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Clinical Health Psychology: A Health Care Specialty in Professional Psychology

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Abstract

Clinical health psychology is a specialty recognized by both the American Board of Professional Psychology and the American Psychological Association. Clinical health psychology focuses on psychological and behavioral components of illness and health and promotes the understanding of psychology as a health profession. In this article the author reviews its definition, provides a brief overview of practice in the specialty, addresses its relevance for practitioners, and notes sample resources for further study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Clinical health psychology gained formal recognition as a specialty by ABPP in 1991 as a way to credential health psychology specialists. The term clinical was added to the name of the specialty to differentiate psychologists prepared solely for research and academic careers from those practicing as health service professionals (Belar, 2008). In 1997, APA formally designated clinical health psychology as a specialty through the CRSPPP recognition process. ...
... Core competencies for CHPs include: (a) broad knowledge of biopsychosocial factors in understanding disease and behavior and how they are related; (b) understanding specific topics in medicine such as pathophysiology, psychoneuroimmunology, and pharmacology; (c) training in assessment, treatments, and consultation focused on the health care setting; (d) working as part of a health care team; (e) understanding unique ethical and legal concerns encountered in health care practice; (f) demonstrating research knowledge and methods; and (g) understanding health policy and systems. Finally, it is crucial to obtain experience in a health care setting with exposure to multiple types of problems and supervisors who practice according to a biopsychosocial model (Belar, 2008;Nash et al., 2013). ...
... They work with the traditional identified patient but also consult with families, health care professionals, administrators, organizations, and policymakers because these groups have an impact on population and individual health. CHPs also work with a range of health problems and diagnoses given the role of behavior in the etiology and treatment of physical conditions and related decisions (Belar, 2008; see also Volume 1, Chapter 12, this handbook). ...
... Negli anni successivi si rileva che I'anticipazione di Millon, Green e e Meagher (1982) incontra favorevoli accoglienze e autorevoli conferme. Come ricorda Belar (2008), nel 1991 la American Board of Professional Psychology riconosce ufficialmente la psicologia della salute come una specialità della psicologia professionale. L'esercizio di tale specialità richiede conoscenze avanzate e abilità particolari, acquisite attraverso un sistematico percorso di formazione appositamente articolato e frnalizzato. ...
... Come conseguenza di queste elaborazioni concettuali e operative, si perviene alla determinazione di aggiungere il termine "clinico" al fine di operare una distinzione tra quegli psicologi della salute che hanno formazione e attività maggiormente orientate alla ricerca e alla docenza e coloro che sono preparati anche per prestare il proprio servizio all'interno dei sistemi . di cura (Belar, 2008). ...
... Gli aspetti centrali della psicologia clinica della salute Gli autori impegnati nel tentativo di mettere in luce le caratteristiche distintive della psicologia clinica della salute (es.: Belar, 2006Belar, ,2008Frank, Balrm e Wallander,2004;Papas et a1.,2004) concordano su alcuni aspetti sostanziali, che meritano di essere, pur sommariamente, menzionati. La psicologia clinica della salute si fonda sulle scienze psicologiche così come su altre scienze impegnate nell'ambito della salute e della malattia. ...
Article
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Clinical health psychology is a specialty widely recognized because of its evidence based practice, its contribution to an integrated health care system, and the costeffectiveness of its services. The specialty of clinical health psychology applies scientific bio-psycho-social knowledge to the promotion and maintenance of health, to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of illness and disability, and to promotion of the health care system. The distinct focus of clinical health psychology is on physical health problems, as delineated by ICD-10. In this article the authors review its definition, provide a brief overview of practice in the specialty, address the training in clinical health psychology. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. In every case, the future holds a variety of important challenges and opportunity in research, practice, training and policy. © 2018 Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione. All rights reserved.
... In conducting a comprehensive risk/benefit analysis for provision of psychological services, the CPA Code (see Standards II.13, II.18) emphasizes the importance of tailoring assessments to the unique needs, characteristics, and sociocultural contexts of individuals presenting for treatment (CPA, 2017). The development and maintenance of obesity is multifactorial, and adequate assessment therefore considers biological, environmental, psychosocial, and cultural aspects of patients' weight problems (Belar, 2008;Dobmeyer & Rowan, 2014;Masters, France, & Thorn, 2009). Such assessments often include inquiry as to (a) medical history; (b) physical comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, heart disease); (c) medication use; (d) current/past drug and alcohol use/ abuse; (e) obesogenic psychological disorders (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]; depression; binge eating disorder); (f) body image concerns; (g) eating behaviors (e.g., food diary review, emotional eating, mindless eating, night eating, etc.); (h) weight-history; (i) dieting history; (j) motivation (i.e., readiness) to change; (k) treatment barriers (e.g., poverty, work/time constraints, physical comorbidities); (l) current level of physical activity; and (m) family/relationship factors (e.g., living arrangements, family eating patterns; Freedhoff & Sharma, 2010;Lau et al., 2007). ...
