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Predicting Adolescent Cognitive and Self-Regulatory Competencies From Preschool Delay of Gratification: Identifying Diagnostic Conditions

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Abstract

Variations of the self-imposed delay-of-gratification situation in preschool were compared to determine when individual differences in this situation may predict aspects of cognitive and self-regulatory competence and coping in adolescence. Preschool children from a university community participated in experiments that varied features of the self-imposed delay situation. Experimental analyses of the cognitive–attentional processes that affect waiting in this situation helped identify conditions in which delay behavior would be most likely to reflect relevant cognitive and attentional competencies. As hypothesized, in those conditions, coherent patterns of statistically significant correlations were found between seconds of delay time in such conditions in preschool and cognitive and academic competence and ability to cope with frustration and stress in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... First, although research has collectively demonstrated the importance of early EF for successful development during childhood and into adolescence, whether these findings extend into adulthood remains less understood. Indeed, several notable longitudinal studies have reported relations between constructs related to EF during childhood and later adult outcomes (e.g., Benjamin et al., 2019;Mischel et al., 2011;Moffitt et al., 2011;Robson et al., 2020;Shoda et al., 1990;Vergunst et al., 2019;Watts et al., 2018). Virtually all of these studies, however, have focused on young children's behavioral self-control or delay of gratification. ...
... For example, Moffitt and colleagues (2011) found that children's self-control during the first decade of life predicted financial wellbeing, health, substance use, and criminal convictions, even after controlling for IQ and family characteristics. Highly cited longitudinal research on the Marshmallow test also reported strong links between preschoolers' ability to delay gratification and their longrun academic achievement (Shoda et al., 1990;Watts et al., 2018) and well-being (Mischel et al., 2011). Although these studies used survey-reports of behavioral control (i.e., Moffit et al., 2011) and direct assessments of delay of gratification (i.e., Shoda et al., 1990) to measure self-control, these findings are often cited as evidence of the role of childhood EF on long-term developmental outcomes (e.g., Diamond & Lee, 2011;Miyake, & Friedman, 2012;Zelazo et al., 2016). ...
... Highly cited longitudinal research on the Marshmallow test also reported strong links between preschoolers' ability to delay gratification and their longrun academic achievement (Shoda et al., 1990;Watts et al., 2018) and well-being (Mischel et al., 2011). Although these studies used survey-reports of behavioral control (i.e., Moffit et al., 2011) and direct assessments of delay of gratification (i.e., Shoda et al., 1990) to measure self-control, these findings are often cited as evidence of the role of childhood EF on long-term developmental outcomes (e.g., Diamond & Lee, 2011;Miyake, & Friedman, 2012;Zelazo et al., 2016). Indeed, some recent work has argued for an integrative approach to understanding broadly defined selfregulatory capacity (e.g., Strauman, 2017), which includes both the behavioral aspects of self-control studied by Moffitt et al. (2011) and the cognitive abilities measured by EF tasks (e.g., Miyake et al., 2000). ...
Article
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The present study examined longitudinal associations between preschoolers' executive function (EF) and adult educational attainment, impulse control, and general health directly and through its cascading effects on childhood and adolescent EF using a large, national, and prospective longitudinal sample of participants. Data were drawn from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD) and included a diverse sample (52% male at birth; 76% White; 13% Black; 6% Hispanic; and 5% other; 14.23 mean years of maternal education) of 1,364 participants born in 1991 and followed through age 26. Four main findings emerged. First, we observed significant bivariate relations between EF measured at 54 months and adult educational attainment (r = .36, p < .01), and impulse control (r = .11, p = .01). Second, early EF measured during preschool and childhood explained variance in adult educational attainment and impulse control above and beyond adolescent EF. Third, childhood EF mediated the association between preschool EF and adult educational attainment and impulse control but did not operate through adolescent EF. Finally, neither preschool EF nor EF measured at other developmental stages predicted health during adulthood. Together, these findings shed light on the direct and cascading influences of EF across development on important domains of adult functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... The skill of delaying gratification develops as children get mature and learn to pursue valuable, long-term pleasures rather than less valuable, short-term pleasures. This is significantly related to executive function (i.e cognitive control), distracting oneself effectively, cognitive functions underlying selfmonitoring and planning (Schlam et al., 2013), attention strategies (Shoda et al., 1990) and children's impulsiveness. Moreover, findings support the idea that a common mechanism lies behind attention, activity and impulse (aggressive or other) regulation (Silverman and Ragusa, 1992). ...
