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Parents' gender stereotypes and teachers' beliefs as predictors of children's concept of their mathematical ability in elementary school

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Parents' gender stereotypes and teachers' beliefs as predictors of children's concept of their mathematical ability in elementary school

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Abstract

This study analyzed whether data at the elementary school level provide support for the hypothesized biasing effect of parents' gender stereotypes on their impressions of their children's competence in mathematics. Approximately 600 German elementary school students in Grades 3 and 4, their teachers, and their parents responded to questionnaires concerning perceptions of ability in mathematics, gender stereotypes in mathematical talent, and future expectations. Path analyses revealed consistent gender stereotypes held by mothers and fathers that interact with the gender of the child and predict the parents' beliefs about their child's abilities. In turn, parents' beliefs about their child relate to their child's self-perceptions of ability in mathematics. A biasing effect of parents' gender stereotypes on present mathematical achievement was not supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... While much of the research in the area has focused on either teacher or parental perceptions of performance (see for example Papageorge, Gershenson and Kang 2020;Räty and Kasanen 2007;Genthrup et al. 2018), this study is able to consider the perceptions of both of these significant others (an approach also taken by Tiedemann, 2000). In doing so it examines whether teacher and primary caregivers' views of children's academic competencies in mathematics are obscured by gender stereotypes. ...
... A range of studies have found that teachers tend to associate 'natural mathematical' ability with boys more often than girls (Fennema, Peterson, Carpenter, and Lubinski 1990;Tiedemann 2000Tiedemann , 2002 and explicitly stereotype mathematics as a male domain (Keller, 2001;Leedy, LaLonde, & Runk, 2003;Li, 1999). Tiedemann (2000) surveyed 52 German teachers of grades 1-5 about their perceptions of boys and girls in their classes. ...
... A range of studies have found that teachers tend to associate 'natural mathematical' ability with boys more often than girls (Fennema, Peterson, Carpenter, and Lubinski 1990;Tiedemann 2000Tiedemann , 2002 and explicitly stereotype mathematics as a male domain (Keller, 2001;Leedy, LaLonde, & Runk, 2003;Li, 1999). Tiedemann (2000) surveyed 52 German teachers of grades 1-5 about their perceptions of boys and girls in their classes. They were asked to choose six of their students, three boys and three girls, from the same performance categories for each gender, one low-performing, one mid-performing, and one highperforming. ...
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This paper is concerned with the underlying question of what shapes the assessment of children's mathematical ability: focusing particularly on parents' and teachers' perceptions of that ability in the context of children's attainment (measured using standardised mathematics tests). We suggest that such perceptions may reflect the impact of gender stereotypes: overestimating boys' and underestimating girls' achievements in the area. The influence of the children's own interests, attitudes and behaviour on these gender stereotypical perceptions are also explored. The paper draws on the Growing Up in Ireland study, providing rich data on children, their families and school contexts. The results show that as early as nine years old, girls' performance at mathematics is being underestimated by teachers and primary care givers alike relative to boys'. While teacher (and parent) judgments reflect children's attitudes towards school and academic self-concept, as well as their actual performance, there remains a notable gender differential in judgements. The findings raise concerns for girls' subsequent mathematics performance and for their academic self-concept in a society where mathematics is highly valued as an indicator of intelligence. Importantly, in the context of the move towards teacher-assessed grading in many education systems during the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding, and challenging, gender-stereotyping by both parents and teachers becomes critically important.
... The evidence is not unambiguous, but a range of studies find that teachers tend to associate 'natural mathematical' ability with boys more often than girls (Tiedemann, 2002) and explicitly stereotype mathematics as a male domain (Leedy et al., 2003). Timmermans et al., (2016) found that girls' compliance and work orientation can increase teacher's perceptions of their ability, while Tiedemann (2000) found that teachers attributed girls' failure to low ability but boys' failure to effort-arguably ultimately reflecting gender stereotypes. Among US children, Cimpian et al. (2016) showed that teachers consistently rated girls' mathematical proficiency lower than that of boys with similar achievement, with a particular reluctance to identify girls as excellent. ...
... While mothers and teachers use actual mathematics achievement, as well as children's liking for mathematics, diligence at school and selfconcept to inform their perceptions, when comparing like-with-like, girls are underrated in mathematics relative to their academically similar male peers. This study thus supports the evidence of studies by Cimpian et al. (2016) and Tiedemann (2000Tiedemann ( , 2002, among others, showing gender bias in teacher and parent perceptions of performance, over-estimating the boys' performance and under-estimating the girls'. ...
... Finally, gender bias is more evident among mothers than teachers, presumably because mothers have less day-to-day evidence of their children's mathematics performance. As found by Tiedemann (2000Tiedemann ( , 2002, Räty, (2006), and ...
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In their report on the Leaving Certificate results and the standardisation process undertaken, the State Examinations Commission (2021) note that research suggests that unconscious estimation bias in such contexts are generally in the direction of favouring female students. Further, they state “knowing that such unconscious bias might come into play and that it would not be possible to address it during standardisation … the Department made strong efforts to mitigate such difficulties by means of the guidance offered to schools in both 2020 and 2021” (SEC, 2021, p.59). These assumptions of unconscious gender bias are problematic in a society where, despite girls’ superior educational achievements, they are under-represented in senior positions in most institutional structures. Our research, on estimations of mathematics performance for children in the mid-primary years, recently published in Oxford Review of Education (McCoy, Byrne, O’Connor, 2021) provides evidence of gender bias, but operating in favour of boys not girls. It is widely accepted that mathematics is a gender marked subject in that achievements in the area are seen as indicative of boys’ ‘natural’ ability. Using data on 8,500 nine-year-old children from the Growing Up in Ireland study, our research examines whether primary caregivers[2] and teachers are less likely to perceive girls’ mathematics achievements as excellent/above average than boys’, taking account of girls’ and boys’ actual performance on nationally validated standardised tests. The evidence reveals that teachers and mothers have lower assessments of girls’ performance, taking account of their mathematics achievement, school engagement, liking for mathematics, self-concept and their economic, educational and cultural background. Gender stereotypes are used as an explanatory concept to understand the over-estimation of boys’ mathematics performance and the under-estimation of girls’ performance.
... Teachers' judgment is also influenced by their beliefs and implicit theories about their students' characteristics and affiliation to a group (e.g., gender, socioeconomic background). For example, teachers describe boys as more logical and as understanding science more easily than girls; this is especially true for lowachieving students (Tiedemann 2000(Tiedemann , 2002. Similar effects have been observed for socio-economic background: students from disadvantaged social groups are judged to be less competent, especially when information about their performance is ambiguous (e.g., Darley and Gross 1983;Hauser-Cram et al. 2003). ...
... We expected that teachers would better judge students who perform well in the school subject being assessed as well as in other subjects. They would also better judge students when the class level is low, and be biased in favour of boys when students are judged in mathematics, and girls when they are judged in French (e.g., Frome and Eccles 1998;Pansu et al. 2016;Tiedemann 2000). Secondly, based on Fleury-Roy and and Lévesque-Guillemette et al. (2015), we assumed that students in both samples who underestimated their school competence would be judged as less competent by their teachers than those who overestimated themselves. ...
... Finally, we observed a gender effect in mathematics: boys were judged more favorably than girls. This result is consistent with previous findings that showed that teachers describe boys as more logical and as better at mathematics (Tiedemann 2000(Tiedemann , 2002. As the mathematics assessment situation may accentuate these stereotypical beliefs and be threatening to girls (stereotype threat; Logel et al. 2009;O'Brien and Crandall 2003;Régner et al. 2014;Shih et al. 2002), it may reinforce teachers' implicit theories about girls' and boys' abilities, which in turn would extend to their judgments in mathematics. ...
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Research on the self-evaluation bias of students' school competence has focused mainly on its correlates for students' school adaptation. This study focused on teachers' theories about students with a positive or negative bias in their self-evaluation of competence. French students enrolled in the third and fifth grades of elementary school (sample 1, N = 508; sample 2, N = 322) and their teachers (sample 1, N = 27; sample 2, N = 13) participated in this study. We examined the relationship between the more or less biased perceptions that students have of their competence in French and mathematics and their teacher's judgment. Models for each sample were tested while controlling for students’ performance, their gender, repeating of a school year, and average class level. The results for both samples showed that the more positively biased a student's evaluation of their competence was, the better their teacher’s judgment was.
... Third, parental beliefs influence their child's motivation and self-belief (Pesu et al., 2016;Tiedemann, 2000) and via that influence their academic achievement (Gunderson et al., 2012;Simpkins et al., 2012). Fourth and finally, Murayama et al. (2016) has argued that excessively positive parental judgments can be damaging because they can lead to over-involvement, controlling behavior, and excessive pressure. ...
... Our findings are consistent with a body of research that shows that mothers distort their judgments of their child in gender stereotyped directions (e.g., Eccles et al., 1990;Lummis, Max & Stevenson, 1990;Räty et al., 1999Räty et al., , 2002Räty et al., , 2007Tiedemann, 2000). These findings should spur 19 MATERNAL JUDGMENTS concern given that we found that maternal judgments have meaningful influences on learning and increased interest in numeracy and reading. ...
