Article

Cognitive Therapy and The Emotional Disorders

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

Traces the development of the cognitive approach to psychopathology and psy hotherapy from common-sense observations and folk wisdom, to a more sophisticated understanding of the emotional disorders, and finally to the application of rational techniques to correct the misconceptions and conceptual distortions that form the matrix of the neuroses. The importance of engaging the patient in exploration of his inner world and of obtaining a sharp delineation of specific thoughts and underlying assumptions is emphasized. (91/4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Affective and behavioral responses are triggered by the way people interpret their situation (Curwen, Palmer, & Ruddell, 2000). According to Beck (1976), it is the meaning and importance individuals attach to significant life events that impacts their experiences. What maintains emotional episodes (e.g. ...
... It is the persisting "ongoing dialogue" or "internal chatter" that influences how deeply embedded these cognitions are (McMullin, 2000, p. 65). These thoughts are problematic because individuals' interpretations are quite unrealistic (Beck, 1976). There is "a lack of accurate correspondence between perception and actual events-or by misperception of the world" (Dobson, 2012, p.11). ...
... From a cognitive perspective, agreed upon goals may include the following: helping clients to increase their abilities to identify when they are experiencing dysfunctional thoughts and inaccurate perceptions; helping clients to explore more productive ways of thinking, and helping clients to form a new belief system (Beck, 1976;Curwen, Palmer, & Ruddell, 2000& Beck, 1995. Because thoughts offer information regarding individuals' perceptions about themselves, it will be important to address both ideas and underlying beliefs in therapy (Wilding, 2012). ...
Article
This article will present an integrated approach for treating emotional distress. The authors review the purposes of emotions and explore how they operate in individuals’ lives based on learned responses and inaccurate perceptions. Distinct categories of emotions are identified, including both maladaptive and adaptive forms. Basic ideologies and negative evaluations will also be reviewed to illustrate how these patterns develop and maintain disturbing conditions. The authors will examine the complimentary association between affective and cognitive material and how treating both in therapy can be beneficial. Emotion and cognitive-based interventions will be presented through the use of a case study.
... Notre cadre théorique serait incomplet s'il n'était pas déterminé par certains repères déjà éprouvés empiriquement. Cette simple constatation nous amène à choisir des notions propres à l'approche cognitive et comportementale de Beck (1979) pour spécifier ce que l'agent et le principal prennent en compte lorsqu'ils négocient la transmission de renseignements. Vous l'aurez compris, cet emprunt à la psychologie est délibéré. ...
... Cependant, l'adoption de repères issus de l'approche cognitivo comportementale pour camper les limites de notre interprétation de la rationalité est exclusive ; elle ne vise pas à comprendre les problèmes psychologiques ni à discuter le traitement des psychopathologies. Au contraire, nous adoptons les principes théoriques à la base de l'élaboration de cette application thérapeutique et entérinée par les chercheurs classiques de la tradition d'ascendance behaviorale et cognitive (par exemple, Beck (1979) ; Ellis (1989) ; Kelly (2003)), parce que nous les savons plus fidèles à l'expérience humaine que les axiomes de la théorie économique du choix rationnel. Cette forme de psychothérapie a été testée expérimentalement à maintes reprises, donnant des résultats probants dans le domaine clinique, ce qui confirme que les fondements théoriques y étant rattaché sont valables pour définir la complexité du jugement anthropique (Alford et Beck, 1998). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
En vertu de l'expertise qu'il détient, l'agent public contribue à la prise de décision politique. Le paradigme classique en théorie des organisations assume que le bureaucrate (webérien) est un acteur dont le comportement est motivé par la règlementation et la codification entourant sa pratique. Quant à elle, l'École de la nouvelle gestion publique suppose que l'agent public doit opérer librement selon les indicateurs de la sphère privée ; il doit viser l'efficacité au moindre coût et prioriser le résultat. Les chercheurs ne s'entendent pas sur le principe de l'allié qui postule conventionnellement que des préférences similaires favorisent la transmission de l'information entre le politique et la fonction publique. Quel modèle prévaut au Québec ? Sous quelles formes s'opérationnalise-t-il en contexte de transfert ? La thèse d'une compatibilité préférentielle est-elle garante d'un bon transfert informationnel ? Recourant au modèle principal-agent, ce mémoire confronte la croyance répandue voulant que l'État québécois soit foncièrement webérien en adressant certaines des plus importantes conclusions théoriques dans la discipline. Les résultats suggèrent que l'appareil d'État québécois est un croisement entre les deux principaux paradigmes reconnus dans la littérature. Aussi, les résultats font état d'une similarité entre l'interprétation traditionnelle du principe de l'allié et la réalité empirique retrouvée dans la relation entre le haut fonctionnaire et le législateur québécois. Ultimement, l'étude suggère que l'administrateur d'État est stratégique dans certaines situations qu'il sait instrumentaliser et où il peut occuper un espace discrétionnaire suffisant pour valoriser ses intérêts professionnels et ceux de son organisation.
... Why might this be the case? Cognitive theories of depression have suggested that global negative self-referential beliefs might arise as a result of dysfunctional schema developed during childhood with these beliefs being generalized across, and applied to, many different situations [5][6][7]. In computational terms, these beliefs may be thought of as priors. ...
... We note that each of possible mechanisms for the genesis of biased priors considered above may also reflect other influences operating much further back in time. Here, influential cognitive theories have proposed that many negative biases (in memory retrieval, simulation, interpretation etc.) reflect dysfunctional schemas, that were formed as a result of adverse life experiences in childhood [6,38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals prone to anxiety and depression often report beliefs and make judgements about themselves that are more negative than those reported by others. We use computational modeling of a richly naturalistic task to disentangle the role of negative priors versus negatively biased belief updating and to investigate their association with different dimensions of Internalizing psychopathology. Undergraduate participants first provided profiles for a hypothetical tech internship. They then viewed pairs of other profiles and selected the individual they would prefer to work alongside out of each pair. In a subsequent phase of the experiment, participants made judgments about their relative popularity as hypothetical internship partners both before any feedback and after each of 20 items of feedback revealing whether or not they had been selected as the preferred teammate from a given pairing. Scores on latent factors of general negative affect, anxiety-specific affect and depression-specific affect were estimated using participants' self-report scores on standardized measures of anxiety and depression together with factor loadings from a bifactor analysis conducted previously. Higher scores on the depression-specific factor were linked to more negative prior beliefs but were not associated with differences in belief updating. In contrast, higher scores on the anxiety-specific factor were associated with a negative bias in belief updating but no difference in prior beliefs. These findings indicate that, to at least some extent, distinct processes may impact the formation of belief priors and in-the-moment belief updating and that these processes may be differentially disrupted in depression and anxiety. Future directions for enquiry include examination of the possibility that prior beliefs biases in depression might reflect generalization from prior experiences or global schema whereas belief updating biases in anxiety might be more situationally specific.
... The Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders [57]. A CBT based functional or chain analysis [58]. ...
... CBT for emotional disorders [58]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a significant global problem. Interventions implemented with youth affected by CSE frequently target singular adjacent issues (e.g., substance misuse or running away); however, research indicates these interventions are most efficacious when they simultaneously treat CSE sequelae (e.g., emotion dysregulation) paired with relationship skill-building; yet few such interventions exist. Furthermore, the evidence-based reports on CSE research currently lacks rigorous research methods, such as the use of validated measures and the provision of robust outcome data. The current study aimed to implement a combined emotion regulation and safe-relationships intervention (ERIC + YR: emotion regulation, impulse control and ‘your relationships’) in a community service providing outreach for young women affected by CSE. A randomised single-case series design was used to test the effects of ERIC + YR on emotion regulation strategies, psychological wellbeing, relationship safety knowledge and behaviours, across repeated measurements for young women affected by CSE (N = 2; Mage = 18.00). Phase A consisted of baseline measures for two to three weeks. Phase B consisted of 8-sessions of ERIC + YR delivered across three to six weeks by practitioners who had undertaken ERIC + YR training. Data collection included pre/post intervention measures as well as a daily questionnaire delivered via a smartphone application. While results showed clinically significant and reliable improvements in psychological wellbeing, no other outcome measures showed change between pre and post-intervention. The current study contributes to the evidence-base as an initial step in illuminating how an empirically driven intervention can be delivered as an adjunctive treatment for youth affected by CSE. Implications inform the current evidence-base, with future directions for intervention research discussed.
... Eksempelvis er Sue Johnsons emosjonsfokuserte parterapi (2012) et resultat av å kombinere tilknytningsteori (Bowlby, 1982) og systemteori (Von Bertalanffy, 1968), med intervensjonsstrategier hentet fra gestaltterapi (Perls et al., 1958) og strukturell familieterapi (Minuchin, 1974). Tilsvarende er kognitiv parog familieterapi en tilnaerming som har sitt teoretiske utgangspunkt i kognitiv atferdsterapi (Beck, 1979) kombinert med systemteori (Von Bertalanffy, 1968). I tillegg til at det anvendes intervensjonsstrategier fra kognitiv atferdsterapi, benytter man også intervensjoner fra emosjonsfokusert terapi (Johnson, 2019) og strukturell familieterapi (Minuchin, 1974). ...