... Further research may focus on the delay of gratification paradigm, and whether rewards are exposed or obstructed in the delay situation. For instance, as Shoda et al. (1990) set forth, whether rewards are initially exposed to the child or not yields different results. Besides, in this study, variables resulting from the environmental factors or the child himself/herself were not considered. ...
Article
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In the early childhood period, self-regulation and delay of gratification are important skills. The lack of these skills may have a negative impact on children's development and learning. In this study, the relationship between preschool children's delay of gratification and self-regulation skills was examined. Fifty-seven preschool children from Ankara, the capital of Turkey, aged between four and five, participated in this study. Delay of gratification was measured with Marshmallow Test, whereas self-regulation skills were assessed with Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the variables that predict the delay of gratification. The results indicated that self-regulation, particularly in terms of impulse control and effortful control, affects the delay of gratification, and that gender is not a determining factor in the delay of gratification. Besides, children's success, particularly in impulse control and effortful control, was found to increase the delay of gratification. Identifying children with extreme difficulty in the delay of gratification may help to detect those with poor self-regulation skills. Accordingly, various tasks could be designed to improve self-regulation skills in early childhood, and potential problems regarding delay of gratification and self-regulation could be minimized. This is likely to have a positive impact on society as a whole.
... well as higher ability to deal with stress and frustration (Mischel et al. 1988;Shoda et al. 1990). In addition, a child's self-control, which is correlated with DoG (Duckworth et al. 2013), predicts prosperity and health in adulthood (Fergusson et al. 2013;Moffitt et al. 2011). ...
... A better understanding of how DoG develops would open up opportunities to support children with a low ability to delay gratification. Previous research has shown that early DoG and self-control in children are associated with subsequent success, such as higher cognitive competence (Mischel et al. 1988;Shoda et al. 1990) and prosperity in adulthood (Fergusson et al. 2013;Moffitt et al. 2011). However, it has to be noted that those results and the reported effect sizes are under debate (e.g., Michaelson and Munakata 2020;Watts et al. 2018). ...
Article
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The ability to delay gratification is related to success in school and other aspects of life. Genetic as well as environmental factors such as parenting style partly explain the development of delay of gratification (DoG). However, it is unclear whether parental personality impacts children’s DoG, and how maternal and paternal personalities contribute to this relationship. The present study investigates the relationship between parental personality and 45-month-old children’s DoG ( N = 329). Personality was measured using the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory-30, DoG was operationalized through waiting time in the marshmallow test. In model 1, using only maternal data to predict DoG, maternal openness to experience was associated with shorter waiting time of the child in the marshmallow test, whereas maternal agreeableness was associated with longer waiting time. In model 2, using only paternal data to predict DoG, paternal agreeableness was related to longer waiting time. In model 3, combining maternal and paternal data to predict DoG, maternal openness to experience as well as paternal agreeableness remained significant predictors of DoG. The present study underlines the influence of both parents’ personalities on the development of children’s DoG and indicates differential maternal and paternal effects. Future studies should investigate the relationship between parental personality and children’s DoG in detail and take further factors into account, such as genetic factors, other environmental factors and the personality of the child.
