ArticlePDF Available

Structure of Human Values. Testing the Adequacy of the Rokeach Value Survey

Authors:

Abstract

Examined the extent to which the 36 items of the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) provide comprehensive and representative coverage of the value domain in 2 experiments. In Exp I, intensive semistructured interviews, based on the RVS, were conducted with 73 adults drawn from an electoral roll. Test–retest reliabilities were examined over 4 wks with 208 university students. In Exp II, factor structure was explored with 483 adults from the general population and with 688 university students. All Ss completed inventories of goal values, mode values, and social values. Data provide qualified support for the comprehensiveness of the instrument. The major weaknesses in sampling involved the facets of physical well-being and individual rights. Other areas not represented were thriftiness and carefreeness. The need for multi-item indices for value constructs is discussed, as are the advantages of a rating procedure over a ranking procedure from both psychometric and empirically valid perspective. An alternative instrument based on the work of Rokeach is proposed. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... The two values are "terminal value," which indicates the ultimate state desired by humans, and "instrumental value," which indicates the state necessary to reach the final value. However, there was no mention of the means of acquiring final value, necessary value, or the relationship between them [16]. In contrast, Schwartz & Bilsky (1987) [17] considered value to be the goal of individual behavior and an unwavering, consistent concept underlying behavior. ...
... Based on these hypotheses, two types of value were established: "terminal value," which indicates the ultimate desirable state that humans seek, and "instrumental value," which indicates the state necessary to reach the final value. However, the extent to which the factors of value set forth by Rokeach comprehensively and representatively covered the domain of values was rarely verified [16]. In contrast, Schwartz & Bilsky (1987), who considered the means of acquiring end values and relationships, considered value to be a goal of individual behavior as well as a consistent concept that underlies individual behavior in any given situation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Martial arts (“budo”) is a service system in which instructors and students co-create physical and mental values through training encounters in a physical servicescape—the dojo. We explored how actors develop eudemonic wellbeing in this servicescape. We selected the dynamics theory of perception of servicescapes as the theoretical framework to examine the process of behavior change based on the interaction between participants and the environment. We also employed service-dominant logic (SDL), which views services as a value co-creation process among actors, and we also employed transformative service research (TSR), which explores uplifting change to improve wellbeing. We collected data from the World Seido Karate Organization Seido-juku, which has been active worldwide for more than 40 years. We conducted interviews with 17 members and analyzed the secondary data. The results indicated that (1) the participants integrated the value co-creation learned through the training at the servicescape as a model for daily life, and (2) the servicescape created positive mental change in the participants and promoted their personal growth. Martial arts training in a dojo can enable participants to independently create a state of wellbeing at any time. It supports sustainable personal growth, and the dojo is perceived as a eudemonic servicescape.
... So far, various typologies of values have been empirically identified and used in social sciences (see Rohan, 2000; see also Hanel, Litzellachner, and Maio, 2018). For example, Rokeach (1973) introduced the distinction between instrumental and terminal values, corresponding to desirable behavioural modes and desirable end-states, respectively (see also Braithwaite, 1982;Braithwaite and Law, 1985). Kahle (1983), reworking Rokeach's theories, proposed a distinction between internally and externally oriented values (see also Homer and Khale, 1988;Kahle, Beatty, and Homer, 1986) based on the extent to which values reflect internal vs external loci of control. ...
Article
This conceptual paper offers a theoretical and methodological analysis on the use of values for understanding and managing tourists’ environmentally sustainable choices. The aim is to provide a deeper discussion of the limits identified by recent reviews of the literature and to suggest additional ones. Moreover, we show how research in social and environmental psychology can help tourism scholars and practitioners to deal more effectively with them. Particular attention is paid to identifying the key aspects that characterize the different concepts and measures of values that are relevant to this topic. Suggestions for improving the effective use of this construct for research and management applications are provided. Possible avenues for consolidating, as well as broadening, the theoretical and practical foundations of this concept’s use in the domain of tourists’ sustainable behaviour are also discussed. This paper can be downloaded freely at this address (50 free downloads available): https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1g1UO7sySz-UsF
... Schwartz Value Theory will guide this study, which aims to integrate healthcare practitioners' professional and religious values. They encompass all values that guide decision-making in all cultures (Braithwaite and Law 1985). The Schwartz model also proposes a structure of value relations, which can result in compatibility and conflict between values. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many believe religion has no place in modern medical and professional fields. Nevertheless, recent studies show that religion remains integral to many people’s lives and professional practices, such as physicians. This study addresses the significance that American Muslim physicians (AMPs) attribute to their religious values in shaping their identity; and examines how the values held by self-identified Muslim physicians affect their medical practice, specialization, public roles, and civic engagement. This paper also discusses how complex lives may not be adequately addressed by theories of value derived from modernization theory and more normatively conceived Muslim ethical principles. Individual interviews were conducted with 62 AMPs. Grounded thematic analysis guided the processing of qualitative interview data. The results suggest that many of the AMPs’ religious values converge with shared cultural and professional values in the United States and elsewhere. The authors suggest that focusing on how AMPs articulate their values will lead to more humane professional, community, and healthcare settings. Regardless of the religious beliefs of professional providers, they should not ignore the impact of religion on their medical practice, especially since religion is still a vital part of many patients’ lives.
