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We assessed math anxiety in 6th- through 12th-grade children (
N = 564) as part of a comprehensive longitudinal investigation of children's beliefs, attitudes, and values concerning mathematics. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for two components of math anxiety, a negative affective reactions component and a cognitive component. The affective component of math anxiety related more strongly and negatively than did the worry component to children's ability perceptions, performance perceptions, and math performance. The worry component related more strongly and positively than did the affective component to the importance that children attach to math and their reported actual effort in math. Girls reported stronger negative affective reactions to math than did boys. Ninth-grade students reported experiencing the most worry about math and sixth graders the least. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Presently, MA commonly refers to a state of fear and apprehension when one is engaging with math (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007) and is regarded as a primarily emotional response (Mammarella et al., 2015). It should be acknowledged that although most studies conceptualize MA as a single factor, some researchers suggest that MA consists of two dimensions: cognitive and affective (Wigfield & Meece, 1988). The cognitive dimension broadly refers to one's thoughts and concerns about math performance while the affective dimension includes one's emotions like nervousness regarding math testing (Wigfield & Meece, 1988). ...

... It should be acknowledged that although most studies conceptualize MA as a single factor, some researchers suggest that MA consists of two dimensions: cognitive and affective (Wigfield & Meece, 1988). The cognitive dimension broadly refers to one's thoughts and concerns about math performance while the affective dimension includes one's emotions like nervousness regarding math testing (Wigfield & Meece, 1988). ...

Math anxiety is a highly prevalent problem in education that has consistently shown to lead to poor math performance. This study sought to investigate whether certain behaviours are predictive of math anxiety among students. This study involved elementary school students who were low-progressing in math, and is part of an educational intervention program. Ten classifications types of behavioural indicators were identified, such as counting out loud. A multiple linear regression was conducted, identifying three behavioural observations that were positively and significantly associated with their math anxiety. Implications and limitations are discussed.

... The struggles of School of Business students in quantitative courses are a common theme in our review. These struggles turn into negative attitudes and anxiety toward mathematics, which is displayed in academic performance and career opportunities as well documented in the literature (Wigfield and Meece 1988;Meece et al. 1990;Bessant 1995;Singh et al. 2017). Attitude, anxiety, confidence, and one's mathematical preparedness have some bearing on one's selection of major within business, with students that struggle quantitatively gravitating toward majors like marketing (Schlee et al. 2007), with ease of completion often being a significant consideration for marketing majors (Davies and Tikoo 2018). ...

... How do we help students who come into college unprepared for the rigors of the quantitative courses in the business curriculum? As Singh et al. (2017), Bessant (1995), Meece et al. (1990), and Wigfield and Meece (1988) all point out, a school of business student typically struggles in the quantitative courses. This struggle turns into a negative outcome on academic performance and a motivator for selecting non-quantitative majors. ...

This paper reports how high failure rates in the first quantitative course that college business majors take were significantly reduced by implementing course-embedded remediation. More specifically, this paper details our process for identifying students at risk, placing them in special sections of the first quantitative course, and adding an additional hour of application of course concepts which resulted in a statistically significant increase in pass rates. The study focused on the learning environment, the attitude of the student, the utility of the material and the role of the professor for this special course. We feel this research is timely, as many colleges in the United States consider removing entrance exams as a means of evaluation into higher education.

... While abstraction anxiety occurs when there is involvement of algebraic notation or symbols and principles or properties to work on equations. Many studies have treated anxiety as single entity however, according to Wigfield and Meece (1988), mathematics anxiety consists of two dimension, namely cognitive and affective. Cognitive labeled as "worry" when it comes to performances and consequence of failure while affective labeled as "emotionality" usually refers to the feelings such as nervous and tension when it comes to testing situations. ...

... For instance, correlations vary in size from null and small to moderate [21][22][23][24]. They tend to be greater in females than males [24,25], but not always [26,27]. For instance, Ma [28] and Zhang et al. [29] found no gender differences in the correlation between math anxiety and math performance. ...