... Our results are similar to previous studies showing that hot EF in early childhood is associated with emotional problems (McIntyre et al. 2006;Poon 2018). In addition, these results are similar to reports that show that hot EF development predicts cognitive and self-regulating abilities in adolescence (Mischel et al. 1988;Shoda et al. 1990), and the lack of cool EF in young children can be an indicator of a serious behavior problem (Hughes et al. 2000;Riggs et al. 2003;Poon and Ho 2014). ...
Article
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Executive function is the mental ability to modulate behavior or thinking to accomplish a task. This is developmentally important for children’s academic achievements and ability to adjust to school. We classified executive function difficulties (EFDs) in longitudinal trajectories in Korean children from 7 to 10 years old. We found predictors of EFDs using latent class growth analysis and Bayesian network learning methods with Panel Study data. Three types of latent class models of executive function difficulties were identified: low, intermediate, and high EFDs. The modeling performance of the high EFD group was excellent (AUC = .91), and the predictors were the child’s gender, temperamental emotionality, happiness, DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) anxiety problems, and the mother’s depression as well as coparenting conflict recognized by the mother. The results show that using latent class growth analysis and Bayesian network learning are helpful in classifying the longitudinal EFD patterns in elementary school students. Furthermore, school-age EFD is affected by emotional problems in parents and children that continue from early life. These findings can support children’s development and prevent risk by preclassifying children who may experience persistent EFD and tracing causes.
... Self-regulated individuals show control over their psychological processes and easily adapt to their environment (Miller & Byrnes, 2001). Also, they prepare for situations; keenly observe their environment; allow others to speak without interruption and work independently with focus (Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990). ...
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This study examined the relationship between ECSE and perceived service quality. The study employed self-awareness, self-regulation, social awareness and social skills as proxies of ECSE; while perceived service quality was treated unidimensionally. The population of the study comprised customers of twenty-two (22) deposit money banks operating in Rivers and Bayelsa States of Nigeria. An explanatory research design was adopted while primary data were collected via a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire. The instrument was checked for face, content and constructs validity; and was found satisfactory. Three hundred and eighty-five (385) customers of deposit money banks who were reached through accidental sampling provided primary data for the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; while the P(r) served as the test statistic; relying on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. The study found that ECSE relates to perceived service quality, as all the dimensions of ECSE reported a positive and statistically significant relationship with perceived service quality; with social skills posting the strongest correlation. The study concluded that ECSE relates to perceived service quality or that customers" evaluation of service quality is determined by ECSE. The study thus recommends that deposit money banks in Rivers and Bayelsa States that desire positive service quality evaluation from customers should engage individuals that possess high social skills, social awareness, self-regulation and self-awareness as service employees or train their service employees to develop these competencies.
... Moreover, children from low-income families and DLL can be especially vulnerable to experiencing EF difficulties (Wanless, McClelland, Tominey, & Acock, 2011). This assumption is important because, in addition to academic benefits (Allan, Hume, Allan, Farrington, & Lonigan, 2014;Blair & Raver, 2015;Blair & Razza, 2007;Duckworth & Carlson, 2013;McClelland et al., 2013), individual differences in children's ability to control their impulses have been associated with long-term outcomes ranging from emotional coping in adolescence (Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990) to financial success in adulthood (Moffitt et al., 2011). As such, researchers have turned their attention to uncovering ways to support the development of EF during early childhood. ...
Chapter
Executive functions change during the lifespan and can both be improved or adversely affected by various events that affect an individual. For example, resource-rich environments, stress-response systems are understood to shape brain development in ways conducive to executive function and high levels of self-control. Conversely, in lower-resource unpredictable environments, stress-response systems are understood to shape the brain in ways that promote highly reactive behavior and poor executive function ability leading to school failure and early school leaving. Knowing well the impact of stress and an unfavorable environment on the development of executive functions can lead to the construction of intervention programs that can guide these children from disadvantage towards resilience.
