisé en France, mais il est l’objet de critiques largement documentées dans la littérature, car il engendre l’activation de stéréotypes à l’origine de comportements discriminatoires (tout au moins dans la forme habituelle qu’il revêt en France). Ces discriminations sont doublement délétères : elles privent les organisations de salariés compétents et provoquent chez les candidats rejetés un sentiment d’injustice, dont les effets négatifs ont été largement étudiés. Dans ce contexte, le CV anonyme a été présenté comme un outil de présélection à la fois innovant, simple et efficace pour neutraliser les discriminations en matière d’accès à l’entretien, et permettant indirectement d’encourager la diversification de la main d’œuvre. Nous formulons l’hypothèse que cet outil est bien perçu par les candidats et participe à la perception d’un sentiment de justice quant à la procédure de sélection. Dans un cadre expérimental, 316 candidats ont été invités à évaluer des séries aléatoires de CV anonymes ou non anonymes. Leur jugement a été comparé à celui de 1086 recruteurs testés dans les mêmes conditions. Ils ont été ensuite interrogés sur leur sentiment de justice vis-à-vis de la méthode de présélection utilisée. Les résultats montrent que les candidats placés en situation de recruteurs et les recruteurs professionnels adoptent des formes de jugement très proches (des comportements discriminatoires identiques apparaissent dans les deux échantillons). Le CV en général est globalement perçu comme un support de présélection efficace par les candidats, mais ceux qui ont été exposés à des séries de CV anonymes considèrent le processus de sélection comme plus éthique que ceux exposés à des séries de CV nominatifs.
... Lors du processus de recrutement, les candidats sont amenés à porter un regard sur les outils utilisés pour décider de leur sélection ou de leur rejet. La théorie de la Justice organisationnelle (JO) s'est particulièrement intéressée aux perceptions de ces derniers au cours du processus de sélection (Gilliland, 1993;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Trois dimensions de la justice procédurale ont été proposées : la pertinence de la procédure par rapport à l'emploi ; l'opportunité de montrer ses points forts ; le traitement interpersonnel et la bienséance des questions posées. ...
... Le choix des outils de sélection participe largement à l'expérience de justice des candidats : selon le modèle proposé par Gilliland (1993), quatre dimensions de justice procédurale s'appliquent aux techniques de sélections : sa pertinence par rapport à l'emploi, l'opportunité pour le candidat de démontrer ses compétences, le traitement interpersonnel et la bienséance des questions. A l'aune de ces dimension, les tests d'honnêteté, les contacts personnels et la graphologie sont par exemple les techniques perçues les moins favorablement (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Dès 1993, Smither, Reilly, Millsap & Stoffey ont conclu que les simulations, les entretiens et les tests cognitifs obtenaient des scores de favorabilité plus élevés que d'autres méthodes. ...
... Dès 1993, Smither, Reilly, Millsap & Stoffey ont conclu que les simulations, les entretiens et les tests cognitifs obtenaient des scores de favorabilité plus élevés que d'autres méthodes. En France comme aux Etats Unis, les entretiens, les CV, les échantillons de travail sont les méthodes de sélection évaluées le plus positivement (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Anderson & Witvliet (2008) ont comparé en 2008 les scores de favorabilité de ces différentes méthodes dans plusieurs pays et ont conclu aux similarités dans les réactions des candidats. ...
Conference Paper
1. Introduction : L’expérience de justice des candidats au cours du processus de sélection revêt une grande importance en raison de ses conséquences sur l’intention de recommander l’organisation, l’intention d’accepter le poste, et l’implication organisationnelle. La perception de justice associée aux méthodes de sélection est un critère déterminant pour les candidats lorsqu’ils évaluent le processus de sélection dans son ensemble. Parmi ces outils, le CV est perçu plutôt favorablement par les candidats. (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). 2. Le CV anonyme en débat La photographie (dont l’insertion est généralisée sur les CV en France) et le bloc état-civil sont connus pour être des supports de discriminations (Derous et al., 2009), soulevant ainsi la question de la pertinence du CV anonyme (CVA) comme méthode de présélection non discriminatoire. Pourtant, les recruteurs n’y semblent pas particulièrement favorables, considérant notamment que l’anonymisation les prive d’informations utiles (Yedder & al., 2011). Dans ce contexte notre projet vise à apporter des éléments empiriques au débat en explorant l’impact de l’anonymisation du CV en procédure de présélection sur les perceptions des deux parties. La présente étude est menée auprès de candidats. 3. Étude empirique 199 futurs candidats ont été invités examiner et classer des séries de 4 CV. Cinq facteurs ont été manipulés dans un plan factoriel incomplet : l’anonymat (séries de CV classiques et anonymes) ; deux éléments connus pour activer des stéréotypes discriminatoires (l’origine visible et le surpoids apparent, pour les CV non anonymes) ; et deux signaux de compétences (la qualité orthographique et l’expérience professionnelle). A la suite de l’expérience, les candidats renseignaient un questionnaire évaluant la perception de justice de la méthode de sélection (adapté de Colquitt, 2001). 4. Résultats et conclusion Les traitements ont été réalisés en deux étapes. Nous avons d’abord vérifié l’existence d’un éventuel comportement discriminatoire sur les éléments visibles des dossiers de candidature, en utilisant une estimation par modèle linéaire généralisé. Une différence de classement significative, signe de comportement discriminatoire a été constatée, uniquement sur le critère du surpoids (B= .049, p < .01). Nous avons ensuite mesuré la perception de justice sur la méthode de présélection entre les groupes exposés aux deux types de CV. Des différences significatives en faveur du CVA apparaissent uniquement sur les items qui traitent de la dimension éthique du recrutement (sous-échelle « absence de préjugés et éthique » : t(789) = 5.74, p < 0.01. Pour les items traitant de l’efficacité perçue de la méthode de sélection, les différences ne sont pas significatives. L’étude fait donc apparaître un jugement différencié : si le CV (anonyme ou non anonyme) est reconnu efficace, le CVA est perçu comme plus éthique. Nos résultats apportent un argument supplémentaire en faveur de l’anonymisation, qui permet de neutraliser les discriminations sans réduire l’efficacité perçue du CV en tant qu’instrument de présélection.
... For example, psychometric tests are a selection practice that is not always received well by applicants and can turn people away. In France, they are viewed as an invasion of privacy (Steiner and Gilliland, 1996). Part of the difficulty people might have with this is the uncertainty that results of an ability, technical or psychometric test will get out and be shared with others. ...
... Similarly, when uncertainty avoidance and power distance are high, there will be less use of these tests, but for different reasons. Uncertainty avoidance leads to lower use of these tests because people do not feel comfortable taking these tests for fear of the uncertainty of who will see the results and how it will impact them (Steiner and Gilliland, 1996). When the power distance is high, managers are less likely to use these tests because they do not want to risk forfeiting their power (Carl et al., 2004): ...
... Psychometric tests have been looked at elsewhere as well (Steiner and Gilliland, 1996), but some of the other tests, such as ability and technical tests, have not received as much attention. One of the takeaways from this study is that all tests are not created equal in terms of how national culture practices will influence there usage. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of national culture on organizations’ use of selection practices, specifically to investigate the impact of in-group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and power distance on interview panels, one-on-one interviews, applications forms, references, ability, technical and psychometric tests. Design/methodology/approach This study uses survey data from the 2008–2010 CRANET database. It uses OLS regression analysis to test the impact of national culture on organizations’ use of selection practices. Findings In-group collectivism increases the use of panel interviews and technical tests, and decreases the use of one-on-one interviews and application forms. Uncertainty avoidance increases the use of panel interviews and technical tests, and a decrease in one-on-one interviews, applications ability, and psychometric tests. Power distance leads to an increase in one-on-one interviews, applications and ability tests, and a decrease in panel interviews, psychometric tests and references. Originality/value This paper investigates the use of the impact of national culture on selection practices. Specifically, it looks at the use of a large number of selection practices panel interviews, one-on-one interviews, applications and references, and several different tests, ability, technical and psychometric.