... Practice recommendations (APA, 2013(APA, , 2015France et al., 2008), review articles (Belar, 2008;Belar et al., 2001;Masters et al., 2009), and clinical handbooks (Dobmeyer & Rowan, 2014;Larkin & Klonoff, 2014) have outlined the unique challenges, necessary competencies, and ethical responsibilities of psychologists working in medical settings. To provide effective, clientcentered care, CHPs treating obesity in multidisciplinary health settings are advised to consider ethical approaches to (a) ...
... through the reading of relevant literature, peer consultation, and continuing education activities" (CPA, 2017, Standard II.9, p. 20; see APA Standard 2 for similar guidance). According to Belar et al.'s (2001;Belar, 2008) self-assessment model for establishing competence in medical settings, CHPs should examine their understanding of the origins of obesity in terms of biological (e.g., genetics, medical syndromes), cognitive-affective (e.g., depression, eating disorders [EDs]), social (e.g., cultural norms and expectations around eating and body image), and developmental/individual (e.g., personality) variables. Failure to maintain competency in best-practice obesity treatment may lead to outdated treatment methods (e.g., extremely low-calorie diets) and unhelpful attitudes (e.g., "obesity is a failure in personal responsibility") which compromise weight loss success (Freedhoff & Sharma, 2010). ...
Article
The obesity epidemic in the United States and Canada has been accompanied by an increased demand on behavioral health specialists to provide comprehensive behavior therapy for weight loss (BTWL) to individuals with obesity. Clinical health psychologists are optimally positioned to deliver BTWL because of their advanced competencies in multimodal assessment, training in evidence-based methods of behavior change, and proficiencies in interdisciplinary collaboration. Although published guidelines provide recommendations for optimal design and delivery of BTWL (e.g., behavior modification, cognitive restructuring, and mindfulness practice; group-based vs. individual therapy), guidelines on ethical issues that may arise during assessment and treatment remain conspicuously absent. This article reviews clinical practice guidelines, ethical codes (i.e., the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists and the American Psychological Association Ethical Principles of Psychologists), and the extant literature to highlight obesity-specific ethical considerations for psychologists who provide assessment and BTWL in health care settings. Five key themes emerge from the literature: (a) informed consent (instilling realistic treatment expectations; reasonable alternatives to BTWL; privacy and confidentiality); (b) assessment (using a biopsychosocial approach; selecting psychological tests); (c) competence and scope of practice (self-assessment; collaborative care); (d) recognition of personal bias and discrimination (self-examination, diversity); and (e) maximizing treatment benefit while minimizing harm. Practical recommendations grounded in the American Psychological Association’s competency training model for clinical health psychologists are discussed to assist practitioners in addressing and mitigating ethical issues in practice.
... Gli autori impegnati nel tentativo di mettere in luce le caratteristiche distintive della psicologia clinica della salute (es.: Belar, 2006 Belar, , 2008 Frank, Baum, &Wallander, 2004; Papas et al., 2004 Al fine di caratterizzare in modo sistematico la psicologia clinica della salute, appare assai più efficace ricorrere alla puntualizzazione fatta recentemente in proposito da Belar (2006 Belar ( , 2008). Il modello tridimensionale proposto dall'Autrice mette in luce la varietà di applicazioni possibili rispetto ai problemi, ai destinatari, al tipo di intervento. ...