... An English-language version of the questionnaire appears in Appendix A. The first part of both questionnaires was similar and asked the respondents about their perceptions about the environment and society. Each sub-part in this section contained a number of statements, six for environmental perceptions [48] and five for social matters and equality in general [49]. The respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed with the statements on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Does having an environmental, social, and governance (ESG) policy have an impact on stakeholders? This research presents a unique model that allows us to measure the economic value of adopting an ESG policy for financial institutions’ stakeholders. Using the results of a questionnaire distributed among financial institution employees and customers, we find that, on average, employees are willing to forgo 11% of their salary to work for a company that has adopted and implemented such a policy. In addition, customers are willing to pay 47% more in management fees to do business with financial institutions that have such a policy. To our knowledge, this is the first study that quantifies the benefits for financial institutions stakeholders of adopting an ESG policy.
... In Schwartz and Bilsky's (1987) value theory, they noted that needs shape values and Rokeach suggested that needs and values motivate attitudes and behaviors. There have been many scales created to measure values including Rokeach's (1973) 36-item RVS (Rokeach's Values Survey), Braithwaite and Law's (1985) 79-item scale, Schwartz's (1994) 57-item SVS (Schwartz's Values Survey), and Lee and Trail's (2011) 64-item values scale. Like the needs' scales, many of the values' scales have been criticized for their lack of psychometric properties (Lee and Trail). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to determine if single-item (SI) needs' and values' measures have similar reliability and validity values to multi-item (MI) measures of the same constructs and thus could be substituted by sport marketers to predict internal motivating aspects of sport consumer attitudes and behavior. In addition, the authors wish to determine whether a small subset of needs and values listed in current measures are sufficient to predict sport consumer attitudes and behavior. Design/methodology/approach In this two-study design, the first study was a national sample ( N = 439) comparing reliability and validity of single-item scales to multi-item scales. In the second study the authors collected data from fans and spectators of four different teams ( N 1 = 583; N 2 = 1164; N 3 = 213; N 4 = 404) to determine the impact of needs and values on sport consumer attitudes and behavior. Findings The authors determined that in 89% of the scales, single-item measures of needs and values were just as reliable and valid as their associated multi-item measures. The authors also found that a small subset of the needs and values explain a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors. Research limitations/implications The authors determined that in 89% of the scales, single-item measures of needs and values were just as reliable and valid as their associated multi-item measures. The authors also found that a small subset of the needs and values explain a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors. Originality/value The authors show that as motives for sport consumption, single-item measures of personal needs and values are equivalent to multi-item measures and not all needs and values used in previous sport research are necessary because they do not predict a meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors. The authors identified a small number of single-item measures that practitioners can easily use in short surveys that will predict a statistically meaningful amount of variance in sport consumer attitudes and behaviors.
... Milton Rokeach was a psychologist who set a model of belief system to classify beliefs, attitudes and values clearly. He claimed that all people own the same number of values to different degrees and the total number of values a person possesses is relatively small [7]. He organized the values in terms of importance. ...
Article
The human values are beliefs that have a deep-rooted worth in usefulness or importance to the holder of these qualities. These values are necessity in today’s society and education system. These values provide a meaning to the life of a human being. Usually, people become lazy and dull after being successful in this materialistic world, but if they have values, they would always have a purpose and guide in their life. Values are needed to teach to the children from the early age at school. This will help them to lead a peaceful and harmonious life which is free from evils. Hence, the aim of this paper is to highlight the important of universal human value in our life and how the theories on values are given by different researchers.
Chapter
Unsere Daten stammen aus zwei Reihen zuverlässiger und regelmäßig wiederholter globaler Meinungsumfragen: dem World Values Survey (WVS) und dem European Social Survey (ESS). Unsere statistischen Berechnungen wurden mit dem routinemäßigen und standardmäßigen Statistikprogramm IBM-SPSS (IBM-SPSS XXIV) durchgeführt und stützten sich auf die sogenannte schräge Rotation der Faktoren, die der Korrelationsmatrix zugrunde liegt. Bei jedem Vergleich haben wir das demokratische zivilgesellschaftliche Engagement der Gesamtbevölkerung und der praktizierenden römischen Katholiken, d. h. der Katholiken, die regelmäßig die Sonntagsmesse besuchen, bewertet. Unsere Ergebnisse warnen eher davor, dass die katholische Weltöffentlichkeit der erheblich geschwächten Führungsrolle der Kirche bei der Befürwortung einer liberalen Asyl- und Migrationspolitik folgen wird. Die überwältigende Stärke des noch vorhandenen katholischen Aktivismus ist im globalen Süden zu finden, während die entwickelten Länder stark von der Säkularisierung betroffen sind. Auf der Grundlage von Kriterien, die sich auf die Europäische Sozialerhebung (ESS) stützen und zu denen eine einwanderungsfreundliche Haltung, Euro-Multikulturalismus, die Ablehnung von Rassismus, persönliche multikulturelle Erfahrungen und die Ablehnung eines rechtsgerichteten Kulturalismus gehören, kann man mit Fug und Recht behaupten, dass praktizierende Katholiken in keinem einzigen europäischen Land eine liberalere Einstellung zur Einwanderung haben als die Gesellschaft insgesamt.