... In addition, readers should be aware that the maternal judgements we considered do not represent the entirety of parental beliefs that can impact a child's academic achievement. For example, parent's growth mindsets, perceptions of their child's effort, and even parents' own academic anxieties can influence children's academic progress (Gunderson et al., 2012;Tiedemann, 2000). ...
Article
In a representative longitudinal sample of 2,602 Australian children (52% boys; 2% Indigenous; 13% language other than English background; 22% of Mothers born overseas; and 65% Urban) and their mothers (first surveyed in 2003), this article examined if maternal judgments of numeracy and reading ability varied by child demographics and influenced achievement and interest gains. We linked survey data to administrative data of national standardized tests in Year 3, 5, and 7 and found that maternal judgments followed gender stereotype patterns, favoring girls in reading and boys in numeracy. Maternal judgments were more positive for children from non-English speaking backgrounds. Maternal judgments predicted gains in children's achievement (consistently) and academic interest (generally) including during the transition to high school.
... Relatedly, parents' and teachers' endorsement of stereotypes related to math can bias their expectations of an individual student or group of students (Copur-Gencturk et al., 2020). For example, some teachers endorse gender-based or race/ethnicity-based stereotypes, who often hold higher expectations of male, versus female, students, and of Asian American/White students, versus Black and Latinx students Gunderson et al., 2012;Tenenbaum & Ruck, 2007;Tiedemann, 2000). Teachers' perceptions of students' academic abilities are also shown to influence their expectations for studentsteachers are more likely to hold low expectations for students who they perceive to have low academic potential (Andersen, 2018). ...
... Teachers' perceptions of students' academic abilities are also shown to influence their expectations for studentsteachers are more likely to hold low expectations for students who they perceive to have low academic potential (Andersen, 2018). Studies indicate that these teacher-held stereotypes and lower expectations for "stigmatized" students (i.e., female students, Black/Latinx students, students with low perceived academic potential) are predictive of biased teacher treatment toward these students, such as providing them with fewer participation opportunities, fewer positive referrals, and more negative feedback (Tenenbaum & Ruck, 2007;Weinstein et al., 2004), which ultimately undermines the development of math confidence and positive math attitudes among these students (Andersen, 2018;Eccles et al., 1990;Gunderson et al., 2012;Tiedemann, 2000). ...
... Given research indicating that higher math expectations and lower stereotype biases from parents and teachers predict higher levels of math self-concept Tiedemann, 2000), we hypothesized that higher math expectations and lower stereotype endorsement from parents and teachers would be associated with lower levels of student math anxiety. ...
Article
Despite the well-documented negative implications of math anxiety on math learning, a scarcity of theory-guided, long-term longitudinal research limits knowledge about how math anxiety develops over time. Guided by the Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions (Pekrun, 2006), the present study addresses this gap by examining (1) how math anxiety develops in tandem with the development of control and value appraisals across secondary schooling, and (2) how these three constructs co-develop in relation to characteristics of home and school contexts. We used growth mixture modeling to investigate how math anxiety, math self-concept (a frequently examined indicator of control appraisal), and math utility value (one dimension of math value) develop in parallel in a sample of 3116 adolescents, who were assessed annually across middle and high school. We identified three trajectory classes: a stable class, characterized by stably modest math anxiety, high math self-concept, and high math utility value, a linear change class, characterized by increasing math anxiety and decreasing math self-concept and utility value, and a fluctuating class, characterized by curvilinear changes in math anxiety, math self-concept, and math utility value. Parental academic support and teacher bias differentiated the stable class from the fluctuating class at the transition to middle school, and from the linear change class at the transition to high school. Our findings point to the heterogeneous contributions of control and value appraisals towards the development of math anxiety and highlight the importance of investigating multiple dimensions of the socio-ecological context at different stages of math anxiety development.
... While much of the research in the area has focused on either teacher or parental perceptions of performance (see for example, Gentrup & Rjosk, 2018;Papageorge et al., 2020;Räty & Kasanen, 2007), this study looks at the perceptions of both of these (an approach also taken by Tiedemann, 2000) in the context of the child's agency as reflected in engagement with school in general and mathematics in particular. It also examines the extent to which perceptions vary by school composition (reflected in gender mix) and teacher characteristics (i.e. ...
... Moreover, there is evidence that parents' underestimation of girls' mathematics capacity is also manifested in their inclination to explain girls' mathematics accomplishments with reference to hard work and boys' mathematical accomplishments with reference to natural ability (Räty & Kasanen, 2007). However, Tiedemann (2000), for example, shows that parents' beliefs about their child reflect their child's own self-perceptions of their mathematical ability. ...
... In their large-scale study of Dutch primary school students, Timmermans et al. (2016) find that girls' compliance and work orientation can increase teachers' perceptions of their ability. Tiedemann (2000) also finds that teachers attributed girls' failure to low ability but attributed boys' failure to effort. Among US children, Cimpian et al. (2016) show that teachers consistently rate girls' mathematical proficiency lower than that of boys with similar achievement and learning behaviours, with a particular reluctance to identify girls as excellent. ...
Article
Parents' and teachers' beliefs and evaluations of young people are important. Using a feminist institutionalist perspective, and drawing on rich data from one in seven nine-year-old children in Ireland, this paper examines mothers' (who make up the overwhelming majority of primary care-givers) and teachers' perceptions of boys' and girls' mathematics performance. The evidence shows that girls' mathematics performance is underestimated by both relative to boys'. Mother's gender bias was evident among high performing children, at all levels of children's academic self-concept, and among mothers with at least third level education. While the judgements reflect children's actual performance and engagement, a notable gender gap remains. It is suggested that the results reflect gender stereotypes: overestimating boys' and underestimating girls' mathematics achievements. The article indicates the importance of the informal dimension of institutions and the part played by women in the effective devaluation of girls by endorsing gendered stereotypes. Women teachers are less likely to rate children highly in mathematics, taking account of performance: arguably reflecting their own lack of confidence in mathematics assessment. The findings raise concerns for girls' futures since mathematics is seen as an indicator of intelligence. Given the move towards teacher-assessed grading during COVID-19, understanding, and challenging, gender-stereotyping is pressing.
... These spontaneous framing preferences may reflect the general perception of men as the higher-status gender. Indeed, when discussing math ability, it seems natural to frame boys as the reference point for girls, because most people do typically think of boys as setting the standard in that domain (e.g., Tiedemann, 2000). However, this is exactly what makes subjectcomplement statements so pernicious: They sound sensible and appear egalitarian, but in reality they lead both children and adults to believe that the group framed as the reference point has more natural ability. ...
... Such statements, though biased in favor of girls, might thus be an effective way of preventing or countering gender stereotypes. However, using the counterstereotypical form of subjectcomplement statements may feel unnatural to speakers, since many people do think of boys as setting the standard in math (e.g., Tiedemann, 2000). ...
Article
How do children learn gender stereotypes? Although people commonly use statements like "Girls are as good as boys at math" to express gender equality, such subject-complement statements subtly perpetuate the stereotype that boys are naturally more skilled. The syntax of such statements frames the item in the complement position (here, boys) as the standard for comparison or reference point. Thus, when the statement concerns ability, listeners infer that this item is naturally more skilled than the item in the subject position (here, girls). In 2 experiments, we ask whether subject-complement statements could not only reinforce preexisting gender stereotypes, but also teach them. The participants were 288 adults (51% women, 49% men) and 337 children ages 7 to 11 (50% girls, 50% boys; of the 62% who reported race, 44% self-declared as White; from primarily middle-class to upper middle-class families). Participants were provided with subject-complement statements about either novel abilities (e.g., "Girls are as good as boys at trewting") or nonstereotyped activities (e.g., "Boys are as good as girls at snapping"). Both adults and children inferred that the gender in the complement position was naturally more skilled than the gender in the subject position. Using subject-complement statements to express gender equality (e.g., "Girls are as good as boys at math") could thus backfire and teach children that boys have more natural ability. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Parents' involvement in STEM activities with their children may be influenced by many socio-cultural factors, including cultural stereotypes about gender and STEM (Jacobs & Eccles, 1992;Tiedemann, 2000). Stereotypes are beliefs linking groups with particular traits or characteristics, such as the belief that STEM is "for boys," or that boys are better than girls at STEM (Master & Meltzoff, 2020). ...
... Future research should examine whether these findings generalize to parents from different backgrounds and seek to confirm if parents of preschool-age children are less impacted by gender stereotypes in how they interact with their child. If this finding of no differences in patterns between preschool age boys and girls is replicated, then it indicates that STEM programs need not address issues of stereotypes until elementary-or middle-school ages (Šimunović & Babarović, 2020;Tiedemann, 2000). ...
Preprint
Using expectancy-value theory we explored whether parents’ perceived expectancies, value, and costs relate to involvement in STEM activities. We also explored whether informal learning varied based on child gender and parent’s report of having a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)-related career. Moreover, we examined the mediator role of parents’ expectancy, values, and cost of mother’s STEM-related career and parental involvement. Our sample consists of 208 parents of 3- to 5-year-olds from mostly middle class families of diverse races/ethnicities. Controlling for sociodemographic factors, results revealed that only a parent's rating of STEM value, not expectancies or cost, was directly related to parental involvement in science and math. Maternal report of a STEM-related career was indirectly related to parental involvement in STEM through parents’ higher self-efficacy for facilitating informal STEM learning. No significant relations were found for child gender. We discuss implications for supporting parents’ involvement in early STEM.