... Applicant perceptions were measured using seven items. Firstly, overall process favourability was assessed using two items: perceived predictive validity and perceived fairness [35]. Steiner and Gilliland [35] reported a coefficient alpha of .73 for the two process favourability items. ...
... Firstly, overall process favourability was assessed using two items: perceived predictive validity and perceived fairness [35]. Steiner and Gilliland [35] reported a coefficient alpha of .73 for the two process favourability items. Secondly, four items were administered measuring formal characteristics of the procedural justice dimension: i) face validity, ii) applicant differentiation [35], iii) study relatedness and iv) chance to perform [36]. ...
... Steiner and Gilliland [35] reported a coefficient alpha of .73 for the two process favourability items. Secondly, four items were administered measuring formal characteristics of the procedural justice dimension: i) face validity, ii) applicant differentiation [35], iii) study relatedness and iv) chance to perform [36]. These items were selected because previous research demonstrated the influence of these formal characteristics on process favourability [22,29,33]. ...
Article
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Background This study examined the influence of two Situational Judgement Test (SJT) design features (response instructions and response format) on applicant perceptions. Additionally, we investigated demographic subgroup differences in applicant perceptions of an SJT. Methods Medical school applicants (N = 372) responded to an online survey on applicant perceptions, including a description and two example items of an SJT. Respondents randomly received one of four SJT versions (should do-rating, should do-pick-one, would do-rating, would do-pick-one). They rated overall favourability and items on four procedural justice factors (face validity, applicant differentiation, study relatedness and chance to perform) and ease-of-cheating. Additionally, applicant perceptions were compared for subgroups based on gender, ethnic background and first-generation university status. Results Applicants rated would-do instructions as easier to cheat than should-do instructions. Rating formats received more favourable judgements than pick-one formats on applicant differentiation, study-relatedness, chance to perform and ease of cheating. No significant main effect for demographic subgroup on applicant perceptions was found, but significant interaction effects showed that certain subgroups might have more pronounced preferences for certain SJT design features. Specifically, ethnic minority applicants – but not ethnic majority applicants – showed greater preference for should-do than would-do instructions. Additionally, first-generation university students – but not non-first-generation university students – were more favourable of rating formats than of pick-one formats. Conclusions Findings indicate that changing SJT design features may positively affect applicant perceptions by promoting procedural justice factors and reducing perceived ease of cheating and that response instructions and response format can increase the attractiveness of SJTs for minority applicants.
... The countries that were used to gather data for research have grown with time, with the majority of studies extracted from Western countries. These research attempts are comprised of applicants' reaction samples, drawn from the 2002 United States (Hoang et al., 2012;Nikolaou & Judge, 2007;Phillips & Gully, 2002;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), France (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), Singapore (Phillips & Gully, 2002), Spain and Portugal (Moscoso & Salgado, 2004), South Africa (De Jong & Visser, 2000), Germany (Marcus, 2003), Belgium (Stinglhamber et al., 1999), Greece (Nikolaou & Judge, 2007), Italy (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007), the Netherlands (Anderson & Witvliet, 2008), Turkey (Bilgic & Acarlar, 2010), Romania (Ispas et al., 2010), Vietnam (Hoang et al., 2012), Iceland (Jonsdottir & Hafsteinson, 2008), Saudi Arabia (Anderson, Ahmed et al., 2012), andChina (Anderson, Liu et al., 2016). Until now, research conducted on the same topic was unable to evaluate selection methods in Pakistan, portraying how we have less knowledge about the mechanisms of the reactions and beliefs of applicants in non-Western nations. ...
... The countries that were used to gather data for research have grown with time, with the majority of studies extracted from Western countries. These research attempts are comprised of applicants' reaction samples, drawn from the 2002 United States (Hoang et al., 2012;Nikolaou & Judge, 2007;Phillips & Gully, 2002;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), France (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), Singapore (Phillips & Gully, 2002), Spain and Portugal (Moscoso & Salgado, 2004), South Africa (De Jong & Visser, 2000), Germany (Marcus, 2003), Belgium (Stinglhamber et al., 1999), Greece (Nikolaou & Judge, 2007), Italy (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007), the Netherlands (Anderson & Witvliet, 2008), Turkey (Bilgic & Acarlar, 2010), Romania (Ispas et al., 2010), Vietnam (Hoang et al., 2012), Iceland (Jonsdottir & Hafsteinson, 2008), Saudi Arabia (Anderson, Ahmed et al., 2012), andChina (Anderson, Liu et al., 2016). Until now, research conducted on the same topic was unable to evaluate selection methods in Pakistan, portraying how we have less knowledge about the mechanisms of the reactions and beliefs of applicants in non-Western nations. ...
... Therefore, undergraduates and working adults in our research sample dominated numerous personnel selection methods in Pakistani organizations, considering the acceptability of the criteria individually. Thirdly, prior methods (e.g., Steiner & Gilliland, 1996) have led us to compare our research conducted on the Pakistani sample with samples from other countries (United States, Singapore, China, and Greece, etc.). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to investigate applicants’ reactions towards different personnel selection methods used in Pakistan. A sample of 149 undergraduates, graduates, and working adults rated their perceptions of the favorability and fairness of these personnel selection methods, namely: resumes, job knowledge tests, biographical information, interviews, personal references, work-sample tests, personality tests, written ability tests, personal contacts, and situational judgment tests. Our first research objective is to provide details about applicant reactions, detailed system of the same and methods on a range based on working adults, graduates, and undergraduates. The second major objective is to identify the interaction effects of favorability and system fairness based upon applicant reactions. Descriptive data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS and the data was collected from Lahore, Islamabad, and Jhelum. The results demonstrated that 112 applicants reported the most favorable rating reaction towards the interview personnel selection method, with the effectiveness of identifying qualified people for the job, while 101 applicants reported a favorable rating reaction towards job knowledge tests, noting the fairness of this procedure. In addition, implications for the current assessment of selection practices from the applicants’ viewpoints, the strengths and limitations of the study, and directions for future research are all discussed. The practices of different predictor methods are considered in the conclusion.
... Les premières études se focalisant sur l'acceptabilité des méthodes de recrutement apparaissent au tout début des recherches sur les réactions des candidats (Rynes & Connerley, 1993;Smither et al., 1993). Steiner et Gilliland (1996) Néanmoins, dans les deux études, les effets sont plutôt faibles 2 . De même, Konradt, Garbers, Böge, Erdogan, et Bauer (2015) montrent dans une étude longitudinale (sur trois ans) que les perceptions de justice mesurées tout de suite après la procédure sont significativement reliées à la décision d'accepter le poste, mais la relation ne tient pas dans le temps, il n'y a pas d'effet significatif avec les perceptions mesurées trois semaines après la procédure de sélection. ...
... Les recherches en psychologie du travail ont montré assez peu de différences intergroupes dans la façon de percevoir la justice (Hausknecht et al., 2004 Dans notre étude nous testerons l'impact de différentes catégories de questions inappropriées sur la satisfaction ou violation de certaines règles de justice en utilisant une mesure similaire à celle qui est utilisée pour évaluer la justice des méthodes de recrutement de Steiner et Gilliland (1996). ...
... Connerley, Mael, & Morath, 1999). Nous traiterons ce construit comme une dimension de justice dans cette étude, car nous avons utilisé la mesure de Gilliland et Steiner (1996). . Pour étudier ces différences, nous avons choisi de prendre en compte la conscience du stigmate (Pinel, 1999). ...
... Driven by both the noteworthy consequences of applicant reactions and the growing globalized economy, Steiner and Gilliland (1996) drew on Gilliland's (1993) organizational justice model and compared favorability/fairness perceptions (favorability perceptions and fairness perceptions are used interchangeably in our paper) and the bases of these perceptions between French and American students. Specifically, Steiner and Gilliland (1996) asked undergraduate students to evaluate the process favorability of 10 selection methods: interviews, resumes, work sample tests, biodata, written ability tests, personal references, personality tests, honesty tests, personal contacts, and graphology. ...