Article
El objetivo principal de este artículo es señalar los valores sociales presentes en los spots de bebidas emitidos por televisión, en España, durante el año 2006. Se estudian los valores sociales que transmiten los anuncios al margen de su función comercial. En total, se han analizado 191 spots; para los que se detallan los valores atribuidos al producto y al consumidor. La salud, la juventud, la importancia de las relaciones sociales o de construirse una personalidad genuina son algunos de los principales valores e ideales transmitidos a través de los spots sometidos a estudio.
Article
Procedures have been developed for assessing values and ideologies of social groups by interviews or questionnaires administered to their members. These involve content analysis of responses to standardized questions concerning traits which the subject admires in other people. Although the procedure provides only a crude measure of the presence or absence of individual subjects' values, preliminary evidence on reliability and validity indicates that it is adequate for an initial overview of the salient values within a group. The measures were used to assess the values and ideologies of three different samples, representing adult residents of a university community, students at the university, and students at a minority sect religious college. Results are interpreted in the light of common assumptions about the cultures of these groups.
Article
It is argued that methods currently available for studying values within a socio‐psychological framework are inadequate and that, if, for example, the interrelationships between values and education are to be systematically explored, then it is essential that approaches be devised which reflect more accurately the nature of human valuing. Some of the problems associated with present methods are illustrated by examining in detail one of the latest and, in some ways, most impressive to become available‐‐the Rokeach Survey of Values. It is suggested that, in spite of its simplicity and ready appeal, it suffers from important weaknesses (notably its inadequate conception of human values) which are liable to seriously distort the information which it appears to give. Some of the requirements for an adequate questionnaire method of studying values are outlined, but the importance of obtaining corroborative evidence from idiographic and field approaches is also stressed. The paper illustrates the kind of basic thinking required before values are studied or measured.
Article
Students in two Australian tertiary institutions completed Form E of the Rokeach Value Survey. Multidimensional scaling and clustering were applied to the two sets of data so obtained. For each data set, ranks for the full set of 36 values, the set of 18 terminal values alone, and the set of 18 instrumental values alone, were intercorrelated and the rank-order correlations taken as measures of proximity between values. Dimensions resulting from the multidimensional scaling analyses were found to be fairly readily interpretable and to be comparable in part with the results of an earlier analysis by Rokeach using factor analysis and scaling. Correspondence between solutions obtained from the two data sets was quite high. The clustering analysis revealed no extensive “clumping” of values or tight subgroupings.
Article
The purposes of the research were: (1) to elicit spontaneously mentioned values from a large and diverse sample of respondents, (2) to compare the spontaneously mentioned values with Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values, (3) to determine the ways in which both sets of values were perceived as varying on selected independently measured properties, and (4) to provide structural representations of both value systems. The spontaneously mentioned values were interpretable in terms of the focus of concern (Self versus Society) and beliefs about how these concerns were to be achieved. The spontaneously mentioned values also revealed a simpler structure than Rokeach's values. The results are discussed in terms of the errors inherent in constraining respondents to a fixed response format and the implications for cross cultural research on the underlying structure of value systems.
Article
Electronic computers facilitate greatly carrying out factor analysis. Computers will help in solving the communality problem and the question of the number of factors as well as the question of arbitrary factoring and the problem of rotation. "Cloacal short-cuts will not be necessary and the powerful methods of Guttman will be feasible." A library of programs essential for factor analysis is described, and the use of medium sized computers as the IBM 650 deprecated for factor analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
100 COLLEGE STUDENTS RATED 555 PERSONALITY-TRAIT WORDS. LIKABLENESS RATINGS OF 555 PERSONALITY-TRAIT WORDS ON LIKABLENESS AS PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS. THE MEAN RATINGS AND THEIR VARIANCES ARE TABULATED, TOGETHER WITH AUXILIARY RATINGS ON MEANINGFULNESS. CORRELATIONS OF THE NORMATIVE LIKABLENESS VALUES WITH SIMILAR DATA FROM 3 OTHER UNIVERSITIES RANGED FROM .96-.99. BETWEEN-S VARIABILITY WAS ASSESSED, AND ITS RELEVANCE TO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IS DISCUSSED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).