... Ifølge Lebow (1997) har det dermed ingen hensikt å integrere disse to tilnaermingene formelt. Et annet eksempel på terapimodeller som ikke lar seg integrere, er kombinasjonen av metakognitiv terapi (Wells, 2011) og kognitiv terapi (Beck, 1979). I metakognitiv terapi blir pasienten instruert av terapeuten om at innholdet av tankene i seg selv ikke er så viktig, men at det er hvordan man tenker som er av betydning. ...
Article
In this article, we present and expound upon the metatheory which serves as the foundation of Integrative Systemic Therapy (IST). IST gives a perspective to therapeutic practice which transcends established ideas about specific therapeutic models and delimited treatment contexts. The application of IST gives the clinician an overview and understanding of the complexity of the client’s distress, which serves to facilitate the choice of tailored interventions informed by a multitude of specific therapy models. Keywords: integrative therapy, couple and family therapy, metatheory, tailored treatment
... However, when studying the psychopathology of disordered eating development, further overriding factors to explore are dysfunctional core beliefs [12]. Indeed, the literature has accentuated that disorder-specific maladaptive cognitive profiles (i.e., ruminative thinking and excessive worry towards the inability to control weight, body shape, and eating styles) [13][14][15], together with underpinning dysfunctional cognitive-affective processes, are sharply incriminated in the induction and perpetuation of pathological eating [16]. ...
... Schemas (or "schemata") were first introduced by Beck [13,17], who defined them as disturbed thinking patterns, contingent on prior life events, whose activation conditions insights and interpretation of the surrounding environment. In 1982, Garner and Bemis postulated that in eating disorders, individuals witness the activation of uncontrollable negative thoughts, such as the vitalness of slimness and the need for eating avoidance, subsequent to disordered underlying assumptions about the enthralling nature of thinness and the uncontrollability of danger when gaining weight [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A scarcity of research has looked into the association of maladaptive core beliefs with dysfunctional eating patterns. Moreover, no prior study has considered the potential role of difficulties in negative emotion regulation when disentangling the complex correlations between early maladaptive schemas and disturbed eating habits. Our study aimed at exploring the distinct relationships between early maladaptive schemas and disordered eating, while investigating the indirect role of emotion regulation difficulties within these associations. We collected data from 982 Lebanese young adults (18–30 years old), distributed across the five Lebanese governorates, who completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Young Schema Questionnaire—Short Form 3 (YSQ-SF3), and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale—16 Item Version (DERS-16). The results showed that the disconnection and rejection schema domain, under which the early maladaptive schema of mistrust was the most predictive of disordered/inappropriate eating attitudes. All the remaining maladaptive schema domains (i.e., the impaired autonomy/performance, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance/inhibition schema domains) exerted significant indirect effects on disordered eating attitudes through difficulties in emotion regulation. Our findings gave prominence to a potential intrinsic mechanism through which maladaptive cognitive schemas are linked to disordered eating behaviors, emphasizing the role of emotion dysregulation as a cardinal actor within this model. They sustain the surmise that cognitively and emotionally vulnerable individuals exhibit stronger propensities for inappropriate dietary patterns, as a means to offset their inner weakness. This study broadens the medical community’s insights into the underpinning processes behind eating disorder psychopathology and could therefore make a step towards the adoption of innovative therapeutic approaches that promote emotion regulation skills in the context of schema therapy.
... Negative affective bias is the tendency to preferentially process negative emotional information [1] including preferential attention towards negative stimuli [2]. It plays a critical causal role in onset and maintenance of negative mood, and in turn of anxiety disorders and depression [1,[3][4][5][6]. These affective disorders pose a significant global concern [7], but there is a lack of effective, affordable and readily accessible interventions [8][9][10][11][12]. ...
... The ability to modify negative affective bias could prevent onset of or improve negative mood (or both), and is indeed the foundation of successful cognitive behavioural therapy [3]. Attention bias modification (ABM) is a class of training paradigms that attempt to automate this by shifting attention away from negative information (and towards positive or neutral stimuli) using cognitive tasks [4,13]. ...
Article
Negative affective biases are a key feature of anxiety and depression that uphold and promote negative mood. Bias modification aims to reduce these biases using computerized training, but shows mixed success and has not been tested at scale. The aim was to determine whether bias modification delivered via smartphones can improve mood in a large sample. In total, 153 385 self-referring participants were randomly assigned to modification or sham bias training on a dot-probe or visual-search task. The primary outcome of interest was balance of mood, assessed on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. In total, 22 933 participants who provided at least two mood ratings were included in analyses. There was a large amount of participant attrition. In the remaining smaller sample, results supported the prediction that visual-search modification would result in improved mood (95%CI [0.10, 0.82]; p = 0.01, d = 0.05, N = 2588 after two ratings; 95%CI [1.75,6.54]; p = 0.001, d = 0.32, N = 118 after six ratings), which was not seen for the sham version ( N = 4818 after two ratings; N = 138 after six ratings). Dot-probe modification was not associated with mood improvements ( p = 0.52). Visual-search, but not dot-probe, bias modification slightly but significantly improved mood. Although this effect size is very small and subject to large participant drop-off, it might be worth considering an adjunct to current treatments.
... What I encountered was a conflict between the rationality proposed by the therapist and the rationality of the model of good teaching practice I was meant to submit. Whilst not suggesting that either rationality is true, Table 1 below outlines the key cognitive distortions (Beck, 1976, Beck, 1979, Burns, 2012 thought to cause depression, the ways in which they potentially conflict with the practices associated with being a 'good teacher', and the double binds they potentially create. This example illustrates the set of power relationships that can operate between competing discourses between the discursive construction of what it means to be mentally healthy and to be good at teaching, the individuals being caught in the middle of the push and pull between the two. ...
... The Irrational Cognitive Distortions of the depressed (Beck, 1976, Beck, 1979, Burns, 2012 The conflicted space of double binds in teaching practice Observation as Feedback From the estimated 760 lessons a secondary school teacher might give each year, three are observed to assess the teachers performance, the 'most common source of evidence used in providing feedback to teachers' (Coe et al., 2014, pg. 25). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Being classified as depressed raised questions for me about how I had become a mentally ill teacher. Reading Foucault had led me to reflect on the veracity of the psycho/medical model that had classified my emotions as evidence of depression. So, rather than asking ‘What is wrong with the person and how can they be healed?’, this thesis sought to interrogate the psycho/medical account by deploying Foucault’s analytical attitudes of being sceptical, transformational, and experimental, addressing the question of ‘How is the subject of the depressed teacher produced within discourses of good teaching and a medicalised model of depression?’. A narrative method was employed to elicit eight life histories from teachers who identified as being depressed. Viewed through the Foucauldian lenses of truth, discourse, power/knowledge, and subjectivity, three overarching findings were traceable in the narratives. First, there were contradictory accounts of the causes of depression, rendering its diagnosis problematic. Second, the teaching world was described as riven with conflicts over what constitutes good teaching, how to assess good teaching, and how to be a good teacher. Third, the classroom observation stood out as a site amplifying these conflicts, described as one of the most emotionally intense encounters in schools. The conclusion drawn from this analysis was that the emotions indicative of depression could be considered a normal, if problematic, part of teaching. The accountability practices in contemporary schools, framed by policies that require teachers to view themselves as never good enough, contextualise these expressed emotions within a tyranny of continuous improvement. A psycho/medical diagnosis can be seen as a means of managing these problematic emotions and maintaining a particular discourse of the ‘good teacher’. The thesis, therefore, constitutes an argument for de-pathologising teacher emotions and a recognition that it is not necessarily the teacher that is abnormal but work environments.
... In cognitive models of emotion and adjustment (Beck, 1976;Smith & Lazarus, 1990), anxiety results from appraisals of future events as unpredictable, uncontrollable, or ambiguous; depression and related emotions (e.g., sadness, guilt) result from appraisals of loss, helplessness, failure, or self-blame; and anger results from appraisals of transgression, unjust treatment or offense perpetrated by others. Research supports these specific associations, but also documents overlapping effects (e.g., Nezlek et al., 2008;Smith & Mumma, 2008;Traupman et al., 2011). ...