... Driven by both the noteworthy consequences of applicant reactions and the growing globalized economy, Steiner and Gilliland (1996) drew on Gilliland's (1993) organizational justice model and compared favorability/fairness perceptions (favorability perceptions and fairness perceptions are used interchangeably in our paper) and the bases of these perceptions between French and American students. Specifically, Steiner and Gilliland (1996) asked undergraduate students to evaluate the process favorability of 10 selection methods: interviews, resumes, work sample tests, biodata, written ability tests, personal references, personality tests, honesty tests, personal contacts, and graphology. Students were also asked to rate the degree to which each selection method satisfied seven procedural justice dimensions (rules): scientific evidence (predictive validity), face validity, interpersonal warmth, opportunity to perform, the employer's right to obtain information, respect for privacy, and widespread use of the selection methods. ...
... A host of researchers have utilized Steiner and Gilliland's (1996) methodology to investigate applicant favorability perceptions and the underlying procedural justice dimensions associated with these perceptions for the same 10 selection tools in other countries (Anderson et al., 2010). Overall, the primary studies (e.g., Nikolaou & Judge, 2007;Phillips & Gully, 2002;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), narrative reviews (Anderson & Witvliet, 2008;Steiner & Gilliland, 2001), and a meta-analytic review (Anderson et al., 2010) that explored this area of research reported relatively similar findings (detailed later) with respect to process favorability perceptions and the bases for these perceptions across the countries studied. ...
Article
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This paper examines the bases of the job application process in terms of the favorability/fairness perceptions of 12 personnel selection methods and the consequences of these perceptions on organizational attractiveness and application, recommendation, and litigation intentions. Our paper reveals that face validity, widespread use of selection methods, the employer's right to obtain information, and the opportunity to perform are the strongest predictors of favorability perceptions, while interpersonal warmth, predictive validity, and respect for privacy are the weakest predictors of favorability perceptions. Additionally, procedural justice dimensions and favorability perceptions correlate with organizational attractiveness and application, recommendation, and litigation intentions. This study expands previous research on job applicants' perceptions of the selection methods to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the Middle East. Furthermore, this research examines both the antecedents and the consequences of applicants' fairness perceptions of 12 selection methods within the same study.
... Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo conocer las percepciones de una muestra española (N=109) sobre once métodos de selección extensamente utilizados, ampliando y actualizando los resultados aportados por Moscoso y Salgado (2004) al investigar esta cuestión en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles. Para este fin se ha empleado una versión adaptada del cuestionario elaborado por Steiner y Gilliland (1996) para investigar las reacciones de los candidatos a los procesos de selección. Los resultados muestran que los test de muestras de trabajo, los test de conocimientos y los currículums son los métodos mejor valorados, siendo los contactos personales y la grafología los dos instrumentos con una peor valoración, resultados similares a los obtenidos en investigaciones previas y que concuerdan con los valores de validez y fiabilidad estimados por los participantes. ...
... The objective of this paper was to know the perceptions of a Spanish sample (N=109) about eleven widely used selection methods, expanding and updating the results provided by Moscoso and Salgado (2004) when they investigated this subject with a sample of Spanish college students. To this end, we used an adapted version of the questionnaire designed by Steiner and Gilliland (1996) to study candidate's reactions to selection process. ...
... Para ello, este estudio presenta una descripción de la importancia que tiene analizar estas cuestiones de cara al futuro, proporcionando, a su vez, una revisión del marco teórico en el que se fundamenta esta investigación y una descripción de los métodos que se han estudiado. Para ello, se ha utilizado una adaptación, realizada expresamente para la realización de este trabajo, del cuestionario diseñado por Steiner y Gilliland (1996), el cual ha sido ampliamente utilizado por investigadores de todo el mundo durante los últimos años. ...
Thesis
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La selección de personal es una parte muy relevante para cualquier organización, que influye de forma directa en que las nuevas incorporaciones sean las adecuadas y respondan bien al entorno laboral de la misma. Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo conocer las percepciones de una muestra española (N=109) sobre once métodos de selección extensamente utilizados, ampliando y actualizando los resultados aportados por Moscoso y Salgado (2004) al investigar esta cuestión en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles. Para este fin se ha empleado una versión adaptada del cuestionario elaborado por Steiner y Gilliland (1996) para investigar las reacciones de los candidatos a los procesos de selección. Los resultados muestran que los test de muestras de trabajo, los test de conocimientos y los currículums son los métodos mejor valorados, siendo los contactos personales y la grafología los dos instrumentos con una peor valoración, resultados similares a los obtenidos en investigaciones previas y que concuerdan con los valores de validez y fiabilidad estimados por los participantes. Las dimensiones de calidez interpersonal, respeto a la privacidad y frecuencia de uso son las únicas dimensiones de justicia procedimental que no muestran una alta correlación con la dimensión de favorabilidad del proceso. También se ha investigado la posible existencia de diferencias significativas entre la favorabilidad del proceso de los participantes respecto a su sexo y a su experiencia previa en procesos de selección, pero estas han mostrado ser bajas o nulas. Se discutirán las contribuciones e implicaciones prácticas de estos resultados.
... The mere provision of any kind of explanation could have an effect on fairness perception (Shaw et al., 2003). Plus, in contrast to other effective ways such as adopting obviously job-related selection procedures (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), providing applicants with explanations is much easier, lower cost and more practical for recruiters. As a result, a growing body of applicant reactions research has focused on the effects of explanations. ...
... Perceived procedural fairness. Steiner and Gilliland's (1996) 7-item scale was adapted to assess applicants' perceived procedural fairness (a ¼ .87). Sample items included "The approach is a logical one for identifying qualified candidates for the job in question." ...
Article
Drawing from regulatory fit theory and the literature on persuasion, the current study is the first to explore whether the fit between explanation framing and applicants’ regulatory foci could enhance applicant reaction. We hypothesized that a positively framed explanation fits with applicants’ promotion foci and that a negatively framed explanation fits with applicants’ prevention foci. Three studies were conducted in which participants with different regulatory foci rated their perceived procedural fairness and organizational attractiveness after reading differently framed recruitment advertisements, rejection letters, and job offer letters. The results supported our hypothesis by showing significant interactions between explanation framing and participants’ regulatory foci on procedural fairness and organizational attractiveness perception in the contexts of recruitment advertising and rejection letters. In these contexts, compared with receiving a negatively framed explanation, promotion-focused recipients reported higher levels of perceived fairness and organizational attractiveness after receiving a positively framed explanation, and promotion-focused recipients’ fairness and attractiveness perceptions were higher than prevention-focused recipients’, after receiving a positively framed explanation. Moreover, perceived procedural fairness mediated the relationship between regulatory fit and perceived organizational attractiveness. However, regulatory fit effects were not found in the context of job offer letters.
... This model was further refined by Bauer et al. (2001) who confirmed and expanded the model while creating the Selection Procedural Justice Scale (SPJS), a psychometrically sound measure to tap the justice rules. Steiner and Gilliland (1996) also added that a selection method may be considered as more acceptable by candidates when it is widely used, and they developed a model of eight procedural justice dimensions, which formed the basis of considerable research on applicant reactions, especially in cross-cultural settings (Anderson, Ahmed, & Costa, 2012;Hoang et al., 2012;Nikolaou & Judge, 2007). Gilliland's model, and especially the procedural rules, has many applications in relation to technology. ...
... Numerous studies have explored if applicants' perceptions in different countries converge or diverge in relation to their perceptions of the selection procedures and the characteristics of the selection methods that seem to lead to positive or negative applicant reactions. Almost all of these studies adopted the Gilliland and Steiner framework of organizational justice and most of them replicated across countries the initial study conducted by Steiner and Gilliland (1996) and Moscoso and Salgado (2004). ...
... Purpose of Data Collection Furthermore, research indicated that the purpose of the data collection was related to perceived invasiveness. In particular, research found that unauthorized secondary use of personal data was positively related to invasion of privacy (Steiner and Gilliland 1996). In addition, data collected for emergency contact purposes were viewed as less invasive than that collected for human resource planning purposes (Stone et al. 1983). ...