A higher education that can be defined as sustainable ensures the acquisition of competencies that are necessary to address the current and future needs of the society in which it exists. Because math competencies are an essential component of college students’ academic and professional success, poor performance outcomes are particularly problematic in the context of an education that aims to be sustainable. This research sought to identify dispositions that are predictive of math performance in the post-pandemic world to develop an early detection system for at-risk students of an understudied population (college students of Middle Eastern descent from Saudi Arabia). It specifically targeted female and male students in STEM or non-STEM majors who were enrolled in a math course of the general education curriculum. During the second semester of a return to entirely face-to-face instruction, their self-efficacy, math learning anxiety, math evaluation anxiety, and preference for morning or evening study activities were surveyed. In the post-pandemic world of this understudied population, the math performance of STEM male and female students was hurt by concerns about learning math. The math performance of non-STEM male students benefited from self-efficacy, whereas that of non-STEM female students was unaffected by any of the dispositions surveyed in the present investigation. These findings suggest that individual difference measures can inform early interventions intended to address performance deficiencies in selected groups of students with the overreaching goal of ensuring a sustainable education for all.

... The importance of success in a task is determined by the importance of that task to an individual's sense of self, such that if a student perceives a task as important to their identity, they may exert the effort required for successful performance (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000). Seemingly consistent with these theoretical views, extant research has found positive associations of these value beliefs with achievement-related outcomes (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995;Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Guo, Marsh, Morin, Parker, & Kaur, 2015a;Guo et al., 2017;Guo et al., 2015b;Jacobs et al., 2002;Marchand, & Gutierrez, 2016;Simpkins et al., 2006;Wang, & Eccles, 2013;Wigfield & Meece, 1988). However, with few exceptions (cf. ...

Expectancy-value researchers have theorized about the extent to which subjective task value components are more trait-like or more state-like. Using a bifactor representation of subjective task value data, the current study aimed to examine the degree of trait-state variation in general subjective task value, specific attainment value, specific intrinsic value, and specific utility value. The relations of both between and within components of the subjective task value constructs with academic self-efficacy beliefs were also examined. Results indicate that, in an undergraduate life science learning context (n = 169), the general subjective task value factor was the most trait-like of the subjective task value constructs. With respect to specific value beliefs, attainment value was composed of nearly equal amounts of trait and state variation, intrinsic value was composed of the largest amount of trait variation, and utility value exhibited the most state-like variation. Additionally, findings suggest that trait-like and state-like general subjective task value, trait-like specific intrinsic value, and state-like attainment value were positively associated with self-efficacy. Finally, we propose a model of trait- state dy- namics in subjective task value.

... Richardson and Suinn, (1972) elaborated feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations. Smith (1997) characterizes mathematics anxiety in a number of ways ranging from uneasiness when asked to perform mathematical task, to avoidance, feeling of physical illness, dread and panic, thus theoretical models of mathematics anxiety have multidimensional forms that incorporate attitudinal (dislike), cognitive (worry) and emotional (fear) aspects, (Hart, 1989;Wigfield & Meece, 1988). Mathematics anxiety is more than a dislike for mathematics (Vinson, 2001). ...

The study investigated academic procrastination as a predictor of mathematics anxiety of Primary four pupils in Nsukka Local Government Education Authority, Enugu State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The design is correlational survey research design. 103 public primary schools with a population of 12840 primary four pupils in the area were used for the study. A stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to draw 346 primary four pupils which were used for the study. A Questionnaire with two clusters was the instrument used for this study- academic procrastination inventory (API) and Mathematics Anxiety scale (MAS). The instrument was validated by three experts in the faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach alpha reliability was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments which yielded 0.87 and 0.91 respectively. Research questions were analyzed using Pearson r and R-square while the hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 probability level. It was found that academic procrastination significantly predicts mathematics anxiety and that gender has no significant predictive power on pupilsâ€™ mathematics anxiety. It was recommended among others that lessons must be presented in a variety of ways to help pupils perceive mathematics as a pleasurable activity, to make the joy of mathematics to remain permanently with them and to ensure the development of a sustainable educational system. Moreover, teachers, parents, psychologists and counselors should help to inculcate and strengthen confidence, competence, effective use of time, good organization and the likes to avoid procrastination among these pupils.Keywords: academic; procrastination; anxiety and mathematics;