Article
Introduction: Negative affective symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, anger) are correlated and have parallel associations with outcomes, as do related personality traits (i.e., facets of neuroticism), often prompting statistical control (i.e., partialing) to determine independent effects. However, such adjustments among predictor variables can alter their construct validity. In three studies, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) and a related analytic approach (i.e., Structural Summary Method) were used to evaluate changes in interpersonal correlates of negative affective characteristics resulting from partialing. Methods: Samples of undergraduates (Sample 1 n = 3,283; Sample 2 = 688) and married couples (n = 300 couples) completed self-report (three samples) and partner rating (sample 3) measures of anxiety, depression and anger, and IPC measures of interpersonal style. Results: Anxiety, depression, and anger had expected interpersonal correlates across samples. Partialing depression eliminated interpersonal correlates of anxiety. When anxiety was controlled, depression measures were more strongly associated with submissiveness and less closely associated with low warmth. Adjustments involving anger magnified differences in dominance versus submissiveness associated with the negative affects. Discussion: Removal of overlap among negative affective measures via partialing alters their interpersonal correlates, potentially complicating interpretation of adjusted associations.
... The cognitive behavioural elements (e.g. unhelpful thinking worksheet) in the toolkit are also informed by principles of problem-solving and cognitive behavioural approaches [27][28][29]. Table 2 provides a description of each intervention components, whilst Fig. 2 outlines the logic model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The cost of sickness absence has major social, psychological and financial implications for individuals and organisations. Return-to-work (RTW) interventions that support good quality communication and contact with the workplace can reduce the length of sickness absence by between 15 and 30 days. However, initiatives promoting a sustainable return to work for workers with poor mental health on long-term sickness absence across small, medium and large enterprises (SMEs and LEs) are limited. This paper describes the protocol of a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the feasibility of implementing a RTW intervention across SMEs and LEs across all sectors. Methods and design A two-arm feasibility RCT with a 4-month intervention will be conducted in SMEs and LE enterprises from the Midlands region, UK. At least 8 organisations (4 controls and interventions), and at least 60 workers and/or managers, will be recruited and randomised into the intervention and control group (30 interventions, 30 controls). Workers on long-term sickness absence (LTSA) (between 8 and 50 days) and managers with a worker on LTSA will be eligible to participate. The intervention is a behavioural change programme, including a managers and workers RTW toolkit, focused on supporting sickness absence and RTW through the provision of knowledge, problem-solving, action planning, goal setting and positive communication that leads to a sustainable RTW. Organisations assigned to the control group will continue with their usual practice. Measurements of mental health, RTW, work outcomes, quality-of-life, workplace support and communication and other demographic data will be taken at baseline, 2 months and 4 months. Feasibility will be assessed based on recruitment, retention, attrition, completion of measures and intervention compliance for which specific process and research outcomes have been established. A process evaluation will explore the experiences and acceptability of the intervention components and evaluation measures. Exploratory economic evaluation will be conducted to further inform a definitive trial. Discussion This is a novel intervention using a worker-manager approach to promote a sustainable return to work of workers on long-term sick leave due to poor mental wellbeing. If this intervention is shown to be feasible, the outcomes will inform a larger scale randomised control trial.
... Participants also had experience with a variety of populations including children, adolescents and adults with mild, moderate and severe conditions. Participants were all actively practising psychology and reported using a range of therapeutic models including CBT (Beck, 1976), interpersonal therapy, family therapy, play therapy, positive psychology and psychoanalytic therapy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Digital mental health is changing the landscape of service delivery by addressing challenges associated with traditional therapy. However, practitioners' use of these resources remains underexamined. This study explored psychologists' attitudes and experiences with digital mental health intervention. Taking a qualitative exploratory approach via thematic analysis, the study sought to answer the following research questions: (i) How do psychologists perceive digital mental health? and (ii) What is their experience using digital mental health as part of routine practice? Ten practising psychologists participated in online semi-structured interviews (approximately 50 min), with interviews then transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analysed according to the six-phase approach to thematic analysis proposed by Braun and Clarke. Three themes were identified: (1) attitudes towards digital mental health; (2) use within routine practice; and (3) perspectives on an effective model for implementation. Practitioners play a major role in the design and delivery of digital mental health services. Barriers and facilitators at the practitioner-level (e.g. knowledge and competence with tools, perceptions on the utility of digital interventions) and the service-level (e.g. government support for digital health) should be considered in the future design of digital mental health resources and service delivery. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41347-022-00271-5.
... The current study also suggests hopelessness to be a marker of depression even after 3 months. According to the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis [33], depression is uniquely related to dysfunctional cognitions such as the tendency to perceive the future in a more pessimistic manner. In contrast, cognitive content in anxiety was theorized to be threat orientated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Visual stress is thought to reflect cortical excitability and has been associated with many neurological, neuropsychiatric, and neurodevelopmental conditions. However, its relationships with symptoms of depression and anxiety have not yet been elucidated. We conducted two separate studies to first examine visual stress in a longitudinal community sample of 104 participants (aged 12–24) in association with prospective symptoms of depression, anxiety, and distress after 3 months, and subsequently in a cross-sectional epidemiological sample of 530 participants (aged 15–24) to validate its associations with current mood and distress symptoms. The Pattern Glare Test was used to examine visual stress to three grating patterns with the spatial frequencies (SF) of 0.3, 2.3, and 9.4 cycles per degree (cpd). Other known factors of mental health, including functioning, as well as resilience, hopelessness, and loneliness, were also assessed at baseline. In both studies, we showed that perceptual distortions were highest toward the pattern with mid-SF (2.3 cpd). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater visual stress was significantly associated with not only baseline but also 3-month symptom outcomes, even when accounting for age, years of education, days of no functioning, resilience, hopelessness, and loneliness. Our findings suggest the importance of visual stress in understanding and predicting poor mental health outcomes. As mental health can lead to far-reaching consequences that extend to adulthood, our findings may inform state-of-the-art innovative strategies for the prediction of poor mental health outcomes and suggest visual stress as a potential marker for early risk detection among young people.
... Así, cuando mayor es la intensidad de la violencia, mayor es el nivel de estresores y menores son los niveles de apoyo social percibido.En cuanto a la medición de la desesperanza, el grupo de mujeres víctimas de violencia física y sexual reportó presencia de sintomatología asociada con la desesperanza al futuro, lo cual es coherente con lo manifestado por autores como Caba, Torres, Boluda, Callejas y Rodríguez, (2019) yMartínez & Canetti (2019). Mientras que las mujeres que solo reportan ser víctimas de violencia psicológica, aunque no presentan altos índices de desesperanza, evidenciaron que tenían una puntuación significativa en la dimensión cognitiva con respecto a las expectativas hacia al futuro, lo cual, segúnBeck (1976), aumenta las probabilidades de aparición de algún trastorno, particularmente los asociados a trastornos del estado del ánimo.Universidad de la Costa -Universidad del Norte ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Salud mental en mujeres víctimas de violencia doméstica en el departamento del Atlántico
... It's just too much! These internal dialogues are examples of what psychologists call thinking traps (Beck, 1979), and they can lead to selfdestructive behaviors like avoiding challenges, hiding problems, ignoring feedback, and not forming supportive relationships . Thinking traps are overly rigid patterns in our thinking that cause us to miss critical information. ...
Article
Through this paper, I explore the current U.S. landscape of stress and work-related stress, including when it can be bad for us (i.e., distress and burnout) and good for us (i.e., eustress). Then, I draw on positive psychology - the science of well-being - and affiliated disciplines (e.g., positive organizational scholarship and positive organizational behavior) to offer science-based strategies for leaders to rethink and help manage stress and manifest well-being in the workplace. Specifically, I discuss meaning, mattering, and belonging as three interconnected and important principles for leaders to know and to put into practice through zones of control, low-cost, high- impact positive psychology interventions, such as job crafting, building self-efficacy and resilience, and creating high-quality connections. While this paper is certainly not the solution to work-related stress, it is a step and a tool for leaders towards more managed stress and manifested well-being in our workplaces.
... On average, patients that became better at learning positive versus negative evaluations about both the self and the friend showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms. Cognitive models propose that individuals with generalised anxiety hold self-schemas focused on personal threat which lead to biased processing of threatening environmental information (Beck, 1976). We have previously found that individuals with greater social anxiety show better learning of negative relative to positive social evaluations (Button et al., 2012(Button et al., , 2015. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Antidepressants are proposed to work by increasing sensitivity to positive versus negative information. Increasing positive affective learning within social contexts may help remediate negative self-schema. We investigated the association between change in biased learning of social evaluations about the self and others, and mood during early antidepressant treatment. Method Prospective cohort assessing patients recruited from primary care in South West England at four timepoints over the first 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment ( n = 29). At each timepoint, participants completed self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9)), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire 7 (GAD-7)), and a computerised task measuring learning of social evaluations about the self, a friend and a stranger. Results We did not find evidence that learning about the self was associated with a reduction in PHQ-9 ( b = 0.08, 95% CI: −0.05, 0.20, p = 0.239) or BDI-II scores ( b = 0.10, 95% CI: −0.18, 0.38, p = 0.469). We found some weak evidence that increased positive learning about the friend was associated with a reduction in BDI-II scores ( b = 0.30, 95% CI: −0.02, 0.62, p = 0.069). However, exploratory analyses indicated stronger evidence that increased positive learning about the self ( b = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.28, p = 0.002) and a friend ( b = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.35, p = 0.001) was associated with reductions in anxiety. Conclusions Change in social evaluation learning was associated with a reduction in anxiety but not depression. Antidepressants may treat anxiety symptoms by remediating negative affective biases towards socially threatening information directed towards the self and close others. However, our findings are based on exploratory analyses within a small sample without a control group and are therefore at risk of type 1 errors and order effects. Further research with larger samples is required.