... As a result, our modified version of the privacy model suggests that the perceived relevance of the SNS data should be negatively related to their perceptions of invasion of privacy. In support of this argument, research showed that when data were viewed as job related applicants were more likely to perceive that the data collection was fair (e.g., Gilliland and Hale 2005;Murphy et al. 1990;Steiner and Gilliland 1996), and less likely to perceive that their privacy has been invaded (Stone and Kotch 1989). Likewise, results of other research revealed that the degree to which the selection procedure was perceived to predict job performance was negatively related to perceptions of any invasion of privacy (e.g., Bauer et al. 2001;Stone-Romero et al. 2003a, b). ...
... For example, in Korea, involving multiple managers in interviews is a way of establishing whether the candidate can work in harmony as part of a team (Lee, 1999). In contrast, more objective selection techniques, such as psychometric testing and assessment centres, tend to be used where risk avoidance is high, although in some countries there are concerns regarding candidate privacy rights and the validity of the instruments available (Lindeberg & Vanhala, 2004;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). ...
... Οι συνεντεύξεις Η μέθοδος επιλογής προσωπικού μέσω της συνέντευξης φαίνεται να έχει την εύνοια των υποψηφίων λόγω της ευρύτερης διάδοσης αυτής της τεχνικής παγκοσμίως (Anderson et al., 2010), της υψηλής εγκυρότητας και της χαμηλής παρεμβατικότητας (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996 καθώς και της δυνατότητας εστίασης σε ατομικές ξεχωριστές ικανότητες ενός υποψηφίου τις οποίες μπορεί να επικοινωνήσει στον συνεντευκτή στα πλαίσια της διαπροσωπικής επαφής (Nikolaou & Georgiou, 2018 (Guchait, Ruetzler, Taylor, & Toldi, 2014). ...
... Finally, it can be seen that research on discrimination in the recruitment process often focuses on the recruiter's point of view, but it is also essential to take into account the applicants' attitudes. During the selection process, applicants assess the way they are treated by the recruiting organization and especially the specific methods used to differentiate them (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Applicants' perceptions and reactions during the process must be taken into account because of their outcomes in terms of job attractiveness, intention to accept the job offer, and willingness to recommend the organization (Hausknecht, Day, & Thomas, 2004). ...
Article
During the preselection process, recruiters use cues from résumés to form attributions about applicants’ suitability. They rely on visible characteristics (e.g., origin) that activate stereotypes that can lead to discriminatory decisions. The anonymization of application forms is a possible intervention to avert discrimination. The few studies on this topic led to inconsistent conclusions. The present study aims to extend previous findings by comparing decisions on anonymous and standard résumés that differ in quality. Recruiters (N = 1,031) assessed a series of application forms whose profile (Caucasian, Moroccan, overweight, normal stature) and résumé content (experience, spelling errors) differed. Results show that anonymous application forms are rated more severely than standard forms, and are effective in neutralizing discriminatory behaviors toward overweight applicants.
... There is relatively little research on fairness assessment of new selection tools (McCarthy et al 2017), especially in the emergent economies of East and Central Europe. An equestionnaire was used to collect data from 902 job candidates in Poland, from generations X, Y and Z, based on standard methodology from (Steiner & Gilliland 1996) and 5 new descriptions of modern ICT based selection tools. Results for all 3 generations show a relatively lower acceptance level for the modern selection tools compare to their traditional versions and for tools based on Internet search; as opposed to activity in computer games. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is relatively little research on fairness assessment of new selection tools (McCarthy et al 2017), especially in the emergent economies of East and Central Europe. An e-questionnaire was used to collect data from 902 job candidates in Poland, from generations X, Y and Z, based on standard methodology from (Steiner & Gilliland 1996) and 5 new descriptions of modern ICT based selection tools. Results for all 3 generations show a relatively lower acceptance level for the modern selection tools compare to their traditional versions and for tools based on Internet search; as opposed to activity in computer games. Internet experience was shown to be important as a moderator of this relationship.
... The relevance of affect-based deterrent effects has also been acknowledged in research on later stages of the recruitment process (e.g. Steiner and Gilliland (1996), and Hoang et al. (2012), in the study of reactions to selection methods). Nonetheless, and although feelings have also been identified as crucial in research on information processing (Schwarz and Clore, 2003), hardly any studies have investigated the role of affect in the subjective assessment of employer attractiveness during the recruiting phase of initial applicant attraction (Rampl et al., 2016;Stevens and Seo, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
What role do emotions play as a job seeker eyes up a potential employer? Our contribution to research into employer attractiveness explores the role that affective states play in potential applicants’ subjective perceptions of companies’ employer attractiveness in the early phase of job seeking. We adopt a concurrent verbalization approach to inquire into qualified potential applicants’ processes of interpreting employer branding material. Based on these data, we provide insights into the neglected role of emotions in research on potential applicants’ assessments of the appeal of an organization. The findings from a multistep qualitative data analysis produce the following four propositions: (1) strong emotions influence the outcome of the opinion-making process; (2) negative emotions play a crucial role in potential applicants’ evaluations of employer attractiveness; (3) some contents of employer information elicit negative emotions, whereas their complementary counterparts do not elicit positive affective reactions; and (4) expectations towards an employer and comparisons among employers influence potential applicants’ sentiments about individual employers.
... γνωστικής ικανότητας και προσωπικότητας) και τα βιοστοιχεία (biodata) προτιμώνται σε μέτριο βαθμό, ενώ οι συστάσεις, τα τεστ τιμιότητας και η γραφολογία κατατάσσονται στις τελευταίες προτιμήσεις των υποψηφίων (Hülsheger & Anderson, 2009· Moscoso & Salgado, 2004· Phillips & Gully, 2002. Αντίστοιχα αποτελέσματα καταγράφονται από μελέτες στην Ολλανδία (Anderson & Witvliet, 2008), την Ισπανία, την Πορτογαλία (Moscoso & Salgado, 2004, την Ιταλία (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007), τη Γαλλία, την Αμερική (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), την Ελλάδα (Nikolaou & Judge, 2007), το Βέλγιο, τη Γερμανία (Steiner & Gilliland, 2001) και σε αρκετές άλλες χώρες (Phillips & Gully, 2002), καταδεικνύοντας ότι οι προτιμήσεις δεν συνδέονται με πολιτισμικούς παράγοντες. Ωστόσο, όπως σημειώνεται από τους Nikolaou και Jurge (2007), η αξιοσημείωτη αυτή ομοιότητα μεταξύ των χωρών μπορεί να είναι αποτέλεσμα των δειγμάτων που εστιάζουν κυρίως σε φοιτητές για τη διεξαγωγή των ερευνών. ...
Article
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Γκιόλιας, Λ., Μαστροθανάσης, Κ., Πανιτσίδου, Ε. Α. (2019). Διοίκηση της Εκπαίδευσης Ενηλίκων: Μία αξιολογική προσέγγιση των διαδικασιών επιλογής στελεχών στα Σχολεία Δεύτερης Ευκαιρίας. Εκπαίδευση Ενηλίκων, 44, 24-35. (ISSN: 1109-9941). Η παρούσα εργασία έχει ως στόχο της να εξετάσει τις υποκειμενικές απόψεις υποψηφίων στελεχών όσον αφορά τα ποιοτικά χαρακτηριστικά των διαδικασιών επιλογής διευθυντών και υποδιευθυντών σχολείων δεύτερης ευκαιρίας (ΣΔΕ). Στην έρευνα συμμετείχαν 102 υποψήφιοι για τη θέση του διευθυντή και του υποδιευθυντή οι οποίοι απάντησαν σε κλίμακα αξιολόγησης των ποιοτικών χαρακτηριστικών των διαδικασιών επιλογής. Τα αποτελέσματα κατέδειξαν ότι οι συμμετέχοντες στη διαδικασία διαμόρφωσαν θετικές κρίσεις αναφορικά με τα ποιοτικά χαρακτηριστικά των διαδικασιών. Επίσης διαφάνηκαν διαφορές ανάμεσα στα δημογραφικά χαρακτηριστικά των συμμετεχόντων και το αποτέλεσμα της κρίσης. The present study sought to record the views of candidates on the qualitative characteristics of the procedures for the selection of executive personnel (Directors and Deputy Directors) in Second Chance Schools. The survey was conducted with a sample of 102 candidates for the post of Director and Deputy Director, using a scale on the evaluation of the qualitative features of the selection procedures. The results demonstrated that participants in the process overall expressed positive judgments about the qualitative features of the processes under investigation. Differences were also observed between the demographic characteristics of the participants and the outcome of the crisis.