... I osnovnoškolski nastavnici/ce matematike u Nemačkoj dele uverenje da dečaci imaju bolje matematičke sposobnosti nego devojčice, da bolje rezonuju nego devojčice, kao i da je matematika teži predmet za devojčice, nego za dečake. Što nastavnici/ce u većoj meri izražavaju rodne stereotipe o matematičkoj sposobnosti, imaju i stereotipnija viđenja matematičkih sposobnosti svojih učenika/ca (Tiedemann 2000a(Tiedemann , 2000b(Tiedemann , 2002. I novije, longitudinalno istraživanje pozuje da nastavnici/ce potcenjuju matematičke sposobnosti devojčica u odnosu na dečake sličog postignuća i ponašanja (Cimpian et al., 2016). ...
... -H7: Nastavnice razredne nastave osnovnih škola u Srbiji ispoljiće eksplicitne i implicitne rodne stereotipe o matematičkoj i jezičkoj sposobnosti (biće spremnije da na eksplicitnom i implicitnom nivou matematiku asociraju sa muškarcima, a jezike i kniževnost sa ženama) (Cimpian et al., 2016;Ćirović i Malinić, 2013;Endepohls-Ulpe, 2012;Schirner, 2013;Fennema et al.,, 1990;Li, 1999;Mizala et al., 2015;Peterson, 1998;Rustemeyer, 1999;Siegle & Reis, 1998;Tiedemann 2000aTiedemann , 2000bTiedemann , 2002). -H8: Implicitne i eksplicitne mere rodnih stereotipa nastavnica o matematičkoj i jezičkoj sposobnosti biće slabo pozitivno povezane . ...
Thesis
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Even though academic gender stereotypes have been identified as a key psychological barrier to achieving full potential of women in traditionally masculine and men in traditionally feminine academic-career domains, supportive empirical evidence so far has been mixed, while findings on mechanisms through which stereotypes could influence achievement and academic-career choices have been scarce. This study set out to explore whether, to what extent and through which mechanisms implicit and explicit math and language gender stereotypes in primary school teachers and their students contribute to gender differences in educational outcomes. We tested three hypothesized mediating mechanisms to this relation: at the intrapersonal level, students’ mathematical and linguistic self concept; at the interpersonal level, teachers’ expectations from students and their gender differential treatment in the classroom. In a nested design, during the first phase of the study, we measured gender academic stereotypes of 115 primary school teachers, along with their academic expectations from 2295 students, and these students’ grades. In the second phase, we subsampled 16 classes comprising of 412 students, and measured their gender academic stereotypes, academic self-concept and test achievement. In addition, we observed the dyad interaction between the teachers and students in a total of 56 mathematics and Serbian language classes. We observed that educational outcomes can be predicted based on the explicit gender academic stereotypes of the students, albeit with small predictive and only in domains where the superiority of a specific gender would be expected according to gender stereotype (boys’ achievement and aspirations in the domain of mathematics and girls’ aspirations in the domain of language). These effects were mediated via academic self-concept in the corresponding domain, although a direct effect of gender stereotypes was still observed. The effects of teachers' gender academic stereotypes were also small and moderated by the students’ gender. Explicit stereotypes of teachers negatively affected the expectations and assessments, but not knowledge of girls in both academic domains, and positively affected the knowledge and aspirations of boys in the field of mathematics. Although teachers exhibited gender-biased expectations and gender-differential treatment of students in the classroom, we found no evidence of them mediating the relation between teachers’ gender stereotypes and students’ educational outcomes. We related the findings to similar research and discussed them in Balanced Identity Theory framework. Finally, we articulated guidelines for future research and educational policies.
... z. B. Keller 2001;Robinson-Cimpian et al. 2014;Tiedemann 2000). So zeigte sich beispielsweise in der Untersuchung von Robinson-Cimpian et al. (2014), dass die befragten Lehrkräfte die Kompetenzen der Jungen im Fach Mathematik höher einschätzten als diejenigen der Mädchen, obwohl gleiche Leistungen der Kinder vorlagen. ...
... Einen möglichen Erklärungsansatz für dieses Ergebnis könnten Tendenzen K von Lehrkräften zu geschlechtsspezifischen Vorannahmen im Lesen bilden (vgl. hierzu auch Boerma et al. 2016;Gentrup et al. 2018;Keller 2001;Retelsdorf et al. 2015;Robinson-Cimpian et al. 2014;Tiedemann 2000). So wäre denkbar, dass von Lehrkräften vertretene Geschlechterstereotype dazu führen könnten, dass diese eine niedrigere Erwartungshaltung gegenüber Jungen im Lesen vertreten (vgl. ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung In zahlreichen Untersuchungen konnten geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede im Lesen bei Kindern im Grundschulalter belegt werden. Im Detail weisen Mädchen im Vergleich zu Jungen sowohl bessere Leistungen als auch eine höhere Motivation und stärker ausgeprägte Selbstkonzepte auf. Diese leistungsbezogenen Unterschiede wie auch differente Erwartungen, die Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an Mädchen und Jungen im Leseunterricht stellen, können zu einem unterschiedlichen Feedbackverhalten führen, das sie gegenüber Schülerinnen und Schülern zeigen. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob Mädchen und Jungen sich vor diesem Hintergrund in der Wahrnehmung des erteilten positiven und negativen Feedbacks ihrer Lehrkräfte im Leseunterricht unterscheiden. Zusätzlich wird untersucht, ob und inwiefern Unterschiede in dem von Grundschulkindern perzipierten Feedback ihrer Lehrkräfte über ihr Geschlecht, ihre Leistungen, ihre Motivation, sowie ihre Selbstkonzepte erklärt werden können. Dabei wurden N = 665 Schülerinnen und Schüler der dritten und vierten Jahrgangsstufe zu dem von ihnen perzipierten positiven und negativen Feedback ihrer Lehrkräfte im Leseunterricht der Grundschule befragt. Darüber hinaus wurden Instrumente zum lesebezogenen Selbstkonzept, zur intrinsischen Lesemotivation und zum Leseverständnis der Kinder eingesetzt. Die Untersuchungsbefunde belegen, dass Mädchen im Vergleich zu Jungen signifikant häufiger positives Feedback und signifikant seltener negatives Feedback ihrer Lehrkräfte im Leseunterricht der Grundschule wahrnehmen. Insgesamt zeigt sich, dass sich geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede im wahrgenommenen positiven und negativen Feedback von Grundschulkindern stärker über leistungsbezogene Variablen als über ihr Geschlecht erklären lassen.
... Tiedemann, (2000) observes those parents' and teachers' gender stereotypes about children's mathematics abilities influenced children's self-concepts about their mathematic ability prior to having extensive mathematics experiences in school. Tiedemann, (2000) indicates that the correlation increased between adults' gendered stereotypes and children's beliefs about themselves as children aged throughout elementary school. Benner and Mistry (2007) indicates that parent's initial expectations of their children, during early childhood, correlate with children's academic success. ...
... Researchers debate self-concept development and agree on the importance of a person's life. Tiedemann (2000) indicates that parents' gender stereotypes and expectations of their children go a long way in children's understandings of themselves by approximately age 3. Others suggest that self-concept develops later, around age 7 or 8, as children are developmentally prepared to begin interpreting their own feelings, abilities and interpretations of feedback they receive from parents, teachers, and peers about themselves. ...
Article
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This study examined effects of self-concept and use of information on academic performance of accounting undergraduates in South-west, Nigeria. It was reported that students and individuals often form their self-concept from past experience of success or failure. Some academic libraries have not been adequately stocked with study facilities to improve students’ academic performance with the resultant effects of failure which invariably influence their self-concept academically. The data for the study was collected by the use of questionnaire and statistical package for social science (SPSS) to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test stated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the level of self-concept of accounting undergraduates in South-west Nigeria determines their academic performance.
... This mathematics anxiety cycle has negative implications for teachers who experience mathematics anxiety, their students, and their students' mathematics performance. Literature indicates there is a negative correlation between mathematics anxiety and academic success in mathematics (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007;Novak & Tassell, 2017;Woodard, 2004) and that stereotype threat toward females, in particular, impacts students' mathematics performance and learning (Rydell et al., 2010;Steele, 1997;Tiedemann, 2000). This is worrisome due to the National Education Association's report in 2010 that found that more than 70 percent of elementary teachers are female (National Education Association, 2010). ...
... Teachers who believe girls are not good at mathematics (perhaps because they, themselves, are female and have mathematics anxiety) may be at risk of stereotype threat impacting their female students' mathematical performance. Tiedemann (2000) found that students' previous grades and teachers' perceptions of their abilities strongly impacted students' mathematics grades and that teachers expected boys to perform better than girls in mathematics, as well as believe mathematics is more difficult for girls. Cvencek et al. (2011) found that even children, ages 6 to 11, hold the belief that boys are better in mathematics than their female counterparts, and Flore & Wicherts (2015) found that girls underperform on tests, due to stereotype threat. ...