... Gli autori impegnati nel tentativo di mettere in luce le caratteristiche distintive della psicologia clinica della salute (es.: Belar, 2006 Belar, , 2008 Frank, Baum, &Wallander, 2004; Papas et al., 2004 Al fine di caratterizzare in modo sistematico la psicologia clinica della salute, appare assai più efficace ricorrere alla puntualizzazione fatta recentemente in proposito da Belar (2006 Belar ( , 2008). Il modello tridimensionale proposto dall'Autrice mette in luce la varietà di applicazioni possibili rispetto ai problemi, ai destinatari, al tipo di intervento. ...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical health psychology is a specialty widely recognized because of its evidence based practice, its contribution to an integrated health care system, and the cost-effectiveness of its services. The specialty of clinical health psychology applies scientific biopsychosocial knowledge to the promotion and maintenance of health, to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of illness and disability, and to promotion of the health care system. The distinct focus of clinical health psychology is on physical health problems, as delineated by ICD-10. In this article the authors review its definition, provide a brief overview of practice in the specialty, address the training in clinical health psychology. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. In every case, the future holds a variety of important challenges and opportunity in research, practice, training and policy.
... The fact that most doctoral programmes in health psychology in the USA are of the "embedded" type is not surprising, as the formal application to establish health psychology as a specialised field of practice was made in 1984 by Joseph D. Matarazzo, but the APA only formally recognised "clinical health psychology" as a specialty in professional practice in 1997 ( Belar et al., 2012). Moreover, the APA still only accredits doctoral programmes within one of the traditional specialities of clinical, counselling, or educational/school psychology (Belar, 2008). Belar notes that this may well change in the future with the recent changes in the APA accreditation policy that specify how other developed practice areas may seek accreditation. ...
... However, changing accreditation guidelines takes time, and clinical health psychology needs to compete with the wellestablished specialities. On the more positive side, many of the APA-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programmes include a large focus on health psychology, and there are a growing number of health psychology internships listed in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Center, where trainees obtain health-related clinical experience (Belar, 2008). The approved APA nomenclature, that is, "Clinical Health Psychology," also needs to be noted. ...
Article
This article begins with a brief history of the emergence of health psychology, discussing the nature of heath psychology, and the crisis in health that drives the need for more health psychologists. It then proceeds to discuss training in health psychology in Australia at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. To provide a context for considering ways forward, the history of training in health psychology in Australia is reviewed, followed by an examination of equivalent training overseas. Reviewing these literatures revealed that in Australia only five universities offer a compulsory stand-alone course in health psychology in the first 3 years of the undergraduate degree. As many as 11 Australian universities have offered postgraduate training in health psychology, but this number has fallen to only three universities currently. Recommended goals and strategies for increasing postgraduate training in health psychology are offered related to (a) increasing demand from applicants for postgraduate programmes in health psychology; (b) increasing employment opportunities for health psychologists in the public and private sectors; (c) increasing government funding for postgraduate professional programmes; (d) development of alternative training options; and (e) increasing attractiveness of existing training options.
... Moreover, the research agenda presented aligns with the specialty field of health psychology, a psychological discipline that typically encompasses the areas of stress, coping, affect regulation, and its impact on health (Belar, 2008). Furthermore, the subjects of spirituality and religion in relation to health have become more accepted by the behavioral sciences and should not be ignored in a research agenda on SIB (GangeFling & McCarthy, 1996;Miller & Thorsen, 2003;Wagner, 2008). ...
Article
The phenomenology of self-injurious behavior
... Board certification also eases interjurisdictional license and practice mobility (Cox, 2010;Graham & Kim, 2011;Hall & Lunt, 2005;Nezu et al., 2009) and the attainment of board certification increasingly will count toward continuing professional development requirements across jurisdictions (Webb & Horn, in press). Consistent with the fact that ABPP is designed to support a competency-based approach to specialization and board certification (Kaslow & Ingram, 2009), board certification processes create specific standards that articulate competence (Belar, 2008;Boake, 2008;Cox, Hess, Hibbard, Layman, & Stewart, 2010;Dowd, Clen, & Arnold, 2010;Flanagan & Miller, 2010;France et al., 2008;Jackson, Alberts, & Roberts, 2010;Molinari, 2011;Packer, 2008;Tharinger, Pryzwansky, & Miller, 2008;Thomas, 2010), inform the development of uniform training models for competence (Boake, 2008;Packer, 2008), and certify intra-professional regulation within specialized areas. The increased breadth and depth of knowledge, abilities, and attitudes of board certified practitioners is an additional benefit to the profession as a whole. ...
Article
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This article begins by contextualizing specialization and board certification of psychologists, with attention paid to relevant definitions and expectations of other health care professionals. A brief history of specialization and board certification in professional psychology is offered. The benefits of board certification through the American Board of Professional Psychology are highlighted. Consideration is then given to the primary reasons for psychologists working in academic health sciences centers to specialize in the current health care climate and to obtain board certification as a mark of such specialization.