... In children, emotional control and dysregulation can be measured by examining attention performance in tasks with emotional distracters. For example, children aged 3 to 9 years can resist temptation and shift attention away from an attractive but prohibited item [12], and negative emotions can be controlled during adolescence [13]. In contrast, increasing attention toward distracting negative emotional events may exhaust the resources for voluntarily controlling emotion [14,15]. ...
Article
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Executive functioning in preschool children is important for building social relationships during the early stages of development. We investigated the brain dynamics of preschool children during an attention-shifting task involving congruent and incongruent gaze directions in emotional facial expressions (neutral, angry, and happy faces). Ignoring distracting stimuli (gaze direction and expression), participants (17 preschool children and 17 young adults) were required to detect and memorize the location (left or right) of a target symbol as a simple working memory task (i.e., no general priming paradigm in which a target appears after a cue stimulus). For the preschool children, the frontal late positive response and the central and parietal P3 responses increased for angry faces. In addition, a parietal midline α (Pm α ) power to change attention levels decreased mainly during the encoding of a target for angry faces, possibly causing an association of no congruency effect on reaction times (i.e., no faster response in the congruent than incongruent gaze condition). For the adults, parietal P3 response and frontal midline θ (Fm θ ) power increased mainly during the encoding period for incongruent gaze shifts in happy faces. The Pm α power for happy faces decreased for incongruent gaze during the encoding period and increased for congruent gaze during the first retention period. These results suggest that adults can quickly shift attention to a target in happy faces, sufficiently allocating attentional resources to ignore incongruent gazes and detect a target, which can attenuate a congruency effect on reaction times. By contrast, possibly because of underdeveloped brain activity, preschool children did not show the happy face superiority effect and they may be more responsive to angry faces. These observations imply a crucial key point to build better relationships between developing preschoolers and their parents and educators, incorporating nonverbal communication into social and emotional learning.
... Parents of those children who had waited longer in the initial experiment described their teenagers as more academically and socially competent, as better at coping with frustration and stress, and as more mature. Beyond parental ratings, Shoda et al. (1990) discovered that the time delay in the experiment correlated significantly with the SAT scores: children who could delay longer had better results on the college entrance examination. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present investigation is to analyze the relation of frustration tolerance and delay of gratification with PhD-intention and expectations. We conducted one correlational and two experimental studies. In Study 1 ( N 1 = 171 undergraduates), we found the hypothesized positive association between delay of gratification and frustration tolerance and the intention to obtain a PhD. In Studies 2 and 3, we used experimental vignette designs. In Study 2, doctoral students and postdocs ( N 2 = 180) evaluated a fictitious student regarding PhD-intention and a successful PhD-process. As expected, students with high gratification delay and frustration tolerance were judged as more likely to start and complete a PhD than students described low in these volitional traits. In Study 3, we contrasted Study 2’s findings by asking employees of the private sector ( N 3 = 150) to rate the same students’ intention to join a company instead. None of the factors influenced participants’ judgments when it comes to a non-academic career track.
... Earlier psychometric studies have confirmed this conclusion. Tversky et al. studied whether the concept representation is consistent with the geometric sampling (GS) model and concluded that some hierarchical vocabularies are inconsistent with Euclidean embeddings [17]. The word vectors to be processed are regarded as points distributed in a high-dimensional semantic space, and the distance between the points is measured by Euclidean geometric straight-line distance. ...
Article
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Background Electronic medical records (EMR) contain detailed information about patient health. Developing an effective representation model is of great significance for the downstream applications of EMR. However, processing data directly is difficult because EMR data has such characteristics as incompleteness, unstructure and redundancy. Therefore, preprocess of the original data is the key step of EMR data mining. The classic distributed word representations ignore the geometric feature of the word vectors for the representation of EMR data, which often underestimate the similarities between similar words and overestimate the similarities between distant words. This results in word similarity obtained from embedding models being inconsistent with human judgment and much valuable medical information being lost. Results In this study, we propose a biomedical word embedding framework based on manifold subspace. Our proposed model first obtains the word vector representations of the EMR data, and then re-embeds the word vector in the manifold subspace. We develop an efficient optimization algorithm with neighborhood preserving embedding based on manifold optimization. To verify the algorithm presented in this study, we perform experiments on intrinsic evaluation and external classification tasks, and the experimental results demonstrate its advantages over other baseline methods. Conclusions Manifold learning subspace embedding can enhance the representation of distributed word representations in electronic medical record texts. Reduce the difficulty for researchers to process unstructured electronic medical record text data, which has certain biomedical research value.