Article
Many pre-service teachers suffer from mathematics anxiety which can lead to mathematics avoidance, poor mathematics performance, and the potential to pass on mathematics anxiety to their future students. More and more first-generation college students, who also suffer from math anxiety, are attending four-year universities and studying to be teachers. School leaders, educators, and researchers must recognize the serious nature of mathematics anxiety, how it negatively impacts learners, and how the cycle is perpetuated if the root causes of mathematics anxiety are not mitigated, especially in elementary teachers. This quantitative study, which utilized an anonymous mathematics anxiety survey, examined the prevalence of math anxiety in first-generation pre-service elementary teachers matriculated in Elementary Education programs at University of Maine System (UMS) campuses. The goal was to determine whether there is disparity between first-generation college students and their non-first-generation peers, as well as whether mathematics anxiety and/or first-generation student status is impacted by perceived access to social capital and/or parent education. The most important finding of this study was that pre-service teachers who are first-generation college students have no more mathematics anxiety than their non-first-generation peers. Although both groups of pre-service teachers reported more anxiety when being tested in mathematics than when learning mathematics, there was no significant generational difference in either learning or testing anxiety scores. There was also no statistically significant difference between mathematics anxiety scores of pre-service teachers whose parents had less than a two-year college degree and their peers whose parents had at least a two-year degree. Another important finding was that first-generation students’ perceived access to social capital was not less than their non-first-generation peers’ perceived access. Although access to social capital, especially access regarding university supports, significantly impacted mathematics anxiety, there was no generational significance. Additionally, most UMS pre-service teachers reported having access to social capital. These findings suggest the need for continued resources and supports for all UMS pre-service teachers as well as considering additional mathematics resources to help mitigate the anxiety many experience.
... Parents' involvement in STEM activities with their children may be influenced by many socio-cultural factors, including cultural stereotypes about gender and STEM (Jacobs & Eccles, 1992;Tiedemann, 2000). Stereotypes are beliefs linking groups with particular traits or characteristics, such as the belief that STEM is "for boys," or that boys are better than girls at STEM (Master & Meltzoff, 2020). ...
... Future research should examine whether these findings generalize to parents from different backgrounds and seek to confirm if parents of preschool-age children are less impacted by gender stereotypes in how they interact with their child. If this finding of no differences in patterns between preschool age boys and girls is replicated, then it indicates that STEM programs need not address issues of stereotypes until elementary-or middle-school ages (Šimunović & Babarović, 2020;Tiedemann, 2000). ...
Article
Using expectancy-value theory, we explored whether parents' perceived expectancies, value, and costs relate to parent involvement in science and math activities. We also explored whether informal learning varied based on child gender and parent's report of having a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)-related career. Specifically, we examined the mediating role of parents' STEM expectancies, value, and cost as well as whether parents held a STEM-related career on the outcome of parental involvement. Our sample consists of 208 parents of 3- to 5-year-olds from mostly middle class families of diverse races/ethnicities. Descriptively, 56% of these parents reported reading everyday with their child, but just 35% reported any daily STEM activities. Controlling for sociodemographic factors, results revealed that only a parent's rating of STEM value, not expectancies or cost, was directly related to parental involvement in science and math. But maternal report of a STEM-related career was indirectly related to parental involvement in STEM through parents' higher self-efficacy for facilitating informal STEM learning. No significant relations were found for child gender. We discuss implications for supporting parents' involvement in early STEM given these findings that parents who feel empowered to do science and math engage their preschooler in informal STEM learning more often.
... As the analyses in this study controlled for past grades and cognitive ability, this result suggests a potential role of gender stereotypes. Parents who hold the belief that maths is a male domain may more easily interpret their daughters' difficulties in maths as a result of poor ability (Tiedemann 2000) and therefore see them as requiring assistance and remediation. Their beliefs may also shape their daughters' self-perceptions (Tenenbaum and Leaper 2002;Tiedemann 2000) and make them treat any difficulties with maths as proof that they need help. ...
... Parents who hold the belief that maths is a male domain may more easily interpret their daughters' difficulties in maths as a result of poor ability (Tiedemann 2000) and therefore see them as requiring assistance and remediation. Their beliefs may also shape their daughters' self-perceptions (Tenenbaum and Leaper 2002;Tiedemann 2000) and make them treat any difficulties with maths as proof that they need help. However, these two explanations should be tested in the future, using explicit and implicit measures of parental and self-stereotypes. ...
Article
Private tutoring is part of the everyday life of hundreds of thousands of students all around the world, and its prevalence is growing. However, despite a proliferation of research on private tutoring, little is known about the role that school plays in shaping the phenomenon. This study investigates school-related factors that may affect private tutoring attendance in maths and German using two German nationwide samples of Grade 10 students (over 15,000 participants in total). These factors are: teacher support in the classroom, classroom management, teacher collaboration with the teacher body and teacher-family communication. We also verified the role of various individual factors, including student helplessness and the subjective task values. Two-level logistic regression analyses did not confirm the role of school-related factors. However, private tutoring attendance was affected by student helplessness, subjective task values, past school achievement, cognitive ability, gender, mother tongue and type of school attended, although the pattern of results differed between subjects. The results highlight the role of motivational factors behind the decision to take private tutoring, which has been rarely inquired into, and the remedial nature of private tutoring. They also show that school contribution to the decision remains elusive, at least for maths and German.
... These results confirmed findings from studies that, even among teachers, math has a strong male connotation [43][44][45]. Similarly, the results were consistent with research, showing that teachers share math-male gender stereotypes, ascribing more talent to male than to female students [12,52,53,57,79]. ...
Article
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Math has a strong gender-related image, even among teachers. As teachers hold beliefs about their work, their role, their subject, and their students, they shape girls’ and boys’ mathematical beliefs and attitudes. Research during the past 20 years has shown that teachers’ gender beliefs about mathematics significantly favor boys, thereby reinforcing girls’ low math ability self-concept. Still, there is a lack of studies that examine teachers’ gender-related beliefs based on their underlying assumptions. Our study provides the first empirical evidence of the relationship between general gender stereotypes and math stereotypes. To this end, we used partial correlation and MANCOVA to analyze data from an online survey in 2019/2020 conducted in Switzerland (195 women, 80 men) as part of a cross-cultural comparison study. We therefore created a differentiated profile of prospective teachers by examining their beliefs about their self-image, their image of men and women in society, their essentialist and gender role ideology beliefs, and their math stereotypes. Then, we linked prospective teachers’ beliefs about gender (based on 48 characteristics) to their beliefs about mathematics and about girls’ and boys’ competencies in math. The extensive analysis provides knowledge about prospective teachers and is particularly important for teacher education.
... Teachers' expectations of boys and girls look different in different subject areas. Teachers tend to believe boys are better at maths and physics than girls (Newall et al., 2018;Tiedemann, 2000), and 'hands-on' subjects such as Design and Technology (Ison & Weatherburn, 2007). This may go some way in explaining why boys perform better in these subject areas than they do in other areas of the curriculum. ...
Article
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Will Millard offers us an overview of the issues underlying boys’ achievement, or otherwise, in school.
... Conversely, girls can implicitly prefer to undertake careers where the percentage of girls is perceived as higher [64]. From these results, it seems clear that a relevant role in the girls' lack of identification with STEM disciplines is played by gender stereotypes [65][66][67][68][69][70][71]. Gender stereotypes are conceptualized as socially shared representations of categorization, interpretation, processing, and decoding of sexual reality [72]. ...
Article
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We describe how young students situate themselves with respect to astronomy through an identity framework that features four dimensions: interest, utility value, confidence, and conceptual knowledge. Overall, about 900 Italian students, from 5th to 9th grade (9–14 years old), were involved in the study. We tested our model using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Differences between girls and boys and across school levels were also investigated. Results show that interest has both a direct and an indirect effect on astronomy identity. The indirect effect of interest on identity is mediated by utility value. Moreover, confidence mediates the effect of interest on conceptual knowledge. Concerning differences between girls and boys, we found that the effect of interest on identity is greater for girls than for boys and that the utility value mediates the effect of interest on identity for boys but not for girls. Finally, our findings show also that the students’ interest in astronomy and confidence in their performance decrease with age, with a potential negative impact on conceptual knowledge and future career choice in astronomy. The astronomy identity framework can be employed to examine the role of affective variables on performance and persistence in astronomy and to improve the design of teaching-learning activities that can potentially stimulate a lasting interest in astronomy.
... The interviewees were asked to answer the questions as broadly as possible. The questions included in the interview questionnaire were formulated on the basis of research on gender stereotypes in a school environment [66][67][68], teachers' attitudes towards students [43,63,69] and gender bias analyses in school textbooks [37,38]. The final version of the interview questionnaire included ten questions corresponding to the four main research questions presented in Table 1. ...