... Furthermore, Clinical Health Psychology focuses on the promotion and maintenance of mental and physical health of the individuals (Dicé et al., 2017). The adjective "clinical" to health psychology underlines its operational purposes (Papas, Belar, & Rozensky, 2004) and intervention guidance (Belar, 2008). Thus, Clinical Health Psychology undertakes to provide and test interventions in order to intervene for treating illness and disorders, but also for promoting individual's global health and psychological well-being Martino et al., 2019). ...
Article
In a Clinical Health Psychology perspective, which focuses on the promotion and maintenance of mental and physical health of the individuals, mentalization (operationalized as reflective functioning; RF) may be conceived as a psycho-social competence associated with psychological well-being and good outcome treatment. In the university contexts, some studies demonstrated that the students' academic achievements may be related, on one hand, to RF improvements, on the other, to psychological well-being. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies exploring RF in relationship with both academic achievement and psychological well-being regarding university students. This study aims at assessing the effectiveness, in terms of RF, psychological well-being and academic performance, of ten counselling groups addressed to 63 underachieving university students lagging behind in their studies. The counselling adopted an innovative narrative methodology, the Narrative Mediation Path (NMP), which aims to improve mentalization and psychological well-being in order to produce an impact on the students' academic performance. The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI), and the Academic Performance Inventory (API) were administered at the beginning and at the end of the counselling. Results showed an overall improvement of students in genuine mentalization, especially of the hypomentalizing dimension of RF, an increase of the psychological well-being index and its sub-dimensions (except for the General Health dimension) and an improvement of the academic performance. This study highlighted the effectiveness of the NMP methodology for students' success and suggests the utility of planning clinical psychology interventions aimed at enhancing mentalization in the university contexts.
... The task of evaluating and treating children and adolescents with behavioral health concerns (i.e., neurodevelopmental, anxiety, and depressive disorders; suicidality) most often becomes the responsibility of the primary care physician (PCP). Estimates suggest 50 to 70% of patients seen in primary care present with behavioral health concerns (Belar, 2008;Gatchel & Oordt, 2003). Given the national shortage of behavioral health providers such as child and adolescent psychiatrists, it is often difficult for PCPs to refer externally (Kim, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an empirical approach to assessing pediatric residents' attitudes, knowledge and skills in primary care behavioral health. Outcomes from that assessment approach are presented from two pediatric residency training programs in the northeastern United States. Thirty-six pediatric residents completed attitudes, knowledge and skills surveys. The survey was developed to align with the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Policy Statement in 2009 citing aspirational competencies for pediatricians in primary care behavioral health. This alignment addressed both learner variables (attitudes, knowledge, and skills) as well as clinical presentations (ADHD, anxiety, depression, and suicide) highlighted in the policy statement. The survey specifically inquired about self-reported confidence and comfort in managing behavioral health concerns using evidence-based practice parameters (attitudes and knowledge) and their measured ability to deliver evidence-based care in response to clinical vignettes (skills). Findings largely revealed no statistically significant differences in attitudes, knowledge or skills between interns and upper-level residents. Training programs can use the approach described in this paper and the assessment instrument with some possible modifications to monitor annual progress and evaluate any changes in didactic and clinical training
... En coherencia con lo anterior, Belar (2008) indica que la psicología clínica de la salud se centra en los aspectos psicológicos y conductuales de la salud y de la enfermedad. Este mismo autor cita a la apa para especificar que en 1997, esta asociación promulgó que la psicología clínica de la salud es una especialidad que aplica el conocimiento científico de las interrelaciones entre componentes conductuales, emocionales, cognitivos, sociales y biológicos en la salud y la enfermedad para promover y mantener la salud; prevenir, tratar y rehabilitar la enfermedad y la discapacidad, y mejorar el sistema de salud. ...
Article
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This paper has two purposes. The first is to make an approach to the concept of health psychology. Within health psychology, clinical health psychology and social health psychology are distinguished. The second purpose is to provide a comprehensive approach to the differences between health psychology and other fields of professional action. In that sense, health psychology is distinguished from: clinical psychology, liaison psychiatry, public health, psychosomatic medicine, medical psychology, behavioral medicine and psychology of disease. Finally, health psychology is related with other fields of psychology, highlighting the need of close interdisciplinary collaboration for scientific and professional goals.