... γνωστικής ικανότητας και προσωπικότητας) και τα βιοστοιχεία (biodata) προτιμώνται σε μέτριο βαθμό, ενώ οι συστάσεις, τα τεστ τιμιότητας και η γραφολογία κατατάσσονται στις τελευταίες προτιμήσεις των υποψηφίων (Hülsheger & Anderson, 2009· Moscoso & Salgado, 2004· Phillips & Gully, 2002. Αντίστοιχα αποτελέσματα καταγράφονται από μελέτες στην Ολλανδία (Anderson & Witvliet, 2008), την Ισπανία, την Πορτογαλία (Moscoso & Salgado, 2004, την Ιταλία (Bertolino & Steiner, 2007), τη Γαλλία, την Αμερική (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), την Ελλάδα (Nikolaou & Judge, 2007), το Βέλγιο, τη Γερμανία (Steiner & Gilliland, 2001) και σε αρκετές άλλες χώρες (Phillips & Gully, 2002), καταδεικνύοντας ότι οι προτιμήσεις δεν συνδέονται με πολιτισμικούς παράγοντες. Ωστόσο, όπως σημειώνεται από τους Nikolaou και Jurge (2007), η αξιοσημείωτη αυτή ομοιότητα μεταξύ των χωρών μπορεί να είναι αποτέλεσμα των δειγμάτων που εστιάζουν κυρίως σε φοιτητές για τη διεξαγωγή των ερευνών. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study sought to record the views of candidates on the qualitative characteristics of the procedures for the selection of executive personnel (Directors and Deputy Directors) in Second Chance Schools. The survey was conducted with a sample of 102 candidates for the post of Director and Deputy Director, using a scale on the evaluation of the qualitative features of the selection procedures. The results demonstrated that participants in the process overall expressed positive judgments about the qualitative features of the processes under investigation. Differences were also observed between the demographic characteristics of the participants and the outcome of the crisis.
... Psychometric testing is avoided in some cultures such as France, as it can be considered offensive in violating the candidate's privacy (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). France previously had the particularity of using graphology as a selection tool to a larger extent than any other European country (Buyens, Dany, Dewettinck, & Quinodon, 2004), though this has reduced sharply in recent years. ...
... Variability has been found in the perceived fairness of different selection methods where several studies have compared cross-national fairness perceptions for 10 common selection methods (interviews, CVs, work samples, biodata, ability tests, references, personality questionnaires, honesty tests, personal contacts and graphology; e.g. Steiner and Gilliland, 1996;Moscoso and Salgado, 2004;Anderson and Witvliet, 2008;Hoang et al., 2011). Findings indicate a relatively stable pattern of results where interviews have been consistently rated most favourably. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last two decades, technological advancements internationally have meant that the Internet has become an important medium for recruitment and selection. Consequently, there is an increased need for research that examines the effectiveness of newer technology-mediated selection methods. This exploratory research study qualitatively explored applicant perceptions of fairness of asynchronous video interviews used in medical selection. Ten undergraduate medical students participated in a pilot asynchronous multiple-mini interview and were invited to share their experiences and perceptions in a follow-up interview. The data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using template analysis, with Gilliland's (1993) organisational justice theory guiding the original template. Many of the original themes from Gilliland's model were uncovered during analysis. Additionally, some significant themes were identified that did not form part of the original template and were therefore added to the final coding template - these were specifically relating to technology, including acceptability in a medical context; technical issues and adverse impact. Overall, results suggested that participants perceived asynchronous video interviews to be a fair method of selection. However, participants thought asynchronous interviews should only be used as part of an extensive selection process and furthermore, should not replace face-to-face interviews. Findings are discussed in line with existing research of fairness perceptions and justice theory in selection (Gilliland, 1993) and implications for research and practice are presented.
... Institutions' practices and needs potentially vary across countries, as Japan, Mexico, and Indonesia differ in their educational, cultural, and economic backdrops for language testing. It is common to closely consider context when examining testing practices or test-related attitudes (e.g., Ryan et al., 2017;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996;Stricker & Attali, 2010). However, as explained later, we did not think it appropriate in this case to conduct statistical comparisons of results across countries. ...
Technical Report
In this study, 249 users of the TOEFL ITP® assessment series (e.g., admissions officers, English‐language teachers, academic staff) in Japan, Mexico, and Indonesia were surveyed about their uses and opinions of TOEFL ITP scores, followed by in‐depth interviews with 21 of these users. Overall, the most common use of the test was as an exit requirement from English‐language programs to demonstrate proficiency in English listening and reading. The majority of participants saw TOEFL ITP scores as very useful indicators of students' English‐language proficiency. Interviews helped clarify the user needs met by this assessment and how test scores were actually applied. Study participants indicated that they need a relatively inexpensive and practical English‐language assessment that also provides them with enough information to make decisions about test takers' proficiency in all relevant skill areas. Some of the ways interviewees talked about using TOEFL ITP scores were consistent with the recommendations of Educational Testing Service (ETS), while other uses (e.g., for workplace applications) were more questionable, as they might imply potentially higher stakes than were intended for this test. The results of the study highlight areas where TOEFL ITP users might need additional informational support with regard to score interpretation and use.