... This tool is widely used in cognitive-behavioral approaches (Beck, 1979) with goal of developing participants' awareness of their own emotions and the automatic thoughts associated with them. It is an extension of the tool body scan in which participants are guided to deliberately attend to the physical sensations that rise and fall with passing emotions. ...
Article
Full-text available
This case study details the experience and results of the first author’s work as a clinical sport psychologist contracted by the International Volleyball Federation to develop and deliver a mindfulness-based intervention to volleyball and beach volleyball referees leading up to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Interviews with the referee commission revealed referees’ high levels of pre- and in-game stress, which can inhibit their cognitive decision-making ability needed to perform at a high level. A five-stage (emotional intelligence, stress management skills, concentration, mental imagery, and motivation) mindfulness-based intervention was developed to address referees’ attentional skills, emotional readiness, and mindful awareness. The five stages were delivered over the 4 months preceding the Games, where the clinician was also available on-site for individual preparation. Referees completed pre- and postintervention quantitative (Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, and Concentration Skills Self-Help Test) and qualitative surveys as well as a post-Olympics evaluation of the practical tools introduced during the mindfulness-based intervention. In-game performances were evaluated by referee delegates prior to and at the Olympics. Analysis of the data showed significant positive changes in the mindfulness factors observing and nonreaction, referees’ concentration skills, and the evaluations of in-game performances. Multiple tools were reported to be highly useful and frequently implemented, including during the Olympics.
... 7 -25 Ragnar P. Ólafsson o. . með þunglyndi (Beck, 1976;Beck o.fl., 1979). Meðferð hans er kjarninn í hugraenni meðferð við þunglyndi enn þann dag í dag og hefur verið viðfangsefni fjölmargra árangursrannsókna (Butler o.fl., 2006;Cuijpers o.fl., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hugraen atferlismeðferð (HAM) er kjörmeðferð samkvaemt klínískum leiðbeiningum um meðferð þunglyndis. Þótt meðferðin ha sýnt gildi sitt í vísindarannsóknum og vísbendingar séu um að ná megi sambaerilegum árangri úti á vettvangi þar sem dagleg geðheilbrigðisþjónusta er veitt, er lítið vitað hvernig meðferð er í raun veitt í slíkum náttúrulegum aðstaeðum. Upplýsingar um það eru mik-ilvaegar við mat á gaeðum þjónustu og hvernig sálfraeðingum tekst að veita meðferðina í því umhver sem sálfraeðimeðferð er búin hér á landi. Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að skoða meðferðarsögu fólks með endurtekið þunglyndi með áherslu á umfang og innihald síðustu HAM-meðferðar sem fólk hafði fengið. Gögn voru greind frá alls 53 þátttakendum (meðalaldur 35,2 ár, Sf=10,0), þar af 45 konur, með endurtekið þunglyndi og höfðu að minnsta kosti þrjár fyrri þunglyndislotur að baki. Innihald síðustu HAM hóp-eða einstaklingsmeðferðar var metið í meðferðarsöguviðtali þar sem m.a. var spurt út í umfang (ölda skipta), þéttni (skipti á viku) og innihald meðferðar sem fólst í mati á 14 lykilþáttum HAM við þunglyndi. Niðurstöður sýndu að síðasta meðferð fólks var y rleitt stutt og fór oftast fram vikulega (hópmeðferð) eða aðra hverja viku (einstaklingsmeðferð). Innihald hóp-og einstaklingsmeðferðar var sambaerilegt varðandi vissa þaetti (t.d. vinna með tengsl aðstaeðna, hugsana og til nninga, hugraent endurmat, atferlisvirkjun) en aðra ekki(kortlagning vanda og henni deilt með skjólstaeðingi, dagskrá sett í tíma, fraeðsluefni). Niðurstöðurnar benda til að HAM-meðferð sem fólk með endurtekið þunglyndi hefur fengið sé ekki í samraemi við klínískar leiðbeiningar og alvarleika. Huga þarf baeði að kostnaðarumhver sálfraeðimeðferðar og mögulegri þjálfun og fraeðslu fagaðila til að tryggja að fólki með þunglyndi standi gagnreynd HAM-meðferð til boða – þeim sem það kjósa. / ENGLISH ABSTACT: According to clinical-guidelines, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended as a frst line psychological treatment for people with major depression. Although efficacy of CBT for depression is well supported and effectiveness studies indicate that comparable outcomes may be obtained in natural settings, the way CBT is delivered in natural settings has been a neglected topic in research. The objective of the present study was to explore treatment length and content of CBT in a group of people with recurrent depression that were taking part in a research project on preventive treatment for recurrent depression in Iceland. Participants’ treatment history was assessed in a treatment history interview focusing on CBT and pharmacological treatment for depression. Of the initial participant pool, 53 formerly depressed participants (Mean age 35.2 years, Sd = 10.0), including 45 females, reported a history of either group CBT or individual CBT for their depression. Results showed that the last CBT completed was short, with a mean of 7 sessions for group CBT (n = 21) and 9 sessions for individual CBT (n = 32). CBT was frequently delivered once per week (both formats) and every other week (individual format). Content comparisons revealed some diferences between the two formats in the 14 key features of CBT that were assessed, that is constructing case-conceptualization, case-conceptualization shared with patient and agenda setting, while the formats were comparable in content regarding others, including working with thoughts, behaviours and emotions, cognitive restructuring and activity-monitoring. The results of the study indicate that CBT for depression that people with recurrent depression receive in Iceland may in some cases be suboptimal and deviates from clinical guidelines and the protocol that has gained support in randomized controlled trials. Content of CBT delivered difered by treatment format. Access to empirically supported forms of CBT needs to be improved in Iceland by integrating it into the standard mental health care system to make it available to those in need. The results also suggest that more attention should be given to training of psychologists in CBT and the implementation of the treatment in the natural setting to maximize the efectiveness that CBT may have for people sufering from depression.
... Positive psychotherapy (Seligman et al., 2006), as an example of positive psychological interventions, has been shown to be effective in clinical populations, such as those having mental illnesses like major depression. Conversely, the spirit of cognitive behavioral therapy (Beck, 1976), wellestablished psychotherapy, has been employed to nonclinical populations for building resilience (e.g. Reivich et al., 2011). ...
... However, according to researchers like Corey [10], Ventis, [11], Wine [12], Beck [13], and many more, to change ones behavioural pattern, the first thing is to instruct the client on how to identify the negative thoughts that are encouraging ones actions. Furthermore, different techniques have different roles and Literature have showed evidence of the effectiveness of Self Instruction Technique in reducing undesirable behaviours such as test anxiety, phobia and aggression, [14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study is on the effect of Self Instruction Technique on generalized anxiety among secondary school adolescents in Enugu East Local Government area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The research design is quasi experimental. The population of the research work consist of secondary school students who were identified as positing generalized anxiety in the area of study and they were two hundred and three in number (203). Out of these 203 students, 61 made up the sample for the study and were those that posited generalized anxiety in the two schools in the area with the highest number of generalized anxiety victims. In order to collect the data for the study, Beck Anxiety Inventory was used. The inventory consist of 21 items and was adopted for the research. In analyzing the Data that were collected, mean scores and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses respectively. The study in its findings revealed that the technique; Self Instruction has effect on secondary school students with generalized anxiety. On the retention effect the findings of the study also indicated that Self Instruction Technique was retained twelve weeks after the treatment. The researchers therefore, recommended among others that guidance counsellors should incorporate Self Instruction Technique while handling secondary school students with generalized anxiety. In addition, Guidance Counsellors should arrange for seminars and workshops for teachers, in order to inculcate the process of using Self Instruction Technique in behavior modification especially such behavioural problems like generalized anxiety.
... According to Beck (1976), negative cognitive biases tend to arise in individuals when they attend SELF-CRITICISM AND NON-SUICIDAL SELF-INJURY 14 to negative or potentially threatening stimuli in their environments while overlooking positive or neutral information. When negative cognitive biases occur frequently for an individual, this can be thought of as a negative attributional bias. ...