Chapter
Behavioral medicine is increasingly being recognized as an important part of the solution to improving health care. As an area of interest, behavioral medicine is remarkably wide-ranging, with a multilevel focus that extends from the cellular (e.g., neuroplasticity) to the societal level (e.g., policy). Behavioral medicine is, in most places, not a profession or even a specialty area. Instead, it resides within and across academic disciplines and health-care professions; it also reaches beyond the academic and health-care settings and into schools, worksites, and the community at large. This chapter reports where, how, and by whom, in research, training, and practice, that behavioral medicine is occurring to address complex health problems. Large research initiatives are incorporating the importance of behavior in health and illness. A variety of health-care professionals and, otherwise, even laypersons (e.g., peer coaches) are engaging in behavioral medicine to better understand and impact health through behavior change. Medical settings, including primary care, are increasingly integrating behavioral medicine. Finally, schools of medicine, public health, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, and allied health are increasingly incorporating behavioral medicine into their curricula.
Chapter
A systemic issue in traditional health service delivery models to children and adolescents is the difficulty in accessing quality developmental/behavioral health (D/BH) care. Contributors to this problem include the lack of available specialty D/BH specialists (e.g., child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychologists, developmental-behavioral pediatricians), as well as issues with insurance coverage and reimbursement when these services are paneled through behavioral health “carve-outs.” Given the difficulty in accessing these services, primary care physicians such as pediatricians and pediatric residents often become the de facto D/BH providers. However, a major barrier that these providers express in managing D/BH concerns is the lack of training they receive in medical school and residency. This chapter presents an organizational systems-level case study detailing how concerned stakeholders in a healthcare delivery system and training program have responded to problems pertaining to the need for improved care and resident training in D/BH. The case study intends to inform those who design, revise, and operate service delivery and training systems on a daily basis. To facilitate a more nuanced examination of implementation experiences, a simulated question and answer discussion is included at the end of this chapter.
Article
Primary care medical providers (PCPs) have become de facto providers of services for the management of both mental and chronic illnesses. Although some reports suggest that PCPs favor having Behavioral Health colleagues provide behavioral health services in primary care, others demonstrate this view is necessarily not universal. We examined attitudes regarding behavioral health services among PCPs in practices that offer such services via onsite behavioral health providers (n = 31) and those that do not (n = 62). We compared referral rates and perceived need for and helpfulness of behavioral health colleagues in treating mental health/behavioral medicine issues. In both samples, perceived need was variable (5-100%), as were PCPs' views of their own competence in mental health/behavioral medicine diagnosis and treatment. Interestingly, neither sample rated perceived access to behavioral health providers exceptionally high. Referral rates and views about the helpfulness of behavioral health services, except in relation to depression and anxiety, were lower than expected. These results suggest a need for increased collaboration with and education of PCPs about the roles and skills of behavioral health professionals.
Article
The current study examined the websites of the 231 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 2007 and found that more than half described themselves as offering a track, emphasis, certificate, or degree in a specialized training area. About 18% of programs required students to enroll in a specialized training stream. The most common areas of specialized training were clinical child, clinical health, forensic, family, and clinical neuropsychology. The most common format for specialized training was a track within a general clinical training program. A greater percentage of PsyD programs than PhD programs offered specialized training, and PsyD programs offered more areas of specialization than PhD programs. Overall, results indicate that specialized training is common among APA-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs.