... Αν και σε γενικές γραμμές, υποστηρίζεται ότι οι διαδικασίες επιλογής με τις υπάρχουσες μεθόδους φαινομενικά θεωρούνται λίγο πολύ δίκαιες (π.χ. Steiner & Gilliland 1996), λόγω της εγκυρότητας και της αξιοπιστίας που μπορεί να παρουσιάζουν, ωστόσο δεν έχουν αξιολογηθεί οι στάσεις των υποψηφίων, υπό το πρίσμα της διαδικαστικής δικαιοσύνης, στα πλαίσια μιας πολύπλευρης αξιολόγησης των μεθόδων επιλογής ανθρωπίνου δυναμικού. Έτσι, ενώ παρατηρείται πλήθος ερευνών σχετικά με τη διερεύνηση των χαρακτηριστικών όπως η αξιοπιστία, το κόστος και η εγκυρότητα αυτών, διαφαίνεται μια σχετικά περιορισμένη μελέτη στις αντιδράσεις και τις στάσεις των υποψηφίων σχετικά με τις διαδικασίες και τις μεθόδους επιλογής ανθρωπίνου δυναμικού (Smither, Reilly, Millsap, Pearlman & Stoffey 1993) και ειδικά για το χώρο της εκπαίδευσης. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to construct and control a psychometric assessment tool for the recruitment and the selection procedures of schools directors. The tool, that is based on the theoretical model of evaluation 4Q introduced by Gummesson (1993), provides quality and was designed within the principles of Total Quality Management. The results highlight both the validation and reliability of this scale as a research tool for the assessment process and the analysis of the factors that affect the attitudes of participants towards this, main aspects of which are the evaluation of the quality of interaction, technical quality, distribution quality and design quality. Along with the above, the effect of a series of independent variables is discussed considering the formation of perceptions in the process of selection. Περίληψη Η παρούσα εργασία έχει ως στόχο την κατασκευή και το ψυχομετρικό έλεγχο ενός εργαλείου αξιολόγησης για τις διαδικασίες στελέχωσης και επιλογής διευθυντών σχολικών μονάδων, στα πλαίσια των αρχών της διοίκησης ολικής ποιότητας. Τα αποτελέσματα κατέδειξαν ότι η κλίμακα είναι έγκυρη και αξιόπιστη ως εργαλείο έρευνας για την εκτίμηση της διαδικασίας και την εξέταση των παραγόντων που διαμορφώνουν τη στάση των συμμετεχόντων απέναντι σε αυτή, με κύριες πτυχές της, την αξιολόγηση της ποιότητας της αλληλεπίδρασης, την τεχνική ποιότητα, την ποιότητα διανομής και την ποιότητα σχεδιασμού, σύμφωνα με το θεωρητικό μοντέλο αξιολόγησης των 4Q της παροχής ποιότητας του Gummesson (1993). Παράλληλα με τα
... Οι συνεντεύξεις Η μέθοδος επιλογής προσωπικού μέσω της συνέντευξης φαίνεται να έχει την εύνοια των υποψηφίων λόγω της ευρύτερης διάδοσης αυτής της τεχνικής παγκοσμίως (Anderson et al., 2010), της υψηλής εγκυρότητας και της χαμηλής παρεμβατικότητας (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996, 2001 καθώς και της δυνατότητας εστίασης σε ατομικές ξεχωριστές ικανότητες ενός υποψηφίου τις οποίες μπορεί να επικοινωνήσει στον συνεντευκτή στα πλαίσια της διαπροσωπικής επαφής (Nikolaou & Georgiou, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Ο ρόλος της τεχνολογίας και πιο συγκεκριμένα των ιστοσελίδων κοινωνικής δικτύωσης έχει αναδειχθεί ιδιαίτερα τα τελευταία χρόνια στις διαδικασίες προσέλκυσης και επιλογής ανθρώπινου δυναμικού των οργανισμών. Επίσης, ο ρόλος του υποψήφιου και ο τρόπος που αντιλαμβάνεται και αξιολογεί τις παραπάνω διαδικασίες έχει λάβει αυξανόμενη προσοχή, όχι μόνο σε ερευνητικό αλλά και σε πρακτικό επίπεδο. Στο παρόν κεφάλαιο θα μελετήσουμε διεξοδικά τόσο τον ρόλο των ιστοσελίδων κοινωνικής δικτύωσης αλλά και των αντιδράσεων των υποψηφίων αλλά και πώς αυτά αλληλοεπιδρούν επηρεάζοντας τελικά την αποτελεσματικότητα των μεθόδων προσέλκυσης και επιλογής. Δίνεται ιδιαίτερη έμφαση στον ρόλο της τεχνολογίας και των νέων μεθόδων επιλογής, ταυτόχρονα με μια αναλυτική προσέγγιση των σημαντικότερων θεωρητικών προσεγγίσεων που έχουν επηρεάσει αυτούς του δύο σημαντικούς χώρους έρευνας και πρακτικής.
... The aim of this work is to compare the acceptance of SVI and TI and to investigate what candidate characteristics influence the full acceptance of SVI as a selection tool. The current study is rooted in the "candidate perspective" that dominates this field of research, and uses the standard methodology of selection tools fairness analysis (Steiner and Gilliland, 1996). ...
Article
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Purpose: The aim of this article is to compare the fairness perception of traditional (face-to-face) and synchronous video interviews as personnel selection tools, and an investigation of candidates’ characteristics influencing their full acceptance of synchronous video interviews. Design/Methodology/Approach: An e-questionnaire conducted on a large panel in January 2019 consisting of 448 participants with the method of logistic multivariate regression analysis has been used. Findings: Differences in acceptance of traditional and synchronous video interviews as personnel selection tools depend on process favourability and procedural justice dimensions. They are not significant on the dimensions of ‘fairness’ and ‘scientific evidence’ and marginally signidicant on ‘respect of privacy’ and ‘interpersonal warmth’. A logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that – of the five potential predictors studied – only individual innovativeness and previous experience with synchronous video interviews were significant. Demographic factors (gender, age) and test anxiety do not influence acceptance of the synchronous video interview as a personnel selection tool. Practical Implications: The present results suggest that an increase in acceptance of synchronous video interviews as a personnel selection tool is to be expected, especially in the case of innovative candidates. Originality/Value: The present study is one of the first studies in the social justice framework on the Polish population to compare differences in perception of traditional and synchronous video interviews as personnel selection tools. Keywords: Personnel selection, synchronous video interview, organizational justice.
... More recently, Billings and Dages (2018) demonstrated the validity of an integrity assessment across Mexican, South African, and US contexts. Within these last two categories, there has been a long standing focus on use of measures crossculturally, including attention to measurement equivalence (e.g., Hambleton, 2005;Meade & Lautenschlager, 2004;van de Vijver, 2002) translation quality and cultural sensitivity (Brislin, 1986), prototypical recruiting and hiring practices by country (e.g., Clark, 1993;Huo et al., 2002;Krause & Thornton III, 2009;Salgado & Anderson, 2002;Shackleton & Newell, 1994), and differences in applicant reactions by country (e.g., Anderson et al., 2010;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996. ...
... Procedural justice rule refers to the perceived fairness of the procedure used to make organisational decisions (Cropanzano & Gilliland, 2007). According to Steiner and Gilliland (1996), procedural rules comprise of four dimensions: interpersonal treatment, opportunity to perform, perceived job relatedness and propriety of questions. Specifically, procedural rules suggest that these dimensions will influence applicant fairness perceptions of the selection process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organisations are increasingly using asynchronous video interviews to assess candidates. In view of the recent pandemic, Covid-19, hiring managers and HR practitioners had to think creatively to streamline their recruitment process. The current study utilised a cross-sectional method among 119 job applicants to investigate applicants' reaction in asynchronous video interviews in predicting their behavioural outcomes and whether culture moderates these relationships. It is hypothesised that applicants' reaction (i.e. applicants' perception of fairness and favourability) will significantly predict applicants' behavioural outcomes (i.e. applicants' recommendation intentions, withdrawal intentions and perceived procedure performance). Moderation analysis was conducted to examine the moderation effects of culture. Results demonstrated that applicants' perception of fairness towards AVIs significantly predict all behavioural outcomes. However, applicants' perception of favourability towards AVIs only predict recommendation intentions. Also, this study showed that culture only moderates the relationship between applicants' perception of favourability and perceived procedure performance. Limitations, suggestions for future direction and practical implications based on the findings were also discussed in this paper.
... One alternative to self-report measures is to judge Honesty-Humility during the employment interview. Interviews are widely used in selection, viewed more positively than personality tests (Steiner & Gilliland, 1996), and are less fakeable than self-report measures of personality (Van Iddekinge et al., 2005). In addition, Oh et al. (2011) have found that observer ratings of personality are incrementally predictive of job performance over and above self-reports. ...
Article
Honesty-Humility is a valuable predictor in personnel selection; however, problems with self-report measures create a need for new tools to judge this trait. Therefore, this research examines the interview as an alternative for assessing Honesty-Humility and how to improve judgments of Honesty-Humility in the interview. Using trait activation theory, we examined the impact of interview question type on Honesty-Humility judgment accuracy. We hypothesized that general personality-tailored questions and probes would increase the accuracy of Honesty-Humility judgments. Nine hundred thirty-three Amazon Mechanical Turk workers watched and rated five interviews. Results found that general questions with probes and specific questions without probes led to the best Honesty-Humility judgments. These findings support the realistic accuracy model and provide implications for Honesty-Humility-based interviews.
... Previous research supports that the content and characteristics of a test influence the perceived job relatedness of a selection method (Oostrom, Born, Serlie, & Van Der Molen, 2010). Whereas, job relatedness is one of the most important determinants of perceived fairness of selection processes, such as interviews and work samples (e.g., Gilliland, 1994;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). ...