Article
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The study was conducted using a mixed methods approach combining lesson observations and interviews with teachers. A total of 204 hours of observation in 34 classes of 7th and 8th graders (aged 13-14 in the Polish primary school system) were conducted to investigate teachers' behaviour that may exacerbate gender stereotypes and gender bias in the classroom. Moreover, the 25 female teachers conducting the observed lessons were interviewed to identify: (i) teachers' awareness of stereotypical behaviours of girls and boys during classes ; (ii) teachers' awareness of possible causes of these behaviours; (iii) teachers' responses to these behaviours, including actions that could deepen gender stereotypes; and (iv) teachers' sensitivity to the gender polarised content of school textbooks. The results of the study show that teachers, although they are aware of the existence of gender stereotypes and declare their willingness to counteract them, tend to strengthen rather than eliminate these stereotypes with the strategies and actions undertaken. They have difficulty recognising possible reasons for the occurrence of stereotypical student behaviour and have little awareness of the gender-polarised content of school textbooks. The results of the study are discussed, inter alia, in light of the concept of the vicious circle of stereotypes and self-fulfilling prophecies in education.
... Part of this could arise from the impact of teacher expectations. Research has shown that immediately prior to secondary school, teachers perceive boys to be more able than girls, and this can result in parents holding the same views [73]. Furthermore, in secondary age students, teacher expectations correlated to students' maths achievement over a year later and the students on self-concept in maths was impacted by the teacher expectation [74]. ...
Article
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This paper reflects on UK mathematics education following the poor performance in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) metric, which compares reading, science, and mathematics across 27 countries. We compared a range of features within secondary school mathematics in the UK with the countries outperforming the UK. We note disparities in the depth of the curriculum and the use of high-stakes testing which could be disadvantaging UK students. We also reflect on key factors that may underpin teacher effectiveness in the UK, including teacher expectations, in part driven by early use of ability sets, a lack of teacher autonomy, and poor continuous professional development. On this basis, we make several recommendations to strengthen UK mathematics education.
... This thought permeated the popular culture to such an extent that even in the early 1990s the American toy company Mattel created a Barbie doll who said the phrase "Math class is hard!". Furthermore, parents and teachers often held lower expectations of girls ( Jacobs, 1991;Mizala, Martínez, & Martínez, 2015;Tiedemann, 2000), or did not offer them the same opportunities in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) as they did for boys (Sadker & Sadker, 1994;Tenenbaum & Leaper, 2003). Now that many are beginning to argue that current data shows that there is little to no statistically significant difference between the achievement of boys and girls on these LSAs, some are using the data to claim that cries of gender bias are nothing but an ideological manipulation from a group of discontents. ...
... Gender stereotypes or an expectation for gender, when noticed, can affect people's perception of a topic and/or situation. As stated in various other studies, boys are expected to be more competent than girls in fields such as STEM, political science, and history (Appel et al., 2011;McGlone, 2006;Tiedemann, 2000). However, in the findings obtained in this current research it was shown that there was no difference between girls and boys in early childhood education. ...
Article
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This research was aimed at summarizing experimental evidence regarding computational thinking and programming conducted in early childhood education in terms of the variables of plugged-in versus unplugged, age, and gender. For this purpose, the WoS, Scopus, and Eric databases were scanned, and studies determined to be within the scope of the systematic scanning criteria were selected for review. In the current study findings, it was shown that age was an important factor in learning computational thinking in early childhood. In addition, it was found that girls and boys performed similarly in programming and computational thinking. Finally, although there was concrete evidence that both plugged-in and unplugged applications improved children's computational thinking skills, it appeared that unplugged applications were one step ahead, considering the power of having concrete experiences.
... In the present research, we investigated the possibility that children's stereotypes on this topic are related to their parents' stereotypes. Parents act as gender socialization agents (e.g., Gunderson et al., 2012;Maccoby, 1992), shaping their children's gender beliefs through various means, such as expressing gender norms, fostering children's same-gender and cross-gender interests, and modeling gender-role-related behaviors (e.g., Crowley et al., 2001;Epstein & Ward, 2011;Kirkcaldy et al., 2007;Tenenbaum & Leaper, 2002;Tiedemann, 2000). Importantly, children seem to notice and internalize their parents' views of gender (e.g., Degner & Dalege, 2013;Endendijk et al., 2013;Starr & Simpkins, 2021; but see del Río et al., 2018;McHale et al., 1999). ...
Article
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Past research has explored children’s gender stereotypes about specific intellectual domains, such as mathematics and science, but less is known about the acquisition of domain-general stereotypes about the intellectual abilities of women and men. Here, the authors administered Implicit Association Tests to Chinese Singaporean adults and 8- to 12-year-olds (N = 731; 58% female) to examine the gender stereotype that portrays exceptional intellectual ability (e.g., genius, brilliance) as a male attribute. This gender-brilliance stereotype was present among both adults and children and for both Chinese and White stereotype targets. It also was stronger among older children and among children whose parents also showed it. This early-emerging stereotype may be an obstacle to gender equity in many prestigious employment sectors.
... Research has linked the gender gap in math performance to socio-cultural environments, relating in particular to the ways boys and girls are socialized (e.g., Hadjar et al., 2014). Due to the way in which teachers and parents interact with them, young girls may also be discouraged from entering STEM fields (Beede et al., 2011;Else-Quest et al., 2010;Good et al., 2008;Guiso et al., 2008;Helwig et al., 2001;Hyde & Mertz, 2009;Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000Jacobs & Eccles, 1992;Nollenberger et al., 2016;Rattan et al., 2012;Rodríguez-Planas & Nollenberger, 2018;Spencer et al., 1999;Spinath & Spinath, 2005;Steele, 1997;Tiedemann, 2000;Tomasetto & Appoloni, 2013). This phenomenon is known as stereotype threat (Steele, 1997;Steele & Aronson, 1995) and describes the risk of a person being reduced to a stereotyped trait associated with the group to which the person belongs. ...
Article
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From 2015 to 2018, the math gender gap decreased primarily due to a decline in boys' performances (OECD, 2015, 2016, 2018). However, there is ample evidence that girls continue to be negatively stereotyped in math. Using a longitudinal design, we examined whether prolonged exposure to a counter-stereotypical role model embodied by a female top math scorer may prevent other girls in the class from experiencing stereotype threat. Multilevel analyses were conducted among 1,043 6th graders nested in 46 math classes. There was a decline in math performance throughout the school year for all students, but being a girl had a buffering effect against this decline. The results failed to support the main effect hypothesis (H1) which anticipated that student gender and top math scorer gender would be associated with student math achievement when jointly considered. The results supported the cross-level interaction hypothesis (H2) which anticipated that the greatest benefits would emerge for girls exposed to a counter-stereotypical role model; that is, in a class whose top math scorer was a girl. These results offer new insights regarding the extent to which a counter-stereotypical role model embodied by the top math scorer may influence differences in math performances.
... School administrators are often responsible for final decisions on matters such as academic placement and discipline, and research shows that principals [96] and school counselors [97] can exhibit racial bias in these decisions even with no input from teachers. Parents may be differentially likely to recognize the potential of their children and advocate for advanced placement [98], perhaps in part due to psychological factors such as their own biases (e.g., gender stereotypes [99]) or cultural factors. Additionally, teachers' attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs may in part reflect issues in the broader educational system and society, including school policies, culture, and norms [100][101][102], the surrounding community [31,103,104], and teachers' own education and training [105,106]. ...
Article
Although researchers investigating psychological contributors to educational inequality have traditionally focused on students, a growing literature highlights the importance of teachers’ psychology in shaping disparities in students’ educational achievement and attainment. In this review, we discuss recent advances linking teachers’ attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs to inequality in students’ outcomes. First, we identify specific aspects of teacher psychology that contribute to educational disparities, including teachers’ biases, perceptions and expectations of students, beliefs about the nature of ability, and beliefs about group differences. Second, we synthesize mechanisms underlying the effects of teacher psychology on educational inequality, including teachers’ disparate assessment of students’ work and abilities, interpersonal interaction with students, and psychological impact on students. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.
... Αυτά τους μεταφέρονται από το κοινωνικό περιβάλλον και κυρίως από τους γονείς και τους δασκάλους τους (Fennema & Hart, 1994). Πολλοί δάσκαλοι εμφορούνται από έμφυλες απόψεις για τη μαθηματική ικανότητα των μαθητών και των μαθητριών τους (Tiedemann, 2000), οι οποίες επηρεάζουν τις απόψεις τους αναφορικά με την ικανότητα και την προσπάθεια των τελευταίων. Δυστυχώς, όμως, αυτό τους υποκινεί να δίνουν περισσότερη προσοχή, επιβράβευση και ανατροφοδότηση στους μαθητές παρά στις μαθήτριές τους (Χιονίδου, 1996). ...