Article
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 41(3) of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice (see record 2010-11935-006). The following sentence on page 79 is incorrect: “As evidence of the growing recognition of board certification, many institutions providing services to children, adolescents, and families are requiring their psychologists to become certified by ABPP (e.g., Mayo Clinic) and some insurance companies now mandate this for their panels (e.g., Group Health in Seattle).” In fact Group Health in Seattle does not mandate ABPP certification for psychologists. The sentence should not contain the example in the second set of parentheses.] Clinical child psychology is a growing and vibrant field of practice and research within professional psychology. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the recent series of articles on specialties in Professional Psychology Research and Practice and delineate the development, design, and purpose of clinical child psychology. The article describes the current trends in the specialty and the challenges clinical child psychologists face in tending to the mental health needs of youth and their families. The need for the specialty and the definition of the scope of the work of clinical child psychologists is described. The parameters of training are also discussed, with a focus on the distinctiveness of the role of the clinical child psychologist. Outlined are applications of the work with children, adolescents, and their families including types of professional practice and collaborations with other professionals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recent discussions in clinical health psychology regarding foundational (knowledge-based) and functional (applied) competencies have been guided by the cube model of core competencies (Rodolfa et al., 2005). Proposed competencies for doctoral-level clinical health psychologists were recently published (France et al., 2008). Based on the 2008 Council of Clinical Health Psychology Training Programs conference, we discuss how the proposed competencies might be incorporated into doctoral-level training. Because we view these competencies and training practices to be aspirational, we also address the challenges inherent in making curricular decisions pertaining to which competencies are emphasized in individual programs and within the context of American Psychological Association accreditation requirements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reports an error in "Clinical child psychology: A practice specialty serving children, adolescents, and their families" by Yo Jackson, Fred L. Alberts Jr. and Michael C. Roberts (Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2010[Feb], Vol 41[1], 75-81). The following sentence on page 79 is incorrect: “As evidence of the growing recognition of board certification, many institutions providing services to children, adolescents, and families are requiring their psychologists to become certified by ABPP (e.g., Mayo Clinic) and some insurance companies now mandate this for their panels (e.g., Group Health in Seattle).” In fact Group Health in Seattle does not mandate ABPP certification for psychologists. The sentence should not contain the example in the second set of parentheses. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-02467-010.) Clinical child psychology is a growing and vibrant field of practice and research within professional psychology. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the recent series of articles on specialties in Professional Psychology Research and Practice and delineate the development, design, and purpose of clinical child psychology. The article describes the current trends in the specialty and the challenges clinical child psychologists face in tending to the mental health needs of youth and their families. The need for the specialty and the definition of the scope of the work of clinical child psychologists is described. The parameters of training are also discussed, with a focus on the distinctiveness of the role of the clinical child psychologist. Outlined are applications of the work with children, adolescents, and their families including types of professional practice and collaborations with other professionals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter defines what a specialty is in professional psychology and how the practicing psychologist can become a specialist after completing their core broad and general education and training. It will look at the implications of healthcare reform and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and how changes in the structure of the healthcare system will impact the healthcare workforce of the future, including the training and continuing development of that workforce. This will include psychology's role in healthcare and why specialization will become increasingly important during the next epoch of healthcare services delivery. Finally, specialization will be discussed as part of the quest for personal development and as a structure upon which to build one dimension of each individual's professional lifelong learning portfolio.
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This chapter provides an overview of key developments in the education, training, and credentialing of clinical psychologists; new roles in the field; and intersecting issues across these domains. Emerging issues highlighted within education and training include the move toward the assessment of competence in trainees, accreditation developments, and the doctoral internship match imbalance. Changes in licensing laws, mobility, and the degree of coordination between education and training and credentialing systems are described. Expanded roles for clinical psychologist, such as in health-care settings and public health, are reviewed. Finally, emerging developments such workforce analyses conducted within and across health-care professions and the relationship of issues such to national policy initiatives that are and will impact the future of clinical psychology are presented.
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This paper aims at presenting and discussing the current status and the future developmental lines of health as a professional field in the Italian context. After having presented the historical and conceptual framework of this work (theoretical perspective of analysis: professionalization as a social construction), the main results of a field study conducted on 1.500 registered psychologist (which are representative of the Italian population of psychologist) are discussed. This study aimed at describing the role of health as an organizer of practices and professional positions and the changes of scenario from 2008 to 2012. Data offer three main key lines: 1) Health psychology is nowadays a promising professional field, not currently but potentially. At this regard, professionalizing health psychology is a key priority. 2) Health psychology professionalization requires a "plural" planning, basing on a complex framework of professional profiles and placements which are consistent with the different contexts in which it is implemented. 3) This planning also requires an active answer to the innovation and discontinuity signals that are visible in the Italian psychological professionalism development (crisis of the relationship with welfare, neo-professional scenario).
Chapter
The medical home was proposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1967 as a model of care for children with special health-care needs-children with chronic health conditions who required care from pediatric subspecialists and mental health and child development professionals. In the medical home model, the primary care provider (PCP) is responsible for coordination of services from within the health care system and from community-based agencies including schools, to ensure that the child’s complex needs are comprehensively met. As the medical home model evolved, there was an increasing focus on primary care management of chronic health conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and asthma. The emphasis remained on providing care that is comprehensive, coordinated, continuous, and patient centered. In pediatrics, this means care that meets the needs of the child and family. Because services from diverse providers are integral to the model, it has also become known as the health home or health care home. Variations have been developed, including a mental health home in which the mental health professional is the care coordinator for individuals with a primary psychiatric diagnosis.