Article
Gamification is increasingly being used by organizations in hiring decisions. However, the use of gamification in assessment has advanced quicker than corresponding research. One area in need of research is how applicants' perceptions of fairness are formed when gamified assessments are used in employee selection. Therefore, two studies were conducted to explore the impact of using gamified assessments to applicants' justice perceptions and the role of providing explanations to applicants. Adopting an experimental design to explore organizational justice model in the context of gamified assessments, results indicated that individuals' perceptions of job relatedness are higher when a situational judgment tests (SJT) is used rather than a gamified version, leading to more positive perceptions of procedural fairness and organizational attractiveness (Study 1). The mediating effects of the procedural rules of ease of faking and opportunity to perform were not supported. Subsequently, a 2 × 2 design was used (Study 2) to explore the role of providing explanations. It seems that the provision of explanations on the assessment's faking difficulty generates more positive reactions towards gamified SJTs than text-based SJTs, in relation to ease of faking and procedural justice, and a spillover effect, invoking favorable reactions to the recruiting organization as well (Study 2).
... Αν και σε γενικές γραμμές, υποστηρίζεται ότι οι διαδικασίες επιλογής με τις υπάρχουσες μεθόδους φαινομενικά θεωρούνται λίγο πολύ δίκαιες (π.χ. Steiner & Gilliland 1996), λόγω της εγκυρότητας και της αξιοπιστίας που μπορεί να παρουσιάζουν, ωστόσο δεν έχουν αξιολογηθεί οι στάσεις των υποψηφίων, υπό το πρίσμα της διαδικαστικής δικαιοσύνης, στα πλαίσια μιας πολύπλευρης αξιολόγησης των μεθόδων επιλογής ανθρωπίνου δυναμικού. Έτσι, ενώ παρατηρείται πλήθος ερευνών σχετικά με τη διερεύνηση των χαρακτηριστικών όπως η αξιοπιστία, το κόστος και η εγκυρότητα αυτών, διαφαίνεται μια σχετικά περιορισμένη μελέτη στις αντιδράσεις και τις στάσεις των υποψηφίων σχετικά με τις διαδικασίες και τις μεθόδους επιλογής ανθρωπίνου δυναμικού (Smither, Reilly, Millsap, Pearlman & Stoffey 1993) και ειδικά για το χώρο της εκπαίδευσης. ...
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The present study aims to construct and control a psychometric assessment tool for the recruitment and the selection procedures of schools directors. The tool, that is based on the theoretical model of evaluation 4Q introduced by Gummesson (1993), provides quality and was designed within the principles of Total Quality Management. The results highlight both the validation and reliability of this scale as a research tool for the assessment process and the analysis of the factors that affect the attitudes of participants towards this, main aspects of which are the evaluation of the quality of interaction, technical quality, distribution quality and design quality. Along with the above, the effect of a series of independent variables is discussed considering the formation of perceptions in the process of selection.
... But unlike brainteasers, OPQs are generally humorous and light-hearted questions. Conventional wisdom would categorize these questions as non-job-relevant, and therefore, have no place in employment interviews (Bauer et al., 2001;Steiner & Gilliland, 1996). Despite popular beliefs, there is no evidence suggesting that OPQs meaningfully measure applicant personality or fit. ...
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... This heterogeneity is an objective phenomenon. People's gender, age, ethnicity, education level, cognition, values, preferences, attitudes, etc. are all causes of heterogeneity [17][18][19] . For example, Goh and Moore [14] examine the impact of "personality fitness" on academic achievement, and find that the personality dimension of introversion has the highest correlation with academic performance for the university sample. ...
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This chapter explores the theory, research, and evidence relating to the applicants’ perspective of selection processes within the healthcare context. The chapter starts with an overview of the theoretical underpinning of applicant perceptions, which highlights why it is important to understand applicants’ experiences of selection and recruitment processes, particularly within the healthcare context. Key research findings from the wider organizational context and within healthcare are explored, emphasizing the significant factors that influence whether applicants perceive a selection process to be fair. Two case studies are presented to highlight how to ensure that candidates leave selection processes feeling positive about the process and/or organization. Finally, some future directions for research and practice are considered.
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With advances in technology, new innovative methods for evaluating teamwork skills are emerging, however little research has been done into students’ reactions to such innovative assessments in an educational setting. This study investigated the reactions of undergraduate students to a high-fidelity behavioral simulation assessment for teamwork skills and explored some of the factors behind those reactions. 168 undergraduate students completed a simulation assessment and filled out surveys of reactions, perceptions, and personality. The results of a structural equations model indicate that reactions were positively related to perceived scenario realism, characters (chatbots) realism and design clarity.
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Research has shown that the use of digital technologies in the personnel selection process can have both positive and negative effects on applicants’ attraction to an organization. We explain this contradiction by specifying its underlying mechanisms. Drawing on signaling theory, we build a conceptual model that applies two different theoretical lenses (instrumental-symbolic framework and justice theory) to suggest that perceptions of innovativeness and procedural justice explain the relationship between an organization’s use of digital selection methods and employer attractiveness perceptions. We test our model by utilizing two studies, namely one experimental vignette study among potential applicants (N = 475) and one retrospective field study among actual job applicants (N = 335). With the exception of the assessment stage in Study 1, the positive indirect effects found in both studies indicated that applicants perceive digital selection methods to be more innovative. While Study 1 also revealed a negative indirect effect, with potential applicants further perceiving digital selection methods as less fair than less digitalized methods in the interview stage, this effect was not significant for actual job applicants in Study 2. We discuss theoretical implications for the applicant reactions literature and offer recommendations for human resource managers to make use of positive signaling effects while reducing potential negative signaling effects linked to the use of digital selection methods.
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Would more innovative tools be better for hiring? This question is particularly relevant in the context of fostering diversity in the workplace: experiments are currently being developed to achieve a more inclusive recruitment that respects diversity (recruitment with no resume, online video application, anonymization...). Résumé remains the most widely used preselection technique in France, but it is criticized because it can activate stereotypes that lead to discriminatory behavior (in its usual presentation, with photography and identity). Such discrimination is harmful in two ways: it deprives organizations of skilled employees and provokes a sense of injustice among rejected candidates. In this context, the anonymous résumé was introduced as a simple and effective screening instrument for neutralizing discrimination in interview access. We hypothesize that this tool is well-recognized by candidates and improves their perception of justice in the selection process. In an experimental framework, 316 candidates were invited to evaluate random series of anonymous or non-anonymous CVs. Their judgment was compared to the judgment of 1086 recruiters tested under the same conditions. Candidates were then questioned about their fairness perception regarding the screening method being used. Findings show that candidates who are placed in a recruiter situation and professional recruiters adopt very similar forms of judgment (identical discriminatory behavior is revealed). Resumes are generally perceived as an effective screening tool by candidates, but those who have been exposed to anonymous resume series consider the selection process more ethical than those exposed to nominal resume series.
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The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers February 2019
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Making the transition from university to employment is a challenging process for many students. One common method used by recruiters to sift through graduate applications is the use of psychometric tests which typically consist of numerical and verbal reasoning tasks. To explore how frequently these tests are used by graduate employers, an audit of the Times Top 100 graduate schemes selection processes was conducted. To identify how well-prepared students are to navigate these assessments, an experiment tested whether 169 undergraduate finalist students can pass either a verbal or numerical reasoning test. Two one-sample t-tests show that more than 50% of students failed the verbal and numerical reasoning tests (53.53% vs 83.57%). The only predictor of an increased likelihood of passing the numerical reasoning tests was having previous experience with those tests. This study highlights that more training needs to be given to help students navigate two common selection methods.
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If human resource management (HRM) tools based on information technologies (ICT) are to support organizational effectiveness, it is imperative that these tools are accepted by employees. Knowledge concerning how ICT-based selection tools are perceived by potential employees is limited, which was the impulse for this research. A standard methodology for studies into fairness assessment of recruitment tools was followed here. Descriptions were prepared for five new ICT-based selection tools (long-distance synchronic interview; game results and analysis of candidates’ behaviour while playing a computer game; gathering information over the internet in the form of content-based analytics and structure-based analytics). Data from 833 Polish candidates collected using an e-questionnaire showed that fairness assessment for the five new selection tools is lower than for their traditional counterparts, i.e., interview, work samples, references and biodata questionnaire. It was also shown that the internet experience — measured by frequency of its use — and belonging to a younger generation do not significantly affect higher acceptance of ICT-based methods. The article indicates what kinds of activities may be undertaken to increase this acceptance.