Conference Paper
Είναι πρόδηλο το γεγονός ότι οι γυναίκες δεν χαίρουν ισοδύναμης εκπροσώπησης με τους άνδρες σε χώρους σπουδών και σταδιοδρομίας που συνδέονται με τα Μαθηματικά. Η άνιση, όμως, αυτή σχέση μεταξύ γυναικείου φύλου και Μαθηματικών δεν έχει την αφετηρία της στην τριτοβάθμια εκπαίδευση, ούτε και στην περίοδο αναζήτησης εργασίας. Τουναντίον, αρχίζει πολύ νωρίτερα, από τη στιγμή που οι μαθήτριες φοιτούν στην πρωτοβάθμια εκπαίδευση. Η αρνητική αυτή κατάσταση είναι παρεπόμενο και των στερεοτυπικών αντιλήψεων για τα δύο φύλα σε σχέση με τα Μαθηματικά. Μέσω της παρούσας μελέτης, και της μεθόδου της βιβλιογραφικής ανασκόπησης, θα διερευνηθεί η αντίληψη περί υπεροχής των αγοριών έναντι των κοριτσιών στον εν λόγω τομέα και θα καταστεί φανερό ότι τα κορίτσια δεν στερούνται μαθηματικής σκέψης, αλλά το κοινωνικό περιβάλλον και το παιδαγωγικό πλαίσιο είναι αυτά που τις ‘αναγκάζουν’ να μειονεκτούν, σε όποιους τομείς τυχόν μειονεκτούν.
... The close environment influences adolescent behavior through gender stereotypes and behavioral preferences transmitted from the family environment [19,20]. Previous research on the transmission of stereotypes from parents to children has been conducted in the educational setting [21][22][23][24], but in the sport setting it is limited and presents inconclusive results. ...
Article
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The practice of sport by adolescents is influenced by multiple factors, which could create differences in sports participation according to gender. The objectives of this study were to determine which types of sports were most practiced by adolescent males and females; and to analyze the relationship of gender stereotypes, the type of sport observed and the personal environment, to the type of sport practiced, depending on the adolescent’s gender. To this end, a total of 632 adolescents completed the questionnaire “Lifestyle in Sport with a Gender Perspective”. The results showed significant differences according to gender in the type of sport practiced (p < 0.05), in the membership to sports clubs (p < 0.001), and in the participation in competitions (p < 0.001). It was found that family (p < 0.005) and friends (p < 0.05) were the social agents that most influenced the choice of the type of sport practiced, and that the type of sport watched live (p < 0.005), and in the media (p < 0.001), was related to gender and the type of sport practiced. In contrast, the gender stereotypes of the adolescents themselves were not related to the practice of sports. In conclusion, the environment closest to the adolescents was related to the type of sport practiced by those adolescents.
... At first glance this may seem like a paradoxical finding; however, past research has consistently shown that girls report lower mathematics self-concept and competence beliefs even when they perform similarly to boys (Else-Quest et al., 2010). One explanation for this is that girls' self-concept and competence beliefs in mathematics are influenced by gender-role socialization processes, such as parents and teachers' expectations of subject-specific performance and gender stereotyping (Bleeker & Jacobs, 2004;Fredricks & Eccles, 2002;Muenks et al., 2020;Muntoni & Retelsdorf, 2019;Tiedemann, 2000Tiedemann, , 2002. Such assertion is underpinned by the gender intensification theory (Hill & Lynch, 1983), which posits that adolescents experience pressure to conform to gender stereotypes and this influences their confidence and interests in academic subjects. ...
Preprint
Research has examined how standardized tests give rise to gender differences in English and STEM attainment, but little research has explored gender differences in classroom-based attainment and the degree to which these correspond to differences in school-related attitudes. To explore the extent to which gender-achievement gaps in classroom-based performance parallel differences in self-perceptions and scholastic attitudes. An independent sample of first (n = 187, age 11–12, Study 1) and second-year students (n = 113, age 12–13, Study 2) from a UK comprehensive secondary school completed a questionnaire measuring academic mindset, self-efficacy, self-concept, competence beliefs, personal and social self-esteem, and endorsement of gender-subject and career stereotypes. Responses were then matched to their respective classroom grades in English, mathematics, science, and computing. Girls outperformed boys in English in their first year but reported lower global self-esteem and greater endorsement of science-career stereotypes. Conversely, girls outperformed boys in mathematics in their second year, but paradoxically reported lower self-concept and competence beliefs in mathematics and science, and higher competence beliefs in English. Across both studies, mindset, self-efficacy, competence beliefs, and social self-esteem were positively related to English attainment; academic self-efficacy was positively related to mathematics attainment; and mindset, self-efficacy, self-concept, and competence beliefs were positively related to science attainment. Gender-achievement gaps in classroom-based academic attainment are complex and highly nuanced; they appear to vary between school subjects across years and may not correspond with similar differences in self-perceptions and scholastic attitudes.
... Overall, given the effects of rank on the direct measures of student confidence and the heterogeneity of effects found in the main results, it seems likely that confidence matters. 48 This is in line with the psychological literature, which finds that academic confidence is thought to be especially malleable at the primary school age (Tidemann, 2000;Leflot et al., 2010;Rubie-Davies, 2012). ...
Article
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This article establishes a new fact about educational production: ordinal academic rank during primary school has lasting impacts on secondary school achievement that are independent of underlying ability. Using data on the universe of English school students, we exploit naturally occurring differences in achievement distributions across primary school classes to estimate the impact of class rank. We find large effects on test scores, confidence, and subject choice during secondary school, even though these students have a new set of peers and teachers who are unaware of the students’ prior ranking in primary school. The effects are especially pronounced for boys, contributing to an observed gender gap in the number of Maths courses chosen at the end of secondary school. Using a basic model of student effort allocation across subjects, we distinguish between learning and non-cognitive skills mechanisms, finding support for the latter.
... One potential source of error is carrying stereotypes about the rated subjects. For example, boys might be better rated in mathematical abilities than girls, although their abilities are comparable (Frome & Eccles, 1998;Herbert & Stipek, 2005;Tiedemann, 2000). Similarly, a halo effect might occur (e.g., Babad et al., 1989), manifested by observing high correlations between facets of giftedness that should not be strongly related, such as intellectual and artistic or social abilities (Benson & Kranzler, 2017;Neber, 2004). ...
... Interwound with the small numbers, norms and power have hardly been associated with women in the engineering major and careers. That is, the women in engineering have encountered a multitude of challenges, such as gender-based stereotype threats [8][9][10][11][12][13][14], lack of either role models or mentors [8,11,15,16], male-dominated organizational culture [8,[17][18][19], and the glass ceiling which prevents promotion opportunities [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. Although we have narrowed down the gender gap in engineering fields in the last decades [28,[31][32][33], those challenges, namely, structural barriers for the women in engineering, have played a significant role in preventing more women stepping into the fields while discouraging their persistence in the fields [8,14,31,[33][34][35][36]. ...
Article
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Engineering is one of the career fields where women’s underrepresentation has been tenacious. In Korea, the government has made continuous efforts in the last decades to make a difference, yet the rate of women who pursue an engineering career pathway is still low. In this study, we analyzed 415 survey responses at a large private university in Korea to fulfill the aims of the current study: (1) to examine the gender difference on the 11 major- and career-related variables using t-test, (2) to test the adjusted social cognitive career theory (SCCT) model for the engineering undergraduate students’ intention to pursue an engineering career using path analysis. The independent t-test results revealed that the gender differences were found not in any major-related variable, but in three career-related variables, indicating the female students perceived their future career less vested than the male students. The path analysis results indicated that the adjusted SCCT model fitted to the data well and the relations among the variables were generally in the expected way with some exceptions. The highlighted implication is that removing systematic barriers and gender stereotype threats is as important as providing supports for gender equity in pursuing an engineering career.
... A few studies could give an idea about the potential role of social agents on math-intensive STEM choices show that parents and teachers underestimate girls' mathematics ability relative to boys' even when boys and girls have similar mathematics grades (Bleeker & Jacobs, 2004;Lubinski et al., 2014). They often attribute girls' successes in math to effort and failures in mathematics to lack of ability, whereas for boys, the opposite attributions are believed to be true (Jacobs et al., 2005;Tiedemann, 2000). These gender-related stereotypes and biases introduced by the parents and teachers may dampen girls' career aspirations in math-intensive STEM fields. ...
Article
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Background Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions. Even the most promising female students’ interest in STEM subjects often decreases during secondary school. Using the framework of the Social Cognitive Career Theory, the present study examined the influences of social agents in female students’ persistence in STEM. Specifically, the present study used a retrospective survey investigating the influence of parental education, teachers as mentors, and peer belonging for female students’ attainment of an undergraduate degree in a STEM field for a special population—female graduates of selective science high schools (n = 1425). Furthermore, the study examined the influences of these social-agent variables on female students’ STEM choices when mediated by high school research experiences. Finally, the present study also explored the influences of these social-agent variables on female students when it came to choosing math-intensive STEM fields (n = 723). Results Findings showed that parental educational level and having STEM teachers as mentors are positively related to female students’ later attainment of a STEM degree. In addition to the direct relationship, parental educational level and having STEM teachers as mentors are also positively related to female students’ high school research participation, which is associated with a greater likelihood of their completing a STEM degree. Female students’ sense of belonging to a peer group did not correlate with their attainment of a STEM degree. When it came to choosing math-intensive STEM fields, a higher sense of peer belonging was negatively associated with obtaining a math-intensive STEM degree. Conclusions Parental education and having STEM teachers as mentors play an important role for female students’ persistence in STEM and obtaining a STEM undergraduate degree for female students in selective science high schools. However, among the female students who graduated with a STEM degree, it is less clear whether social-agent variables influenced their math-intensive vs. less-math-intensive choices. Educational implications for promoting female students’ STEM interests and careers in STEM fields are provided.