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The specialty of clinical health psychology is focused on the intersection of, and interplay between, physical and behavioral health. Many clinical health psychologists are employed in medical settings and embedded within healthcare teams. While the value of clinical health psychologists in healthcare has been well documented, literature synthesizing the contributions of clinical health psychologists in optimizing outcomes in team-based healthcare is limited. In this article, we provide an overview of the history of the field of clinical health psychology, as well as current established training requirements and competencies, and models of professional practice within the medical setting. We clarify the unique contributions of clinical health psychologists as members of healthcare teams, highlighting areas of expertise in assessment, treatment, consultation, education, and advocacy. Specifically, we describe the ways in which clinical health psychologists partnering with medical providers to address psychological and behavioral factors in health and illness can optimize patient functioning, outcomes, and quality of life; improve healthcare policy; and streamline healthcare costs, above and beyond a traditional medical model. The REDACTED practice in the Department of REDACTED and REDACTED Postdoctoral Fellowship program is presented as an example to illustrate the ways in which clinical health psychologists integrate within healthcare teams and specialty areas to improve patients’ health, functioning, and quality of life. Overall, this paper explicitly outlines the value of the specialty within the healthcare setting.
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This article reviews evidence for the hypothesis that psychological interventions can modulate the immune response in humans and presents a series of models depicting the psychobiological pathways through which this might occur. Although more than 85 trials have been conducted, meta-analyses reveal only modest evidence that interventions can reliably alter immune parameters. The most consistent evidence emerges from hypnosis and conditioning trials. Disclosure and stress management show scattered evidence of success. Relaxation demonstrates little capacity to elicit immune change. Although these data provide only modest evidence of successful immune modulation, it would be premature to conclude that the immune system is unresponsive to psychological interventions. This literature has important conceptual and methodological issues that need to be resolved before any definitive conclusions can be reached.
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To meet its potential in the 21st century, clinical health psychology must develop an accumulated body of knowledge relevant to practice, disseminate this knowledge, use this knowledge in practice and policy, and provide appropriate education and training for future psychologists. In this Division of Health Psychology Presidential Address, the author articulates issues in each of these areas, highlighting changes in health care and problems in research as well as issues in the development of practice guidelines and policies relevant to organized psychology.
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This report of the proceedings of the National Working Conference on Education and Training in Health Psychology, held in Harriman, New York, in May, 1983, presents the results of nearly two years of planning by a score of psychologists and four days of intense activity by 57 conference participants. The reports that are presented here were for the most part completed at the conference itself, with minor editing during the two weeks following the conference. The report of the conference is divided into four major sections. The first section tells how the conference came into being, and how the participants were selected and prepared to take part in it, and it sets forth the agenda that guided our work. The second section presents the major addresses that were made to the conference in plenary sessions. The third section is made up of the task group reports that informed the conference, and includes also three position statements developed during the course of the conference. The last section contains the reports of the working groups, which are the officially endorsed output from the conference. Much was accomplished that will be of value to those who are operating or developing training programs in health psychology and to those who will be developing policies and regulations in organizations such as the American Psychological Association.
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As professional practice in health psychology has matured, mechanisms for board certification through the American Board of Professional Psychology have been developed. This article describes the American Board of Health Psychology and its role in the credentialing of practitioners who demonstrate advanced competence in the science and practice of psychology related to health, including the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of illness.
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Developments over the past decade in psychology, in medicine, in funding institutions such as the National Institutes of Health, and in industry make clear that the rapidly growing areas of behavioral medicine and behavioral health are presenting psychology and its sister professions with new opportunities for training, research, and practice. Specific developments within psychology leading to the establishment of the American Psychological Association's Division 38 (Health Psychology) are traced. Also traced are activities on the national level that have led to the development of organizations with a more interdisciplinary focus. Despite a modicum of overselling in some quarters, behavioral health and health psychology appear to be ideas whose time has come. (40 ref)
Article
To meet its potential in the 21st century, clinical health psychology must develop an accumulated body of knowledge relevant to practice, disseminate this knowledge, use this knowledge in practice and policy, and provide appropriate education and training for future psychologists. In this Division of Health Psychology Presidential Address, the author articulates issues in each of these areas, highlighting changes in health care and problems in research as well as issues in the development of practice guidelines and policies relevant to organized psychology.