Article
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI; e.g., harming oneself without the intent to die) is a leading health concern, and research indicates rates of NSSI are increasing. Despite the clear negative implications of NSSI, mechanisms that reinforce the continual engagement in these behaviors remain unclear. The Benefits and Barriers Model (Hooley & Franklin, 2017) proposes there are barriers that prevent most individuals from engaging in these deleterious behaviors; however, once these barriers are eroded, one becomes more likely to engage in NSSI. One such barrier is a positive association with the self. Self-criticism is generally understood as a trait lowering desire to avoid pain and bodily harm, thus decreasing the barrier of a positive self-view. Although a growing body of research supports self-criticism as an important construct in the understanding of self-harm, research is needed to clarify the role of trait versus state self-criticism in the initiation and maintenance of NSSI. The central aim of this study was to clarify the differential role of trait versus state self-criticism in the potential benefits and barriers to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants (N = 168, ages 18-25) included individuals with (n = 78, 87.2% female) and without (n = 90, 57.8% female) histories of NSSI. These older adolescents participated in an online session in which they responded to self-report questionnaires that assessed trait self-criticism, depressive symptoms, and perceived benefits of NSSI and completed a self-injury implicit association task. Afterwards, they underwent an induction designed to elicit feelings of state self-criticism. They then again did the implicit association task and responded to questions regarding the perceived benefits of NSSI. Levels of state self-criticism were measured throughout their participation. Before ending their online session, all participants underwent a positive mood induction. Results suggest individuals with recent (past year) histories of NSSI are more reactive to state changes in self-criticism than those with past or no history of NSSI. Participants who were reactive to changes in state self-criticism evidenced a reduction in the barriers to NSSI assessed by implicit association tasks and increases in perceived benefits above and beyond trait self-criticism. Implications for treatment are discussed.
... Cognitive style is a very important factor affecting depression. Beck's cognitive model of depression provides a detailed explanation for the in uence of cognition on depression (Beck, 1967;Beck, 1976). The model suggests that individuals form latent cognitive schemata early in life, which are activated in response to environmental pressures associated with these schemata. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: According to data from the National Health Commission in 2018, more than 30 million children and adolescents in China suffer from mental health problems of varying degrees, with depression accounting for the largest proportion. Life events are experienced at every stage of child and adolescent development. Many studies have found a relationship between life events and depression in children and adolescents, but few studies have further explore the mediating and moderating variables that influence this relationship. Based on theoretical and empirical research on social support and cognitive styles, this study established a two-stage moderated mediating model to test whether social support mediates life events to depression, and cognitive style moderates the two mediating pathways. Methods: We recruited 3540 sparticipants from primary and secondary schools in Chongqing, and a total of 2814 subjects entered the data analysis stage. They all completed self-report measures of life events, depression, social support and cognitive styles. The moderated mediation model was examined using SPSS PROCESS model 58. Results:(1) There were significant positive correlations among life events and depression. (2) Social support mediates the relationship between life events and depression in children and adolescents. (3) Cognitive style moderates life events to social support and social support to depression. Limitations: This is a cross-sectional study and the questionnaire is self-reported. Conclusions: Social support could mediate the association between life events and depression among children and adolescents and the cognitive styles could moderate its two mediating pathways.
... Wells' metacognitive therapy is based on the Self-Regulatory Executive Function Matthews, 1994, 1996), which aims to explain the onset and persistence of negative thoughts. This model represents an attempt to integrate information processing research with Beck's schema theory (Beck, 1976), as a way to link cognitive processing to emotional disorders (Wells and Matthews, 1996). As clearly explained by Caselli, Ruggiero, and Sassaroli (2017) 7 , the first layer, the low level processing units, is a stimulus-driven automatic component, very similar to associative thinking. ...
Thesis
The flow of human thoughts is frequently plagued by unwanted cognitive activity, which has the unfortunate power to interfere with task performance, planning, social behaviour, and many other aspects of our lives. Importantly, repetitive negative thoughts and memories play a major role in psychopathology and represent a fundamental transdiagnostic process which deserves experimental and clinical attention. Inhibitory deficits on the one hand and metacognitive beliefs on the other are thought to play a key role in maintaining intrusive repetitive memories and thoughts in a variety of mental health difficulties (Major Depressive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder). This thesis argues against Daniel Wegner’s Ironic Process Theory (Chapter 1) and examines the impact of thought suppression on intrusive Autobiographical Memories with two studies: an fMRI study (Study 1, Chapter 2), and a behavioural study (Study 2, Chapter 3). These two studies represent the first attempt to employ the Autobiographical Think/No-Think task (ATNT), a novel version of the Think/No-Think task solely based on autobiographical memories provided by each participant. In particular, Study 1 investigates the neural correlates of the ATNT task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Study 2 explores the introduction of trial-by-trial intrusion ratings in the ATNT task and considers the affective consequences of thought suppression using Skin Conductance Response (SCR). This thesis also probes for the first time the relationship between metacognitive beliefs, intrusive memories, and thought control abilities using the standard Think/No-Think paradigm and manipulating participants’ metacognitive beliefs about the usefulness and the uncontrollability of repetitive intrusive thinking (Study 3, Chapter 4). After a general discussion (Chapter 5), this thesis reflects on the philosophical and ethical implications of forgetting, from a personal, psychological, and historical point of view (Chapter 6).
... Psikodinamik/psikanalisttik tedavi özellikleFreud (1966) ile birlikte kişilik bozukluklarının tedavisinde yaygın olarak kullanılan en kapsamlı tedavi yöntemleri arasındadır. Bir diğer yöntem, psikanalizin içsel yöntemine karşı gelişen kişiler arası ilişkilere yoğunlaşan kişilerarası psikoterapidir(1996). Narsisizmin tedavisinde kullanılan bir başka terapi ise bilişsel-davranışçı terapidir.Ellis (1961) veBeck (1975) gibi terapistlerin öncülüğünü yaptığı bu yaklaşım davranışlarımız biçimlendiren düşünceler ile ilgilenir, ve bu düşüncülerdeki uyumsuzlukları gidermeyi amaçlar. Bu yönü ile narsisizmin tedavisini oldukça uygundur ...
... Automatic thoughts that affect individual evaluation styles, ways of thinking and emotions appear as another critical concept. Automatic thoughts, defined based on cognitive-behavioural theory, are thoughts or images that pass through an individual's mind when one experiences emotional distress (Beck, 1979). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aims to determine whether emotion regulation strategies have a mediating role in the relationship between adolescents' frequency of using automatic thoughts and their depression, anxiety, and stress levels. In addition to this, another aim of the study is to determine whether depression, anxiety and stress levels differ according to socio-demographic characteristics such as gender and type of school attended. The research study group consists of 395 high school students living in Diyarbakır city center and continuing their education in various schools. The data was collected through "Personal Information Form", "Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-N)", "Adolescent Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (AERQ)", "Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) ". The relationship between gender and school type variables and depression, anxiety, stress levels were obtained using the T-Test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the variables, and the regression-based bootstrapping method was used to investigate the mediation effect of the applied model. According the results obtained, it was determined that the levels of depression, anxiety and stress differed statistically significantly according to the gender and school type variable. When the difference was examined, it was found that the depression, anxiety and stress scores of female students were statistically significantly higher than male students. According to another result obtained within the scope of the research, the depression and anxiety scores of the students attending public school were determined to be higher than the students attending private school. However, internal dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies were found to mediate the relationship between automatic thoughts and depression and anxiety. According to the results, it was determined that internal-dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationship between automatic thoughts, and depression and anxiety. The relationship between automatic thoughts and stress seems mediated by internal emotion regulation strategies and external dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies.
... Experiencing selfless cognition by definition interrupts this mental habit, as found by Orlowski et al. (2022). Moreover, negative self-perception has long been theorized to underlie some of the mental health problems (Beck, 1976), something ego-dissolution challenges by stripping away self-judgement (Amada et al., 2020), increasing self-compassion (Stansbury, 2019), and reducing public self-consciousness (Orłowski et al., 2022). Lastly, most of the participants in this review come from societies characterized by individualism, where mental health is considered a matter of one's own responsibility and resilience (Garrett, 2016;Zilberstein, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Despite promising findings indicating the therapeutic potential of psychedelic experience across a variety of domains, the mechanisms and factors affecting its efficacy remain unclear. The present paper explores this by focusing on two psychedelic states which have been suggested as therapeutically significant in past literature: ego-dissolution and connectedness. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of ego-dissolution and connectedness on the therapeutic effects of the psychedelic experience. Methods The investigation was carried out as a mixed methods systematic review, with the data from four databases analysed thematically and results presented through narrative synthesis. Results The analysis and synthesis of findings from 15 unique studies ( n = 2,182) indicated that both ego-dissolution and connectedness are associated with a higher chance of improvement following a psychedelic experience. However, there seem to be differences in the way the two experiences affect individuals psychologically. Ego-dissolution appears to trigger psychological change but does not typically exceed the psychedelic experience in its duration, while connectedness can be more sustained and is associated with several positive, potentially therapeutic feelings. Conclusions Moreover, the findings of this review have implications for further theory-building about the mechanisms which enable therapeutic effects in psychedelic experience. This in turn might lead to improved models for psychedelic therapy practice. Emphasis on ego-dissolution during the preparation phase and on connectedness during integration is one suggestion presented here, alongside overarching implications for the mental health debate and general practice.
