A Responsive Parenting Intervention: The Optimal Timing Across Early Childhood for Impacting Maternal Behaviors and Child Outcomes

Children's Learning Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 10/2008; 44(5):1335-53. DOI: 10.1037/a0013030
Source: PubMed


This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler-preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective-emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants' development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention dose in the toddler-preschool period was needed for optimal results. Families from the PALS I phase were rerandomized into either the PALS II, the toddler-preschool phase, or a Developmental Assessment Sessions condition, resulting in 4 groups. Facilitation of maternal warmth occurred best with the PALS I intervention, while cognitive responsive behaviors were best supported with the PALS II intervention. Behaviors that required responsiveness to the child's changing signals (contingent responsiveness, redirecting) required the intervention across both the early and later periods.

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    • "Positive effects for infants were found in the domains of early communication, social cooperation, and affect when interacting with mothers. In a study of PALS II (Landry et al., 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: Children's early relationships with their caregivers are important for later developmental outcomes, both proximally and distally, and enhanced caregiver–child relationships may promote positive outcomes at both the individual and family levels. In this article, we review six evidence-based caregiver–child interaction interventions that can be translated for use by staff in community-based early childhood programmes serving children between the ages of birth and five years. Early childhood programmes selecting a parenting intervention have opportunities to set priorities across a number of relevant criteria, ranging from the theoretical basis of the intervention to more practical issues such as the time commitment for families and staff requirements. To provide a starting point for such considerations, we compare the interventions' approaches and associated training requirements, summarise the evidence base for each intervention, and identify areas of divergence and common themes across the six selected interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Early Child Development and Care
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    • "For instance, maternal verbal scaffolding used at age 2 has been shown to positively affect EF at age 4 and verbal abilities assessed at 3 years among children born NBW [30] [31]. Though there is a paucity of research describing verbal scaffolding in VLBW children, Landry and colleagues also found that the use of verbal scaffolding at 2 and 3 years predicted greater verbal reasoning ability at 6 years [32]. They suggest that maternal verbal input during the early years when children are rapidly developing language may support later executive processing skills. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Deficits in executive function, including measures of working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility, have been documented in preschoolers born very low birth weight (VLBW) compared with preschoolers born normal birth weight (NBW). Maternal verbal scaffolding has been associated with positive outcomes for both at-risk and typically developing preschoolers. Aims The purpose of this study was to examine associations between maternal verbal scaffolding, Verbal IQ (VIQ) and executive function measures in preschoolers born VLBW. Subjects A total of 64 VLBW and 40 NBW preschoolers ranging in age from 3 ½ to 4 years participated in the study. Outcome measures VIQ was measured with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence — Third Edition. Executive function tests included the Bear Dragon, Gift Delay Peek, Reverse Categorization and Dimensional Change Card Sort-Separated Dimensions. Study design Maternal verbal scaffolding was coded during a videotaped play session. Associations between maternal verbal scaffolding and preschoolers' measures of VIQ and executive function were compared. Covariates included test age, maternal education, and gender. Results Preschoolers born VLBW performed significantly worse on VIQ and all executive function measures compared to those born NBW. Maternal verbal scaffolding was associated with VIQ for VLBW preschoolers and Gift Delay Peek for the NBW group. Girls born VLBW outperformed boys born VLBW on VIQ and Bear Dragon. Conclusion Integrating scaffolding skills training as part of parent-focused intervention may be both feasible and valuable for early verbal reasoning and EF development.
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    • "Evidence on the efficacy of videotapes, DVDs or other electronic media conveying messages aimed at promoting good health practices is available for adults and children [22–25]. However, the choice of the optimal timing for this kind of interventions, while usually based on the critical periods of child development and mother-infant interaction [26], is supported, to our knowledge, by very limited evidence with regard to parental acceptance. This appears to be particularly relevant when targeting first-time parents, who usually receive a lot of new information within a short period of time. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing need for parenting programs aimed at promoting parent-child interaction. A variety of interventions have been proposed. The use of audiovisual materials for parents has been shown to be effective but limited information is available on the optimal timing for its use, particularly for new parents during the first year of life of their children. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a video administered at two different times to first-time parents in modifying parental knowledge, attitudes and intentions with regards to effective care practices.
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