... For example, an individual might be indifferent between receiving $200 today versus $230 in 1 month, indicating that a future reward $230 is discounted because of its delay. The extent to which a decision maker discounts future rewards is correlated to important life consequences such as social and cognitive competence (Mischel et al., 1989;Shoda et al., 1990), and field behaviors such as smoking, exercise, etc. (Chabris et al., 2008;Cheng & Gonz alez-Vallejo, 2014). While choosing SS does not necessarily mean impulsivity, past research has found clinical populations (e.g., substance abusers) tend to exhibit a stronger preference toward SS over LL than their matched healthy controls (Bickel et al., 2014;Cheng & Gonz alez-Vallejo, 2014). ...
Article
Two experiments examined the effect of risk on waiting preference and temporal preference reversal. Participants made binary choices between smaller–sooner (SS) and larger–later (LL) options following a 2 (time: immediate choices vs. non-immediate choices) x 4 (risk condition) within-subjects design. Risk conditions varied in whether the SS and/or the LL was risky or certain. Experiment 1 focused on choices with small magnitudes of payoffs and delays, whereas Experiment 2 focused on large magnitudes. Both experiments showed that making one option risky increased preference for the other option, whereas making both options risky had no impact on waiting preference. Pooling risk conditions together, participants in both experiments demonstrated temporal preference reversal. However, participants showed preference reversal in all 4 risk conditions in Experiment 2, but only in the risky (SS)-certain (LL) and risky-risky conditions in Experiment 1. This finding indicates for uncertain outcomes, people were at least equally (if not more) likely to reverse their choices, compared to certain outcomes.
... Ils lui proposent alors le choix suivant : manger le chamallow tout de suite ou attendre le retour de l'expérimentateur qui prétexte de quitter la salle et pouvoir alors manger deux chamallows.Cette expérience qui a été répliquée de nombreuses fois permet de mesurer cette capacité à résister à la pulsion immédiate. Nous verrons plus loin que la maîtrise de soi a un effet sur la réussite de l'élève et même sur sa vie future(Mischel, 2015 ;Shoda et al.,1990), bien que ce lien ait été minoré il y a peu. McClelland et Tominey (2015) confirment l'importance de la maîtrise de soi, du contrôle des impulsions et des émotions. ...
Thesis
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L’explicitation des différences de réussite entre élèves à l’école élémentaire a déjà mobilisé de nombreuses recherches dans le champ de l’éducation. Dans le cadre de cette thèse, nous explorons le développement chez l’élève de six compétences psychosociales (OMS, 1994) : la coopération, l’empathie, la maîtrise de soi, l’anxiété, l’estime de soi et l’internalité. Eu égard à la prégnance de l’effet des pratiques enseignantes sur le parcours scolaire de l’élève (Bressoux, 1994, 2001 ; Hanushek, 2002, 2014), nous avons fait l’hypothèse que (1) le profil interactionnel des enseignants du premier degré avait un lien avec le niveau de développement des compétences psychosociales et que (2) le niveau de développement des compétences psychosociales en lien avec le profil des enseignants avait un effet sur la réussite scolaire des élèves de l’école élémentaire. Les compétences psychosociales étaient donc envisagées comme de potentielles variables médiatrices entre les pratiques de l’enseignant et les performances des élèves. Fondé sur un échantillon constitué de 623 élèves de CE2, CM1 et CM2 et de 26 enseignants, notre protocole de recherche a permis de recueillir (1) des données sur le profil interactionnel des enseignants à partir de la perception des élèves et des enseignants eux-mêmes, (2) des données en début et en fin d’année sur les compétences psychosociales des élèves et (3) des données sur les performances des élèves en français et en mathématiques. Si nous constatons un effet moindre du profil interactionnel de l’enseignant sur le niveau scolaire des élèves, nous notons un effet direct de ce même profil sur les compétences psychosociales des élèves et un effet de ces compétences sur la réussite des élèves. L’utilisation d’analyses de structure de covariance avec LISREL a mis en évidence un effet indirect d’une forme de bienveillance de l’enseignant sur les performances des élèves qui transiteraient par le bien-être psychosocial scolaire des élèves.