... Their conceptual argument is that cost does not only contribute to overall value but can also contribute to overall expectancy; for example, perceiving that something is too difficult (e.g., cost) can negatively impact one's overall value and one's overall expectancy in that task/domain. Barron and Hulleman (2015) also provide empirical evidence to support their position; specifically, earlier research demonstrating that task difficulty and math anxiety (both proxies for cost) factored separately from expectancy and cost, and were both clearly linked to expectancy, not just value (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995;Wigfield & Meece, 1988). They also point to more recent research finding that cost factors separately from value, differs by academic domain, and uniquely predicts students' academic outcomes (e.g., Flake et al., 2015;Trautwein et al., 2012). ...

... Many children and adults have highly negative attitudes to mathematics, including significant levels of anxiety about the subject [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. Most studies suggest that mathematics anxiety increases with age [10][11][12][13][14] though there is increasing evidence that it can be found even in the early primary school years [15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...

It has been suggested that parental mathematics anxiety may influence their children’s mathematics anxiety, attitudes, and performance. It remains an open question whether these parent-child associations differ by parental sex or parental involvement. We tested 249 Dutch-speaking Belgian participants, forming 83 (biological) mother–father–child trios. The 83 children (age: M = 5.74; SD = 0.30) attended Kindergarten. We tested their nonsymbolic comparison, symbolic numerical magnitude processing, numeral recognition, arithmetic, and matrix reasoning. We assessed both parents’ arithmetic skills, math anxiety, educational level, and division of care. More math-anxious parents tended to be less highly educated (r~0.42) and poorer at math (r~0.30). Compared to fathers, mothers had lower arithmetic, higher math anxiety, and higher educational level. Assortative mating (i.e., a significant spousal correlation) was found for educational level and arithmetic. Mothers’ (but not fathers’) educational level predicted children’s arithmetic scores (r = 0.31). Other parent-offspring correlations were non-significant. Most of the children’s test scores are intercorrelated. The parental characteristic that best predicted five- and six-year-olds’ arithmetic performance was maternal educational level rather than mathematical anxiety or performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the used measures, parental gender and involvement, children’s age, statistical power, and genetic and environmental transmission. The field is just starting to understand whether and how mathematics anxiety and the skills of parents influence those of their offspring.

The consequences of being anxious towards mathematics can be broad and long-lasting. They include the avoidance of mathematics, the limitation in selecting higher education courses and careers and negative feelings of guilt and shame. Several causes for mathematics anxiety have been reported with past educational experiences, and particularly primary school teachers, taking a sizeable amount of blame. As mathematics anxiety has been described as a wide-spread, detrimental emotion in the classroom, it is pertinent for primary school teachers to be confident in mathematics and well-prepared to be effective teachers of the subject. However, high incidences of mathematics anxiety have been repeatedly reported among in-service and pre-service teachers, and negative correlations found between mathematics anxiety and effectiveness when teaching mathematics. In particular, mathematics anxious female teachers have been found to influence girls’ gender-related beliefs about who is good at mathematics, which in turn negatively affects girls’ mathematics achievement. Given that females make up the majority of the primary school teaching profession in the United Arab Emirates, the context for this study, this is of concern. This chapter looks at the history of mathematics anxiety, and how it is defined and measured. The causes and consequences of mathematics anxiety, and the mathematics anxiety of UAE national pre-service teachers are discussed, and the perpetual cycle of anxiety which must be broken if we want more females in mathematics-related professions. Recommendations for breaking the cycle are made in this chapter.