... As regards the world of school, and educational contexts more generally, research also shows stereotypes in teaching similar to those identified in parents (Jones & Dindia, 2004;Tiedemann, 2000;Wolter, Braun & Hannover, 2015;Abbatecola & Stagi, 2017). These preconceptions lead teachers to provide different feedback to girls and boys, producing similarly different motivational consequences: for example, in scientific subjects, girls are more often praised for commitment and effort, and boys for ability (Zorman & David, 2000). ...
... Many research studies have investigated why these gaps between male and female students emerge in different subjects. Gender differences in educational contexts seem to arise as an individual grows and interacts with their environment, and gender stereotypes acquired from the social environment, such as from parents (Casad et al., 2015;Tiedemann, 2000), teachers (Muntoni & Retelsdorf, 2018), and peers (Muntoni et al., 2020) seem to play a large role in the emergence of these differences. There are many different assumed mechanisms of how these gender stereotypes are learned and acquired, such as model learning, reinforcement of gender-typical behaviour, different treatment of boys and girls, or direct expression of gender stereotypical expectations (Gunderson et al., 2012;Heyder et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Background: Research shows that gender differences tend to exist in student motivational-affective factors in core subjects such as math, science or reading, where one gender is stereotypically disadvantaged. Aims: This study aimed to investigate strategies that could reduce these gender differences by conducting a meta-analysis on school-based intervention studies that targeted student motivational-affective factors. We therefore evaluated whether interventions had differential effects for male and female students' motivational-affective factors in a given academic subject. We also evaluated potential moderator variables. Method: After conducting a systematic database search and screening abstracts for inclusion, we synthesized 71 effect sizes from 20 primary studies. All included studies were conducted in science or mathematics-related subjects, which are stereotypically female-disadvantaged. Results: While the interventions had significant positive effects for both genders, there was no statistically significant difference between the two genders with regard to the intervention effects on motivational-affective factors. However, the descriptive effect size for female students (g = .49) was far greater than for male students (g = .28). Moderator analyses showed no significant effects for grade level, intervention duration, or school subject, but there was a significant influence of intervention method used. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-based interventions have positive effects on motivational-affective factors for both genders. It also provides evidence that interventions in subjects where female students are stereotypically disadvantaged may have greater effects for females than for males. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Article
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After acquiring STEM education women are less likely to go on working in that sphere, occupy leadership positions, and get a PhD compared to men with the same level of education. In this study we considered a stereotypical view “Work in STEM is not for womenˮ. 18 interviews were conducted with women graduated in STEM working and not working in the sphere. According to the results, stereotypes regarding the women’s place in STEM connected professions role gradually intensified. While at the beginning all of the informants entered STEM based on the support in the secondary school, later on about 2/3 of them gradually abandoned their careers in STEM.
Article
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Addiction in simple terms can be defined as induced behavior which compels an individual to do an activity repeatedly. It has got many negative repercussions which in turn affect the overall personality of an individual in terms of his personal as well as spiritual achievements. In most addictions people feel compelled to do certain activities. It has got many negative effects often that it becomes a harmful habit. Today, we are living in the age of information and technology where so many powerful tools are available at our finger tips and are readily available all round. We are just a click away from our near and dear ones. Social media platform provides us an opportunity to interact with our friends and family members in a real time manner e.g. Face book Twitter Whatsapp, Hike, Google, Skype, Messenger and so on. Up to a minimal level all these application or tools are helpful to share ourselves/information with the outer world. But at same time, spending too much time on such tools like Facebook or Twitter leads to permanent behavior change which we can term as social networking addiction. Although there is few medical recognition of this type of addiction as a disorder or disease but the behavior change associate with it have become the subject of discussion and subsequent research.Social sites usually provides an individual a platform to create individual public profile and to meet people based on shared information. Evidence based upon case study of such addicts suggests that this addiction may be a potential mental health problem for the users. The present paper is an extract of Ph.D. work on the area Effect of Social Networking Addiction and Academic Self oncept in Adolescents on Their Academic Achievement.
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Contemporary discussions around gender roles, stereotypes, and play highlight the need for updated research on the influences of children’s early play experiences and learning (Weisgram, 2018). Different types of play relate to different skills and vary by gender, such as spatial play and spatial skill (Jirout & Newcombe, 2015; Voyer et al., 1995), and very little is known about gender and digital play. This study assessed parent and child gendered beliefs about play preference and ability with spatial and non-spatial toys and screen media, parent-rated educational value of toys, and frequency of child play (N=60 parent-child dyads; Mage=5.5). Though parents reported some stereotypical beliefs, especially for preferences, they considered screen media neutral. Children’s responses only related to parents’ for spatial preference, and were egocentric across toy types. Ratings of educational value related to play frequency and were lower for screen media than physical toys. Additional results and implications are discussed.
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Full Topic Research. Published in: Frontiers in Education, Frontiers in Sociology and Frontiers in Psychology / Ortega-Sánchez, D., Sanz De La Cal, E., Ibáñez Quintana, J., Borghi, B., eds. (2022). Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Education. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88974-506-7
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This article describes the role of gender socialization in the development and health of girls in childhood and adolescence. Gender socialization can be broadly defined as the process through which individuals learn about and internalize the norms and behaviors associated with their perceived gender. While debate exists surrounding the mechanisms through which girls come to display psychological and behavioral gender characteristics, robust evidence suggests that gender socialization has a lasting impact on girls’ development and well-being. This article reviews prominent theories of gender socialization and surveys the research detailing the primary sources of gender information, the developmental milestones in girls’ socialization, and the notable impacts that gender socialization has on girls’ mental and physical functioning and well-being.
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In spite of advances in recognising that girls and boys, and women and men, do not have to be bounded by traditional roles, gender stereotypes persist in education and beyond. Children and youth are affected by gender stereotypes from the early ages, with parental, school, teacher and peer factors influencing the way students internalise their gender identities. As such, not only is intervening in pre-primary education necessary, but also measures at the primary and secondary levels are key to eradicate gender stereotypes and promote gender equality. Based on the analytical framework developed by the OECD Strength through Diversity project, this paper provides an overview of gender stereotyping in education, with some illustrations of policies and practices in place across OECD countries, with a focus on curriculum arrangements, capacity-building strategies and school-level interventions in primary and secondary education.
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As early as age six, girls report higher math anxiety than boys, and children of both genders begin to endorse the stereotype that males are better at math than females (e.g., Lauer et al., 2018; Cvencek et al., 2011). However, very few studies have examined the emergence of math attitudes in childhood, or the role parents may play in their transmission. The present study is the first to investigate the concordance of multiple implicit and explicit math attitudes and beliefs between 6‐10‐year‐old children and their parents. Data from implicit association tasks (IATs) reveal that both parents and their children have implicit associations between math and difficulty, but only parents significantly associated math with males. Notably, males (fathers and sons) were more likely than females (mothers and daughters) to identify as someone who likes math (instead of reading), suggesting gender differences in academic preferences emerge early and remain consistent throughout adulthood. Critically, we provide the first evidence that both mothers’ and fathers’ attitudes about math relate to a range of math attitudes and beliefs held by their children, particularly their daughters. Results suggest that girls may be especially sensitive to parental math attitudes and beliefs. Together, data indicate that children entering formal school already show some negative math attitudes and beliefs and that parents’ math attitudes may have a disproportionate impact on young girls. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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This study presents the outcomes of a technical and life-skills training program in Mexico aimed to help women from low socioeconomic status (SES) find formal employment in sales, retail, and/or customer service. To determine the extent to which the program reached its target population and its impacts, researchers analyzed a national database of over sixty-eight thousand Mexican beneficiaries from 2016 to 2020 and conducted telephone surveys with a representative sample of women beneficiaries in Veracruz. Results from the national-level analysis of 5,326 women participants identified as low SES indicate that 23 % found better economic and educational opportunities. The state-level analysis of 94 low SES women in Veracruz was higher, with 40 % reporting to have found better opportunities; of those who reported salary information, roughly half improved their income. Lessons learned are discussed regarding reaching target populations and the potential of job training programs in developing countries.
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Girls and women have matched boys and men in academic achievements. However, the gender disparity in representation favoring men over women persists in many careers and domains. This chapter focuses on the sociocultural factors shaping women’s participation in the STEM domain and beyond. In particular, I highlight two classes of stereotypes that may contribute to this phenomenon: (1) stereotypes against women’s and girls’ intellectual abilities and (2) stereotypes about the culture of the field. Throughout the chapter, I introduce the two clusters of stereotypes, describe the early emergence of the gender stereotypes about intelligence, illustrate three potential mechanisms working against women’s engagement, and discuss the means through which parents, educators, and society can counter these stereotypes as well as the downstream consequences. Overall, this chapter sheds light on the developmental roots of the gender imbalance across different fields and provides insights on potential interventions remedying this problem.KeywordsGender imbalanceEducationAchievementStereotypesSTEM
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Immersive virtual reality (IVR) provides great potential to experimentally investigate effects of peers on student learning in class and to strategically deploy virtual peer learners to improve learning. The present study examined how three social-related classroom configurations (i.e., students' position in the classroom, visualization style of virtual avatars, and virtual classmates' performance-related behavior) affect students' visual attention toward information presented in the IVR classroom using a large-scale eye-tracking data set of N = 274 sixth graders. ANOVA results showed that the IVR configurations were systematically associated with differences in learners' visual attention on classmates or the instructional content and their overall gaze distribution in the IVR classroom (Cohen's d ranging from 0.28 to 2.04 for different IVR configurations and gaze features). Gaze-based attention on classmates was negatively related to students' interest in the IVR lesson (d = 0.28); specifically, the more boys were among the observed peers, the lower students' situational self-concept (d = 0.24). In turn, gaze-based attention on the instructional content was positively related to students' performance after the IVR lesson (d = 0.26). Implications for the future use of IVR classrooms in educational research and practice are discussed.