... The marshmallow test is rooted in a psychological experiment on children's perseverance developed by Mischel et al. (1989). The experiment results have been used to predict children's future success (Mischel et al., 1988;Shoda et al., 1990;Michaelson and Munakata, 2020). The test activates the prefrontal cortex (Mischel, 2014), which is consistent with the observation that EF is activated in the prefrontal cortex (Moriguchi and Hiraki, 2011). ...
Article
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Executive function (EF) development is an important part of infancy and childhood, promoting success in later life. Developing targeted methods is desirable to enable EF. There is an urgent need for easily implementable proposals to ameliorate educational disparities between income groups. EF is a skill that its possessor can use to inhibit thoughts and emotions. There is a relationship between EF and the prefrontal cortex. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children’s (WISC-IV) Working Memory Index (WMI) task for thinking and the marshmallow test for emotions have been used to measure EF, but these tests themselves carry a load of inhibitions. Therefore, we can assume a natural value in learning to improve on the test. The marshmallow test does not require parental expertise in preparation or implementation, and it entails little financial burden. If there is a potential value in learning how to do better on the test, it will be easy for parents in low-income families to help their children improve. I examined whether the marshmallow test itself can support EF. Measurements of brain activity in the prefrontal cortex over 8 days showed that the marshmallow test was more active than the WMI task or the abacus task. Therefore, the results suggest that continued use of the marshmallow test can support EF even in low-income families.
... Favoring hot EFs, especially in the willingness to delay gratification, decision making and behavioral self-regulation, during early childhood predicts greater success academically and socially [99,100] and is to health and economic well-being in adulthood [101][102][103][104]. ...
Article
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The study aimed to systematically analyze the empirical evidence that is available concerning batteries, tests or instruments that assess hot executive functions (EFs) in preschoolers, identifying which are the most used instruments, as well as the most evaluated hot EFs. For the review and selection of articles, the systematic review methodology PRISMA was used. The article search considered the EBSCO, Web of Science (WoS), SciELO and PubMed databases, with the keywords “Hot executive function”, “Assessment”, “test”, “evaluation”, using the Boolean operators AND and OR indistinctly, between 2000 and April 2021. Twenty-four articles were selected and analyzed. The most commonly used instruments to assess hot EFs in preschool children were the Delayed Gratification Task, the Child’s Play Task, and the Delayed Reward Task. Amongst those analyzed, 17 instruments were found to assess hot EFs in preschoolers. The accuracy and conceptual clarity between the assessment of cognitive and emotional components in EFs is still debatable. Nevertheless, the consideration of affective temperature and reward stimulus type, could be an important influence when assessing EFs in this age range. Evidence of the possible involvement of cortical and subcortical structures, as well as the limbic system, in preschool executive functioning assessment has also been incorporated.
... Throughout human history, the high probability of mortality at all ages led to a considerable focus on preparing for the possible imminent end of life. 41 42 claimed that showing self-control at a young age led to a range of better outcomes later in life, the importance of which will only become greater as life expectancy increases. Watts and colleagues 43 argued that self-control itself is influenced by a range of variables, suggesting that individuals can take action to lower how much they discount future benefits. ...