Math anxiety as a mental and even physiological condition that occurs when confronted with math problems may be associated with a negative attitude towards math and difficulties in performing math activities. It manifests itself as an emotional response to a perceived threat in the form of mathematical stimuli, resulting in a state comparable to that experienced in the other forms of anxiety disorders. Over the last years, math anxiety as an issue in education attracts increased attention from both educators and researchers, emphasizing the importance of emotions in the learning process. This review article presents a literature study that aims to provide an overview of the research of the field, ranging from the initial studies of the concept of math anxiety to the latest research exploring the mechanisms of manifestation of math anxiety in the example of studies of brain activity under mathematical stimuli. Moreover, the review describes the most studied family, school, and social factors that have been claimed to play an important role in the origin of math anxiety, also the tools used to measure the level of math anxiety in different age groups. Finally, it examines the main proposed explanations of the relations between math anxiety and students’ math achievement.

A review of the literature concerning the self-report test anxiety scales and treatment of test anxiety was conducted. The various popular self-report test anxiety instruments were examined with attention given to the reliability and validity status of the scales. Treatment studies were reviewed, with attention being paid to both the outcomes presented and the designs used. Treatments directed toward test worry were more effective in reducing self-reported test anxiety and increasing grades than treatments directed toward test emotionality. Self-reported test anxiety was found to decrease as a result of most treatment including pseudotherapy.

Reference group theory predicts that students of low ability in good classes feel worse than students of high ability in poor classes. With this in mind a field study was conducted in West Germany where a traditional school system provides three types of schools at different academic levels. Achievement anxiety was measured on 1,479 fifth- and eight-graders attending these three tracks. An interaction between type of school and grade level confirmed the expectation that after some years in a selective system students display a paradox pattern of well-being. Theoretically, reference group theory and test anxiety theory were tied together by focussing on self-evaluations in a social context.

Reported is a study comparing females and males enrolled in high school mathematics classes on their intent to enroll in additional mathematics classes, and affective variables related to this intent. Significantly more males than females, especially from the lower half of the achievement distribution, intended to continue to study mathematics. Controlling for cognitive differences 10th and 11th grade students differing in intent to take mathematics (n = 716), responded differently to nearly all of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales. When girls and boys were "equated" for cognitive variables and intent to study mathematics, few sex-related differences in attitudes toward mathematics were found.

This paper offers a detailed review of the literature concerning sex differences in the learning of mathematics. It identifies cognitive, affective and educational variables which have been either shown or hypothesized to contribute to sex-related differences in mathematics learning. The author analyzes each study in detail. One important finding is that many studies crediting boys with more mathematical ability than girls were carried out on populations in which the boys had actually studied more math than the girls. The author believes that if the amount of time spent learning mathematics is equated for males and females, educationally significant sex-related differences in math performance will disappear. Much evidence is presented to support this belief. She concludes with recommendations in three areas: (1) directions for research; (2) intervention or demonstration projects; and (3) general considerations to optimize the chances that the money spent will accomplish its goals, i.e, to improve females' participation in mathematics now and in the future. (Author/BP)

The primary focus of this paper is on understanding factors related to sex differences in mathematics achievement with particular attention to course-taking. The perception of the usefulness of mathematics for future educational and career plans and the support or lack of support from significant others appear to be the major factors associated with women's decisions to elect or not elect advanced courses in mathematics. These factors are in turn influenced by the stereotype of mathematics as a male domain. Other factors associated with course-taking and achievement are attitudes towards mathematics, feelings of self-confidence, and values. Certain educational policies and practices tend to reinforce sex-role stereotypes while some practices may promote greater course-taking and achievement. The organization of the research reported in the body of this paper is as follows: (1) Perceptions of the Career Relevance of Mathematics; (2) Influences of Significant Others; (3) The Perception of Mathematics as a Male Domain; (4) Attitudes, Self-Confidence and Values; and (5) Educational Policies and Practices. The research studies were rather consistent in support of the premise that sex differences in mathematics achievement result, at least in part, from social influences. (Author/JLL)