... The concept of CBT includes many types of evidence-based therapies, which all have a common base. The integration of cognitive concepts with behavioral therapy is based on the theories of Ellis (1962) and Beck (1976). According to Kendall (2012), CBT among children with ADs is focused on behaviors and relationships in the external reality, including cognitive and behavioral interventions, especially: psycho-education, thoughts' and emotions' identification, cognitive structuring, relaxation, gradual exposure, rewards, and additional home assignments. ...
Article
Anxiety disorders (ADs) are among the most common psychiatric disorders and they may appear as early on as in childhood. The current study addressed the combination of two treatments approaches for ADs: Dance/movement therapy (DMT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), focusing on factors that explain the therapists' attitudes towards actually combining the two therapies. The study utilized a quantitative design, with a perceptions survey administered via an online questionnaire. Ninety-nine therapists participated in the study (DMT-only n = 35, CBT-only n = 42, and DMT + CBT, n = 22). Following preliminary analysis (comparison between the groups, correlations and factor analysis), the structural equation model (SEM, confirmatory factor analysis) revealed a good fit between the theoretical model and the empirical data. First, it was found that the reported actual use of the combined approaches (DMT + CBT) in treatment of children with ADs, was significantly explained by therapists who had experience practicing DMT but not CBT perceiving this combination as efficient. Second, the therapists' use of the combined therapy (DMT + CBT) approaches was not related to their sense of efficacy as therapists of children with ADs. The model represents concordance between the components of the therapists' attitudes: Affective—belief that it is efficient, cognitive—perception of it as effective, and behavioral—their actual use.
... As regards the implications for clinical practice, our results make it possible to select the stressful events to which, in the pandemic era, it is necessary to pay particular attention in a clinical setting and suggest the implementation of psychological interventions based on the emotion regulation model (Gross, 1998a, b;Gross & John, 2003) in Italian women. Between these, the third-wave psychological interventions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; Beck, 1976;Klumpp et al., 2017), namely dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Fassbinder et al., 2016;Linehan, 1993), acceptance commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999;Valdivia-Salas et al., 2010), and mindfulness-based interventions (Chambers et al., 2009;Grecucci et al., 2015), place emotion regulation as an essential direct target of treatment in chronic stress-related pathology such as anxiety and mood disorders (Renna et al., 2020;Sakiris & Berle, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study aims to better understand the causal relationship between COVID-19 stressful events, perceived stress, emotion regulation strategies and anxiety symptoms in Italian women. Specifically, we assumed that: (i) different COVID-19 stressful events can directly or indirectly influence the manifestation of anxiety symptoms; (ii) perceived stress and emotion regulation strategies, can mediate the relationship between COVID-19 stressful events and anxiety symptoms. Participants and procedure An online survey was distributed during the Italian mandatory lockdown - between 18th and 28th April 2020 - across the national territory. The final sample was composed by 1132 women living in different Italian regions (North 63.3%, Centre 14.2%, South 18.5%, Islands 4%) with a mean age of 40.19 years, ranging from 19 to 83 years (SD = 12.87). Partecipants filled out the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) X1/R, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ-10), five dichotomous questions assessing the COVID-19 stressfull events and a demographic form. Pearson correlation analyses were performed to examine whether associations between factors conformed to the prerequisites for path analysis. Path analysis was conducted to test the model. Results “Having contracted the flu during the COVID-19 pandemic” and “Having a family member infected by COVID-19” have a direct effect on the level of perceived stress and an indirect effect on the manifestation of anxiety symptoms. Finally, we found that emotion regulation strategies mediate the relationship between perceived stress and state anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Our results allow to select the Stressful Events to which, in pandemics era, it is necessary to place a particular attention in a clinical setting and suggest the implementation of psychological interventions that place Emotion Regulation as an essential direct target of treatment in chronic stress-related pathology such as anxiety disorders.
... Based on the cognitive paradigm (Beck, 2011;Beck, 1976), a specific system of beliefs generates and maintains a specific behavioral reaction and activates it in a specific situation for evaluating the perceived situation. The assessment of the situation (the automatic thoughtcognition) leads to generating an emotional state in physiological reactions which results in a specific behavioral response. ...
Thesis
Given the different norms across cultures, industries, and organizations, every workplace accepts a number of shared moral understandings as to its own respect norms among the members. However, in today’s global workplace, behavior has more nuances due to the speed and complexity of interpersonal interactions. Workplace incivility is a notable example of a unique form of interpersonal mistreatment in the organization with its low intensity and ambiguous intention of harming the target. With the aim of contributing to the current knowledge, the main purpose of this thesis is to provide a better understanding of workplace incivility perception among frontline employees in the service industry context. Turnover, on the other hand, is a big issue in the tourism and hospitality sectors that results in excessive costs for recruiting and training service employees. As an important source of job stress caused by negative interpersonal interactions, workplace incivility could be a critical antecedent of employees’ turnover. Therefore, the other purpose of this thesis is to shed more light on the employees’ responses to workplace incivility in terms of turnover intentions. Moreover, the current thesis is also aimed to investigate the role of a positive working environment, as environmental factors, as well as individual differences, as personal factors, in the perception of workplace incivility and its effect on turnover intention. This thesis consists of one systematic review and meta-analysis study, one quantitative empirical paper, and one exploratory paper. Firstly, in line with the purpose of the thesis, a deep review of the workplace incivility literature, in twenty years period, was conducted to provide an early meta-analysis of the relationship between employees’ perceptions of workplace incivility and their turnover intentions in the first paper. This paper investigated the consistency of the incivility–turnover relationship across different sources of workplace incivility (i.e., customer, coworker, supervisor incivility), as well as incivility measures, industries, and countries. The results from the first paper confirm a significant positive relationship between workplace incivility (regardless of the source) and employees’ turnover intention. Following up on this result, the second paper aims to examine to what extent the working environment can affect frontline employees’ perception of workplace incivility and their turnover intentions in the hotel and restaurant industry in Norway. In this quantitative paper, the effect of a perceived caring climate, as an environmental factor, on employees’ turnover intention through a serial multiple mediation model including coworker incivility and emotional exhaustion. The result of the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis reveals that the perception of caring climate in the workplace has not only a direct negative effect on turnover intention but also has indirect effects through a reduction in both coworker incivility and emotional exhaustion. This result emphasizes the important role of environmental factors in the workplace (i.e., caring climate) in employees’ perceptions of incivility and their responses in terms of turnover intention. Given the same sample set, the third paper is an exploratory study that looks at individual differences as personal factors in the perception of workplace incivility, social supports at work, and intention to turnover through applying cluster analysis. Specifically, this study explores if it is possible to identify distinct groups of employees that perceive and behave differently from other groups. The results of K-means cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA indicate three different clusters/groups of frontline employees with different demographic and behavioral profiles. Taken together, the findings of the present thesis provide valuable insights into our knowledge about the incivility–turnover relationship in service work environments, as well as a better understanding of the role of environmental and personal factors in such a relationship.
Article
Full-text available
Prospection is the ability to think about the future in order to guide behavior and gain desirable outcomes. Although theoretical research on the topic exists, there is a lack of practical application. We developed and evaluated a prospective coaching program in a subclinical sample with limited subjective well-being. Twenty-nine participants (Mage = 40.6 years, SD = 13.6; range 19–62 years) participated in three 3-h sessions of a prospective coaching intervention. In a between- and within-subject design, participants completed preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up questionnaires. We compared the effects to those in a waitlist control group with no intervention (n = 37). Linear mixed models revealed improvements in the primary variables subjective well-being and openness to the future. We also found effects in the secondary outcomes hopelessness, subjective stress, depression, positive affect, and optimism in the experimental group, but not in the waiting list control group. This pilot study, to our knowledge, is the first to prove the effectiveness of a prospective group coaching program on relevant outcomes in a subclinical sample. Further studies, for instance, with a larger sample, are needed to gain more insight on the effects of prospection in mental health promotion.
Article
Full-text available
Research concerning rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) and autonomous and controlled motivation within athletic settings is burgeoning. It is proposed that irrational beliefs (i.e., illogical, rigid, and extreme) together with controlled forms of motivation, can determine psychological well-being and physical health in these contexts. For example, research indicates that extreme negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-depreciation) is related to more controlled (less autonomous) motivation regulation, which may underpin poorer health. Though, research is yet to understand the concomitant influence of both irrational beliefs and motivation regulation on work related variables such as presenteeism, persistence and turnover intention, as well as non-work-related variables such as life satisfaction and mental-wellbeing. The present two study paper examines the latent profile structure of irrational beliefs and motivation regulation, and how these latent profiles relate to health and work-related variables. Across studies 1 and 2, results indicated a two-class profile whereby class 1 is characterised by low irrational beliefs and high self-determined motivation (low irrational engagement), and class 2 is characterised by high irrational beliefs and low self-determined motivation (high irrational engagement). Those in Class 2 reported poorer life satisfaction, persistence, and presenteeism, as well as greater depression, anxiety, stress, intention to quit, and absenteeism than those in class 1. Thus, findings indicate that poorer work and health outcomes are associated with greater irrational work engagement. The findings are discussed in relation to the practical implications for occupational workers.