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The relation of various math attitudes to math achievement has been extensively studied in adolescents and adults. Recently, researchers have begun to examine the math attitude-math achievement relation in young children. We review theories and research on four attitudes relevant to early math learning—math anxiety, math self-concept, mindset, and math-gender stereotype. These attitudes emerge and are related to math achievement by early elementary school. Our review suggests that early math achievement plays an important role in the initial development of either positive or negative math attitudes, which in turn, may initiate a vicious or virtuous cycle that can enhance or undermine math learning. Additionally, gender differences in math attitudes (favoring boys) emerge by early to mid-elementary school. An important future direction involves understanding how early attitudes about math relate to each other, and whether certain constellations of attitudes are prevalent. We also consider three types of math attitudes that key socializers—parents and teachers—hold: general (math-gender stereotypes and mindsets), self-relevant (math anxiety), and child-specific (expectations and value of math for their child or student). Our review highlights a link between key socializers’ math attitudes and associated behaviors, and their children’s math attitudes and math achievement. Based on these findings, we propose the Early Math Achievement-Attitude model (EMAA). An important future direction involves increasing our understanding of how key socializers with different math attitude constellations engage with children around math. Finally, based on our review of these topics as well as intervention studies, we discuss intervention approaches that hold promise for improving young children’s math achievement and math attitudes.
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Chapter
In diesem Kapitel diskutieren wir vor allem die folgenden beiden Fragen: Wie ähnlich oder unterschiedlich sind Mädchen und Jungen in Bezug auf bestimmte psychologische Variablen? Und was könnte Unterschieden zwischen ihnen zugrunde liegen? Nach einer eingehenderen Beschäftigung mit den Begriffen „Geschlecht“ und „Gender“ betrachten wir zunächst die physiologischen, kognitiv-motivationalen und kulturellen Einflüsse, die zur Geschlechterentwicklung beitragen können. Dann skizzieren wir die wichtigsten Meilensteine der Entwicklung von Geschlechterstereotypen und des geschlechtsstereotypen Verhaltens in der Kindesentwicklung. Anschließend vergleichen wir, was man derzeit über die Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede von Jungen und Mädchen in bestimmten Entwicklungsbereichen weiß: insbesondere zur körperlichen Entwicklung, zum Erwerb kognitiver und sozialer Fähigkeiten und zur Persönlichkeitsentwicklung.
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For a long time I have had the gnawing desire to convey the broad motivational sig nificance of the attributional conception that I have espoused and to present fully the argument that this framework has earned a rightful place alongside other leading theories of motivation. Furthermore, recent investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of affect, thus providing the impetus to embark upon a detailed discussion of emotion and to elucidate the relation between emotion and motivation from an attributional perspective. The presentation of a unified theory of motivation and emotion is the goal of this book. My more specific aims in the chapters to follow are to: 1) Outline the basic princi ples that I believe characterize an adequate theory of motivation; 2) Convey what I perceive to be the conceptual contributions of the perspective advocated by my col leagues and me; 3) Summarize the empirical relations, reach some definitive con clusions, and point out the more equivocal empirical associations based on hypotheses derived from our particular attribution theory; and 4) Clarify questions that have been raised about this conception and provide new material for still further scrutiny. In so doing, the building blocks (if any) laid down by the attributional con ception will be readily identified and unknown juries of present and future peers can then better determine the value of this scientific product."
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Studied gender differences in mathematics-related self-concepts and attributions in 215 3rd–4th-grade students (aged 8–20 yrs). One or 2 days before an announced mathematics test, Ss' perceptions of their mathematic abilities were assessed with a rating scale. Immediately after the test was returned, Ss' satisfaction with their scores and their causal attributions for their performances were determined. Interactions among self-concepts, mathematics achievement, satisfaction with test performance, and causal attributions were analyzed; and gender differences were determined. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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I consider Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value model of achievement performance and choice from a developmental perspective, by examining how recent research on the development of young children's competence beliefs, expectancies for success, subjective task values, and achievement goals can be incorporated into the model. The kinds of change in children's achievement beliefs considered include change in the factor structure of children's competence beliefs and values; change across age in the mean level of those constructs; and change in children's conceptions of ability beliefs and subjective values. I also discuss how achievement goals are conceptualized in this model, and how goals are conceived by other current motivation researchers. Changes in the nature of relations among competence beliefs, subjective task values, achievement goals, and achievement behaviors also are considered.
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From junior high school on, girls report lower estimations of their math ability and express more negative attitudes about math than do boys, despite equivalent performance in grades. Parents show this same sex-typed bias. This paper examines the role that attributions may play in explaining these sex differences in parents' perceptions of their children's math ability. Mothers and fathers of 48 junior high school boys and girls of high, average, and low math ability completed questionnaires about their perceptions of their child's ability and effort in math, and their causal attributions for their child's successful and unsuccessful math performances. Parents' math-related perceptions and attributions varied with their child's level of math ability and gender. Parents credited daughters with more effort than sons, and sons with more talent than daughters for successful math performances. These attributional patterns predicted sex-linked variations in parents' ratings of their child's effort and talent. No sex of child effects emerged for failure attributions; instead, lack of effort was seen as the most important, and lack of ability as the least important, cause of unsuccessful math performances for both boys and girls. Implications of these attributions for parents' influence on children's developing self-concept of math ability, future expectancies, and subsequent achievement behaviors are discussed. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45585/1/11199_2004_Article_BF00289840.pdf
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Two first-grade Hispanic girls in the same classroom were studied for a year by means of qualitative and naturalistic methods. Paradoxically, the child for whom the teacher held low expectancies did extremely well in her reading achievement; in contrast, the child for whom the teacher held high expectancies did poorly. These paradoxical "effects" are understandable if we consider what the teacher thought and did in a broader context, that is, her overall view of each child and her assessment of what was educationally necessary and appropriate for each. These case studies are used to point out the limits of the classic expectancy theory and to argue for a less reductionistc framework and methodology in studying teacher expectancies. The cases are also used to argue that what a teacher expects matters less for a child's achievement than what a teacher does.
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Examined the types of causal attributions that 40 young children (mean age 5.3 yrs) made for their own success and failure at performance tasks. Results showed that young children's attributions are different from those subsumed under adult models and that there were significant sex, but not ethnic, differences in the attributional styles employed. Boys exhibited a self-enhancing pattern of attributions, whereas girls' attributions were self-derogating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Gender segregation continues to exist in many activity and occupational domains. This article uses the expectancy effect perspective to analyze the role parents may play in influencing their children to engage in gender role stereotyped activities. It outlines the theoretical bases for such effects, and discusses how to distinguish between accuracy and perceptual bias in parents' gender role differentiated perceptions of their children's competencies and interests. Then it summarizes the results of a series of studies, which show that parents distort their perceptions of their own children in gender role stereotypic activities such as math and sports, that the child's gender affects parents' causal attributions for their children's performance in gender role stereotypic activities, and that these perceptual biases influence the children's own self-perceptions and activity choices. Finally, the article presents a theoretical model of how these processes may occur.
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Sex-role norms and gender-related attainment values are considered as possible mediators of gender differences in causal attributions for success and failure. Several revisions of attribution theory are suggested in order to extend the theory to include corollaries concerning sex-role norms. The concept of sex-role consistency is employed as a basis for understanding how sex-role norms affect causal attributions. In addition, gender-related attainment values are hypothesized to affect causal attributions via differential salience and functioning of outcomes. Finally, the analysis is applied to an additional area of achievement-related behavior, gender differences in reward allocation norm choice.
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The self-concept construct is one of the oldest in psychology and is used widely in many disciplines. Despite its popularity, reviews prior to the 1980s typically emphasized the lack of theoretical basis in most studies, the poor quality of measurement instruments, methodological shortcomings, and a general lack of consistent findings except, perhaps, support for the null hypothesis. This situation called into question the usefulness of the self-concept construct. In dramatic contrast, the last decade has seen considerable progress in theory, measurement, and research. This progress is due at least in part to a stronger emphasis on a multidimensional self-concept instead of global measures of self. The purpose of this invited review is to summarize how my self-concept research has contributed to these advances. This review further substantiates the claim that self-concept cannot be understood adequately if its multidimensionality is ignored, and recommends that researchers use well-constructed multidimensional measures of self-concept instead of relying solely on global measures of self.