Article
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As the demographic transition enters a new stage of a longevity transition, focus needs to extend beyond an ageing society towards a longevity society. An ageing society focuses on changes in the age structure of the population, whereas a longevity society seeks to exploit the advantages of longer lives through changes in how we age. Achieving a longevity society requires substantial changes in the life course and social norms, and involves an epidemiological transition towards a focus on delaying the negative effects of ageing. The broad changes required to achieve healthy longevity include an increased focus on healthy life expectancy, a shift from intervention towards preventive health, a major public health agenda to avoid increases in health inequality, the establishment of longevity councils to ensure coordinated policy across government departments, and intergenerational assessment of policies, to ensure that in adapting to longer lives, policies are not skewed towards older people. A longevity society represents a new stage for humanity and requires deep-seated notions about age and ageing to be challenged if society is to make the best use of the additional time that longevity brings.
... Important outcomes of school lie predominantly in the future through the development of future capabilities. On a psychological level, such a finding follows the 'Marshmallow Experiment' as described by (Shoda, Mischel, and Peake 1990). This experiment aims to view cognitive and selfregulatory competencies of adolescents. ...
Thesis
This thesis proposes to explore the academic inquiries of economic science into education by focusing on its evolution over time and the associated theoretical implications. It will then provide a chronological study of the notions of well-being and aspirations from the standpoint of economic theory while attaching importance to highlight when these notions meet each other in these theoretical formulations (Part I). Findings of Economics of Education and its disregard of pupils well-being and aspirations will lead to the exploration of the Capability Approach as an alternativetheoretical framework (Part II). Finally, this thesis proposes an application of the Capability Approach to the French secondary schooling system. It does so by constructing a questionnaire through focus groups and evaluating its outcomes with multidimensional statistics (Part III).This operationalization allows establishing a link between well-being and school-related aspirations through a new methodology.
... that individual time-preference parameters are predictive of field behaviors and many important long-run outcomes (e.g., Shoda et al., 1990;Sprenger, 2010, 2012;Sutter et al., 2013;Golsteyn et al., 2014), and b) that many individuals violate assumptions of standard exponential discounted utility models, instead exhibiting dynamically time-inconsistent preferences (i.e., present bias) (Imai et al., 2019). ...
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We study the role of cognitive ability and financial literacy for inter-temporal decision-making using an adapted version of the Convex Time Budget Protocol. We document substantial heterogeneity in choice-patterns and estimated parameters at the individual-level: We find that subjects with higher cognitive ability and domain specific-knowledge are more likely to make patient inter-temporal choices, to allocate the entire budget to a single payment-date, and to allocate the entire budget to corner choices as interest rates increase. At the same time, domain specific knowledge is uncorrelated with choice consistency and estimated individual error parameters, suggesting these results are not driven by a reduction in random noise among high ability respondents. These results serve as suggestive evidence for inter-temporal arbitrage among high ability respondents, thereby revealing a potential confound in time-preference elicitation tasks relying on time-dated monetary rewards. JEL codes: G53, D15, D91
... Tasks 2-29-1 and 7-22-1 were delayed gratification tasks, in which the goal(s) rolled down a high ramp onto the floor, with the latter involving "lights out. " Forgoing immediate smaller or worse rewards for larger or better later rewards has been studied extensively in developmental psychology, most notably in the "marshmallow task" (Shoda et al., 1990;Watts et al., 2018). Delayed gratification has been used to assess self-control and future planning in both humans and nonhuman animals (Koepke et al., 2015), as well as in DRL agents (Bontrager et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Artificial Intelligence is making rapid and remarkable progress in the development of more sophisticated and powerful systems. However, the acknowledgement of several problems with modern machine learning approaches has prompted a shift in AI benchmarking away from task-oriented testing (such as Chess and Go) towards ability-oriented testing, in which AI systems are tested on their capacity to solve certain kinds of novel problems. The Animal-AI Environment is one such benchmark which aims to apply the ability-oriented testing used in comparative psychology to AI systems. Here, we present the first direct human-AI comparison in the Animal-AI Environment, using children aged 6–10 (n = 52). We found that children of all ages were significantly better than a sample of 30 AIs across most of the tests we examined, as well as performing significantly better than the two top-scoring AIs, “ironbar” and “Trrrrr,” from the Animal-AI Olympics Competition 2019. While children and AIs performed similarly on basic navigational tasks, AIs performed significantly worse in more complex cognitive tests, including detour tasks, spatial elimination tasks, and object permanence tasks, indicating that AIs lack several cognitive abilities that children aged 6–10 possess. Both children and AIs performed poorly on tool-use tasks, suggesting that these tests are challenging for both biological and non-biological machines.