Article
Less than half of all young people with mental health difficulties will seek professional treatment. Due to the private nature of self‐harm it is estimated that only 1:28 young males and 1:18 young females who self‐harm ever present to hospital. Self‐help supports improved coping strategies and life changes without reliance on a clinical intervention which could be used to reduce self‐harming behaviours. The study objective is to review self‐help alternatives to self‐harm on mental health websites that can be accessed by young people. Google, Bing, and Yahoo search engines were used to search for appropriate websites. Eighty‐two unique websites on mental health were identified, of which 55 met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1177 self‐help suggestions were found for those struggling with self‐harm urges. The average number of suggestions per site was 42 (Range 3–252). The main techniques suggested were: seeking social contact/help, physical activity, displacement/mimicking techniques, relaxing/comforting techniques, sensory techniques, fun/diverting techniques, aggressive techniques, creative/reflective techniques. This review found not all strategies were suitable for young people and that the large number of possible strategies could be challenging for a young person to navigate. However, mental health self‐help websites were generally of high quality and gave a range of potentially helpful strategies. The categories created from this review could be used as a guide to consider with the young person when making an individualized self‐help plan to manage self‐harm urges. Further research is required to assess if and how these techniques could be used individually or in combination to reduce self‐harm.
Article
Full-text available
Dysfunctional patterns, beliefs, and assumptions that affect a patient's perception of other people often affect their perceptions and behaviours towards the therapist. This tendency has been traditionally called transference for its psychoanalytical roots and presents an important factor to monitor and process. In supervision, it is important to put the patient's transference in the context of the conceptualization of the case. Countertransference occurs when the therapist responds complementary to the patient's transference based on their own dysfunctional beliefs or assumptions. Transference and countertransference provide useful insights into the inner world of the patient, therapist, and supervisor. Guided discovery is one of the most common approaches used by a supervisor and a supervisee to map all types and directions of transference and countertransference. Other options to map transference and countertransference are imagery and role-playing techniques.
Article
Full-text available
Based on the dual filial piety model and the integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing, this study examined the relationship between filial piety belief and cyberbullying perpetration and the role of anxiety and implicit emotion belief underlying this relationship. A total of 837 college students were tested with filial piety belief scale, GHQ-20 scale, implicit beliefs about emotion scale and cyberbullying perpetration scale. The correlation results showed that reciprocal filial piety was negatively correlated with anxiety and cyberbullying perpetration. Authoritative filial piety was positively correlated with anxiety and anxiety was positively correlated with cyberbullying perpetration. After controlling for socioeconomic status, age and gender, reciprocal filial piety negatively predicted cyberbullying perpetration and authoritative filial piety positively predicted cyberbullying perpetration. The mediation analysis indicated that anxiety played a mediating role on the relationship between filial piety belief and cyberbullying perpetration. Moreover, the mediating model was moderated by implicit emotion belief. Compared with entity theorists, incremental theorists who have anxiety issues are less likely to develop cyberbullying perpetration. The results suggest that educational and psychological practitioners can intervene in aggressive behaviors through regulating students’ negative emotions and promoting incremental belief of emotions.
Article
In this case study, we report the experiences and reflections of a female trainee sport and exercise psychologist who navigated the dismissal of a management team and COVID-19 in a professional football club. The trainee delivered an educational intervention to a group of 10 players transitioning from a youth academy to the first team at a professional football club. This formed part of a larger organizational intervention to integrate sport psychology into the club. During the delivery, her mode of working changed from face to face to online support (because of the COVID-19 pandemic), and the management team, except the first author, were dismissed from their duties after lockdown. We discuss the challenges of integrating and working within an organization, experiencing the dismissal of the management team, the effect of the practitioner’s gender as a female working in a male-dominated sport, and the unrelenting football culture and how we, as practitioners, may choose to navigate it. We supplement personal reflections and notes from client work with learning logs and supervision as part of coursework components of a doctorate in sport and exercise psychology. This case study contributes to the literature by presenting and reflecting on challenges that novice practitioners might face working within a professional football organization.
Article
Full-text available
The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has led to the intensive use of the internet for educational and recreational purposes, leading adolescents to be more exposed to cyberbullying. Empirical studies indicate that cyberbullying has become a pervasive problem among adolescents causing negative consequences like depression. Moreover, the global pandemic lockdown and quarantine measures gave rise to the demand for telepsychology and teletherapy to virtually address the psychological needs of netizens. Thus, utilizing Conklin’s program development model, we created and experimentally tested an online intervention program to target the depressive symptoms experienced by cyberbullied adolescents. We integrated logotherapy and mindfulness to develop an eight-modular, Online Mindfulness-based Logotherapy Program (OnlineMLP). After being validated by experts in various disciplines, we experimentally pilot tested the efficacy of the OnlineMLP in a 3-h session per module in four weeks to a group (N = 10) of cyberbullied adolescents in Tamilnadu, India. The pilot study showed significantly that the OnlineMLP had a positive effect on the participants reducing their depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it confirmed that the online program’s concepts and structure are reliable, feasible, and efficacious for testing a more extensive base of cyberbullied adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms.
Article
Full-text available
Pada masa revolusi industry 4.0 internet menjadi bagian kehidupan masyarakat modern, termasuk siswa. Media internet digunakan oleh para siswa untuk berkomunikasi, mencari sumber belajar, bermain, menonton video, youtube, mendengarkan musik, bisnis, dan lain sebagainya. Media tersebut mudah digunakan, memiliki asas kerahasiaan, praktis, dan dapat diakses dari mana saja, bahkan dapat diaplikasikan dalam layanan bimbingan dan konseling. Teramati terdapat kendala di sekolah yaitu keterbatasan waktu konselor dalam memberikan layanan konseling, sedangkan beban belajar siswa sangat padat, sehingga mereka kurang mendapat pelayanan konseling secara face to face. Oleh karena itu layanan konseling online atau disebut cybercounseling menjadi pilihan utama konselor sekolah. Model konseling yang dipilih di antaranya Konseling Kognitif Perilaku atau disebut dengan Cognituive Behavioral.
Article
Full-text available
Background & objectives: Obsessive-compulsive disorders are common in the society and have negative effects on individual's function. Prevailing theories indicate that these disorders are influenced by biological factors. However, cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder have emphasis on cognitive factors. This study was carried out to investigate the cognitive predictors of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in students. Methods: In this correlational study 300 students (243 female and 57 male) in the fields of psychology, education, agricultural engineering, computer science, management and law from Lorestan Pyam-e-Noor University, Iran were selected by multistage cluster sampling in the second semester of academic year 2014-15. The students completed Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), Meta Cognition Questionnaire (MCQ-30), Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and simultaneous multiple regression analysis by SPSS-16. Results: Findings indicated that worry, meta-cognitive beliefs and maladaptive schemas significantly correlated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms (p<0.001). Results from simultaneous multiple regression analysis also revealed that 64.8% of the total variance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms can be explained by worry, meta-cognitive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Conclusion: According to effective role of study variables with obsessive-compulsive, holding the periodic training coping skills with obsessive-compulsive disorder for students and providing solutions promoting mental health during academic period should be considered by health custodians in universities.
Article
Full-text available
Existent literature has evident that dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts are associated with mental health difficulties. The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts and examining gender differences across both variables. A sample of 27 male and 53 females were collected from different universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Dysfunctional attitudes of students were measured by the short form of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) while automatic thoughts were measured by Automatic thoughts Questionnaire-negative (ATQ). Results indicate that dysfunctional attitudes are not associated with automatic thoughts (p > 0.001), except confusion escape (r = .348, p < 0.001). We found that male university students experience more dysfunctional attitudes and confusion escape subscale of automatic thoughts as compared to female students (p < 0.001). However, there were no gender differences in negative self-concept, personal maladjustment, loneliness, and giving up subscales of automatic thoughts. Result suggests that students should be trained to control these thought negative patterns and resultant psychopathologies.