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Cambridge Core - Organisation Studies - The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers
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Provides a reanalysis of the employment interview for entry-level jobs that overcomes several limitations of J. E. Hunter and R. F. Hunter's (see record 1984-30168-001) article. Using a relatively sophisticated multidimensional framework for classifying level of structure, the authors obtained results from a meta-analysis of 114 entry-level interview validity coefficients suggesting that (1) structure is a major moderator of interview validity; (2) interviews, particularly when structured, can reach levels of validity that are comparable to those of mental ability tests; and (3) although validity does increase through much of the range of structure, there is a point at which additional structure yields essentially no incremental validity. Thus, results suggested a ceiling effect for structure. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article develops the argument that organizational or corporate culture is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the industry in which the company operates. Thus, companies within an industry share certain cultural elements that are required for survival. The article identifies three classes of industry variables that have the potential for creating industry-driven cultural elements: competitive environment, customer requirements, and societal expectations. The article also discusses implications of the industry influences on the potential for culture change.
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237 college students who had been interviewed for jobs at a university placement service completed a questionnaire concerning their reactions to an interviewer and their subsequent decisions. Factor analysis of their impressions of the interviewer yielded 6 factors. Factor scores were computed, and multiple regression analyses were used to relate these factor scores to applicant decisions. Perceived interviewer personality, manner of delivery, and adequacy of job information affected interviewee evaluations of the interviewer and his company and the interviewee's likelihood of job acceptance. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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briefly list the main methods of prediction which are used in selection and assessment of people at work / outline the ways that these methods can be categorized interviews / tests / repertory grids / astrology / self-assessment / biodata approach characteristics of predictors recent predictors / situational and behaviour description interviews / accomplishment record classification of methods computer-assisted testing impact of selection methods on candidates (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Compared the methods used to select managers in 73 British and 52 French organizations. While larger companies in both countries were more likely to use reliable and valid selection methods, British companies were significantly more likely to do so. However, in both countries there was still widespread use of techniques that have been heavily criticized for poor validity and reliability. A comparison between the British sample and a similar British sample studied by I. T. Robertson and P. J. Makin (see record 1986-28750-001) in 1984 showed a 3-fold increase in the reported use of assessment centers in the UK. Overall, results suggest that methods such as psychological tests, biodata, and assessment centers were being used more frequently, although the interview remained dominant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We note that applicant reactions to selection procedures may be of practical importance to employers because of influences on organizations’attractiveness to candidates, ethical and legal issues, and possible effects on selection procedure validity and utility. In Study 1, after reviewing sample items or brief descriptions of 14 selection tools, newly hired entry-level managers (n= 110) and recruiting/employment managers (n= 44) judged simulations, interviews, and cognitive tests with relatively concrete item-types (e.g., vocabulary, standard written English, mathematical word problems) to be significantly more job related than personality, biodata, and cognitive tests with relatively abstract item-types (e.g., quantitative comparisons, letter sets). A measure of new managers’cognitive abilities was positively correlated with their perceptions of the job relatedness of selection procedures. In Study 2, applicant reactions to a range of entry-level to professional civil service examinations (assessed immediately after tasting the exam) were positively related to (procedural and distributive) justice perceptions and willingness to recommend the employer to others (assessed one month after the exam, n= 460).
Article
Manufacturing applicants' perceptions of two selection devices were examined. In Study 1, applicants (n= 3,984) completed cognitive ability tests and a survey of reactions. In Study 2, a subset of applicants from Study 1 (n= 194) participated in an assessment center and completed the survey. Applicants reacted favorably to the procedures but viewed the assessment center as more face valid than the cognitive tests. Applicants who perceived the selection techniques more favorably were also more satisfied with the selection process, the job, and the organization. Although applicants' perceptions of the procedures were related to job acceptance intentions, applicants' liking of the job and organization explained the largest unique variance. In future studies, applicants' job acceptance intentions and attitudes toward the job and organization should be assessed before and after administration of selection devices; not controlling for prior impressions resulted in overestimation of the contribution of applicants' perceptions of selection procedures.
Article
Procedural and distributive justice were examined in an employee selection situation. Along procedural justice dimensions, job relatedness of and explanation offered for the selection procedures were manipulated. Distributive justice was examined through manipulation of a selection decision and collection of a priori hiring expectations. Dependent measures included fairness reactions, recommendation intentions, self-efficacy, and actual work performance. Undergraduates (n = 260) were selected/rejected for paid employment. Job relatedness influenced performance and interacted with selection decision on perceptions of distributive fairness and self-efficacy. Explanations influenced recommendations of rejected applicants. Interactions between hiring expectations and selection decision were observed on perceived fairness and recommendation intentions. Discussion focuses on theoretical and practical implications of the observed interactions.
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The present study solicited the reactions of 390 current and future job seekers to 13 selection procedures. Results suggest that applicants prefer selection methods with high apparent content validity, in particular, simulations (both written and oral) and tests with business-related content. Reference checks also received positive evaluations, while personality inventories, drug testing and honesty testing were generally viewed as neutral. Reactions to interviews varied according to interview content and nature of the interviewer (line versus staff). Overall, reactions were predictable on the basis of applicants' faith in the employer's ability to accurately interpret the procedure; their beliefs about the extent to which the employer actually needs to use the procedure, and their beliefs about likely self-performance on the procedure.
Article
Two common employer concerns about pre-employment honesty testing were addressed: fakability and the test taker's reaction to such tests. Students, 84% with work experience in industries where honesty tests are common, took an honesty test under one of three instructional sets: respond honestly, fake good, and respond as if applying for a job. While subjects instructed to fake good could easily do so, the scores of subjects responding as job applicants more closely resembled those of subjects instructed to respond honestly. Strong negative reactions to honesty tests were not found; rather, most subjects felt that such tests were appropriate. The use of pre-employment honesty tests was not found to have a large impact on test taker perceptions of employers using such tests.
Article
A survey of Human Resource practitioners' perceptions of pre-employment screening procedures was conducted. The results indicated differences between tests in terms of perceived accuracy and offensiveness, as well as other attributes. Regression analyses suggested that beliefs about validity, the number of other companies using these procedures, perceived offensiveness of the test, and ease in passing the test were important factors in the willingness to use a particular test. Conversely, perceptions regarding the discriminatory impact of the test and the cost of using the test generally were not related to willingness to use the test. Limitations of this study, which was primarily exploratory, are noted.
Article
A justice model of applicants' reactions to employment-selection systems is proposed as a basis for organizing previous findings and guiding future research. Organizational justice literature is briefly reviewed, and key findings are used to provide a framework for the proposed model and to support hypotheses. The procedural justice of selection systems is examined in terms of 10 procedural rules, wherein the satisfaction and violation of these rules provide the basis for fairness reactions. Distributive justice of hiring decisions is examined with respect to equity, equality, and needs. The model also includes the interaction of procedural and distributive justice and the relationship of fairness reactions to individual and organizational outcomes.
Article
Announcements of a work site smoking ban were made to 732 clerical workers. The presentations differed in the amount of information given about the need for the ban and the degree of interpersonal sensitivity shown over the personal impact of the ban. Immediately after the announcement, questionnaires were completed to assess participants' acceptance of the ban. High amounts of information thoroughness and of social sensitivity, given separately, enhanced acceptance of the ban, but their combined effects were even greater. Although heavy smokers were least accepting of the ban, they showed the greatest incremental gain in acceptance after exposure to thorough information presented in a highly sensitive manner. By contrast, nonsmokers' acceptance of the ban was uniformly unaffected by the way it was presented to them. Regardless of how much they smoked, all participants recognized the procedural fairness associated with giving thorough information in a socially sensitive manner.
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