Article
Full-text available
Background Up to 25% of concussed individuals experience persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCSs) which may interfere with the return to pre-injury activities and cause significant stress. Given that multiple etiological factors are thought to contribute to PPCSs, an interdisciplinary approach is recommended. This pilot study aims to primarily investigate the feasibility of a novel interdisciplinary treatment for PPCSs. Given this intervention is novel, uncertainty exists in terms of potential recruitment and retention rates, adverse events, and treatment adherence and fidelity. These factors will be explored to inform the feasibility of a phase-2 randomised controlled trial. Preliminary efficacy of this intervention will also be explored. Methods Fifteen individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and PPCSs will receive up to 12 weeks of interdisciplinary treatments including psychology, physiotherapy, and medical interventions. Primary feasibility outcomes including data on recruitment and retention rates and treatment adherence will be explored descriptively. The cognitive therapy rating scale will be used to assess treatment fidelity. A single-case series with multiple baseline design will be used to explore preliminary efficacy. Participants will be randomly assigned to baseline phases of 2, 4, or 6 weeks. Regarding patient-centred secondary outcomes, the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire will be assessed three times a week during baseline and treatment phases. Secondary outcomes also include measures of mood, sleep and fatigue, physical functioning, return to activity, and health-related quality of life. Patient-centred outcomes will be assessed at baseline, pretreatment, post-treatment, and one- and three-month follow-up. Thematic analysis of participant experiences will be explored through qualitative interviews. Discussion Results from this trial will inform the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this interdisciplinary concussion intervention and whether proceeding to a future definitive phase-2 randomised controlled trial is worthwhile. Understanding the end-user perspective of the treatment will also enable modifications to the treatment protocol for future trials to best suit the needs of individuals with PPCSs after mTBI. Outcomes from this trial can be directly translated into community rehabilitation programmes. Trial registration ANZCTR, ACTRN12620001111965. Registered 27 October 2020, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=379118
Article
There are many pressures on elite footballers. They work in a meritocracy, where only the best are selected and play at the highest levels. From the moment they enter an academy to their retirement there is a fear of deselection and rejection. Elite players need to contend with criticisms from fans and via social media; team and management dynamics can be stressful. Fears of injury are major concerns. In addition, the players are likely to face everyday difficulties experienced by the rest of society, such as relationship, family and financial problems. There is a great deal of stigma associated with mental health problems in footballers, hence approaches are required that are destigmatising. This article presents two frameworks conceptualising stress in footballers: the Power Threat Meaning Framework, which describes stress in non-diagnostic terms; and the Yerkes–Dodson curve, which describes how stress can affect footballers’ mental and physical performances on the pitch. Both frameworks can combine to enable therapists to understand players’ distress and its impact and to guide towards appropriate treatments, as we show in a fictitious case study.
Research
Full-text available
The current research aims at identifying the behaviorally disturbed middle school students and their social tension. It also aims at identifying the self-sabotage of the behaviorally disturbed students and the nature of the relationship between social tension and self-sabotage. This research was limited to middle school students in middle schools affiliated to the 3rd Education Directorate of Karkh for the academic year (2020-2021). They were (500) male and female students, (250) females and (250) males. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers built a tension scale social and self-sabotage and the adoption of the behavioral disorder diagnosis scale. Validity and stability were extracted for it. The researchers used the T-test for two independent samples, the T-test for one sample, and the Pearson correlation coefficient to extract the results. The results showed that the number of people with behavioral disorders (183). The behaviorally disturbed sample of students has social tension and suffers from self-sabotage. The results showed that there is a relationship between social tension and self-sabotage. In light of the results of this research, the researchers came up with a number of recommendations and suggestions.
Article
Introduction The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses common cognitive distortions. Although the CD-Quest has excellent psychometric properties, its length may limit its use. Methods We attempted to develop short-forms of the CD-Quest using RiskSLIM – a machine learning method to build short-form scales that can be scored by hand. Each short-form was fit to maximize concordance with the total CD-Quest score for a specified number of items based on an objective function, in this case R², by selecting an optimal subset of items and an optimal set of small integer weights. The models were trained in a sample of US undergraduate students (N = 906). We then validated each short-form on five independent samples: two samples of undergraduate students in Brazil (Ns = 182, 183); patients with depression in Brazil (N = 62); patients with social anxiety disorder in the US (N = 198); and psychiatric outpatients in Turkey (N = 269). Results A 9-item short-form with integer scoring was created that reproduced the total 15-item CD-Quest score in all validation samples with excellent accuracy (R² = 90.4-93.6%). A 5-item ultra-short-form had good accuracy (R² = 78.2-85.5%). Discussion A 9-item short-form and a 5-item ultra-short-form of the CD-Quest both reproduced full CD-Quest scores with excellent to good accuracy. These shorter versions of the full CD-Quest could facilitate measurement of cognitive distortions for users with limited time and resources.
Article
Full-text available
social self-efficacy refers to the individual capabilities in dealing with social challenges and the ability to handle interpersonal conflicts. A lot of research has demonstrated that family and the relationships among its members can pave the way to create social self-efficacy beliefs among children especially in dealing with social situations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between family communication patterns (Conversation and Conformity) and social self-efficacy in students. The study sample consisted of 496 fourth to sixth grade elementary school students (252 boys and 244 girls), who were administered the revised family communication patterns scale (Fitzpatrick and Ritchie, 1994) and the social selfefficacy questionnaire for students (Wheeler and Led, 1982). The reliability and validity of the instruments have been confirmed. Collected data was analyzed using the simultaneous multiple regression analysis. In addition and in order to compare social efficacy of boys and girls in different educational grades, a two-way ANOVA was used. Results showed that family Conversation orientation is a positive and significant predictor of social self-efficacy. Family Conformity orientation is, on the other hand, a significant negative predictor of social self-efficacy. There was no significant difference among different grades with regard to the total score of social self-efficacy, subscale of conflict situations, and subscale of non-conflict. In addition no significant differences were observed when comparing boys and girls in terms of their mean score of the subscale of non-conflict. However, regarding the conflict subscale, girls had significantly higher scores than the boys. Moreover the mean scores of boys and girls were significantly different with regard to the total social self-efficacy scale score and girls had higher levels of social self-efficacy than boys. As a result, the promotion of Conversation in the family is a predictor of social self-efficacy in children while emphasizing Conformity in the family diminishes the children's social self-efficacy.
Chapter
This chapter provides the evidence for the development of a coaching culture in organisations. Research findings in relation to coaching culture build on those for coaching as a dynamic, relational and social process resulting in increased self-awareness and insight, learning and growth, and behavioural change. In this chapter, definitions of a coaching culture are presented, types of organisational coaching discussed, and the coaching practice intervention outlined. How coaching supports leadership capability, performance and talent management is explained as well as the benefits associated with these purposes for introducing a coaching culture into an organisation. An integrated model of the evidence for a coaching culture is derived from educational, psychological and management research findings. Finally, coaching is proposed as a subculture of organisational culture, consistent with the dominant models of culture identified in the extant literature: culture as values, stories, frames, categories and toolkits.KeywordsCoachingCoaching cultureCulture researchSubculture researchCoaching researchDefinition of coachingTypes of coachingCoaching theoryCoaching purposeBenefits of coachingCoaching practiceSelf-awarenessInsightLeadership capabilityPerformance improvementTalent managementModel of coaching culture developmentOrganisational cultureCultural changeOrganisational cultural changeImplementing a coaching cultureDeveloping a coaching culture
Article
This study analysed the complex relationship between Facebook usage intensity, fear of missing out (FOMO), and depression. It examined the moderated mediating effect (conditional indirect effect) of Facebook usage intensity on FOMO-driven depression associated with Facebook usage behaviour among Korean university students. The study conducted an online questionnaire survey of 480 university students in Korea from 15 October to 5 November, 2021. The results showed that 1) Facebook usage intensity has a statistically significant and positive impact on depression; 2) there was a partial mediating role of FOMO in the Facebook usage intensity and depression relationship along with the internal influence mechanism of Facebook usage intensity on depression; 3) the effect of Facebook usage behaviour positively moderated the relationship between Facebook usage intensity and FOMO; and 4) Facebook usage behaviour had a FOMO-based positive moderate mediating effect on the relationship between Facebook usage intensity and depression. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between Facebook usage intensity, FOMO, depression, and Facebook usage behaviour among Korean university.
Article
This meta‐analysis enhances our insight into the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving eudaemonic well‐being. The focal outcome of these interventions is Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well‐being. We summarized experimental studies and concluded whether a specific intervention approach improves individual positive functioning by assessing the six dimensions of psychological well‐being and the composite score of well‐being. Our study confirmed that eudaemonic well‐being can be improved. The strongest influence is seen in integral programs that link directly to Ryff's conceptual model. Breaking down to dimensional scores, existing interventions had the strongest influence on Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, and Self‐Acceptance. The weakest influence was on Autonomy and Positive Relations with Others. Overall, our result is an important contribution to the well‐being literature in that it shows, more convincing than previous meta‐analyses due to its exclusive and comprehensive focus on Ryff's model, that psychological eudaemonic well‐being can be enhanced by targeted intervention programs.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.