... Self-control, often thought of as the antithesis of impulsivity, is associated with positive outcomes including self-regulatory skills (Shoda et al., 1990), health and well-being (Moffitt et al., 2011), and academic achievement (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Tangney et al., 2004). Self-control is also critical to one's ability to delay immediate gratification (Gillebaart, 2018), and multiple meta-analyses find that low self-control is associated with delinquency and other problem behaviors (de Ridder et al., 2011;Vazsonyi et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Several studies link adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to delinquency. Yet, developmental sequalae accounting for this association remain unclear, with previous research limited by cross-sectional research designs and investigations of singular mediating processes. To redress these shortcomings, this study examines the longitudinal association between ACEs and delinquency as mediated by both sleep problems and low self-control, two factors which past research implicates as potentially important for understanding how ACEs contribute to antisocial behavior. Data collected from 480 adolescents (71.3% boys; 86.3% White) and their parents participating in the Michigan Longitudinal Study was used to conduct a serial mediation analysis. The association between ACEs (prior to age 11) and delinquency in late adolescence was found to operate indirectly via sleep problems in early adolescence and low self-control in middle adolescence. Nonetheless, a direct association between ACEs and later delinquency remained. Pathways through which ACEs contribute to later delinquency are complex and multiply determined. Findings indicate that early behavioral interventions, including improving sleep and self-control, could reduce later delinquency. Still, more research is needed to identify additional avenues through which the ACEs-delinquency association unfolds across development.
... This component of temperament includes "inhibitory control, the ability to focus and shift attention, and sensitivity to, and pleasure in, low intensity stimuli" (Rothbart et al., 2007, p. 3) and is considered critical for many other forms of self-regulation, such as executive functioning (Eisenberg et al., 2014;Rothbart et al., 2007). Previous studies have documented the link between measures of children's self-regulation, such as effortful control and delay of gratification, and conscientiousness traits in adolescence and adulthood (e.g., Deal et al., 2005;Shoda et al., 1990). Compared to children in the West, Chinese children were rated by their parents to be more persistent in orienting, and the cross-cultural differences increased with age (Gartstein et al., 2006). ...
Article
Research to date has shown longitudinal changes in conscientiousness during early and middle adolescence, but most studies have been conducted in Western countries. The present study aimed to examine the pattern of mean-level conscientiousness change at the transition into early adolescence among a Chinese sample using curve of factors (CUFFS) models. Four waves of data from 661 Chinese children aged 8 years old at baseline in the China Family Panel Studies were used. Parents were asked to rate their children’s level of conscientiousness every 2 years. On average, mean-level conscientiousness showed a decelerating increase. Girls had higher average conscientiousness levels than boys, but they did not differ in change patterns. The inconsistency between the current study and previous research indicates that conscientiousness development may depend, in part, on cultural factors.
... In addition to individual differences in reward sensitivity, which is increased by frequent video game use, decreased cognitive control appears to be a major factor in the development of addictive video game use. Decreased cognitive control is associated with both poorer academic and cognitive performance (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Mischel, Shoda, & Peake, 1988;Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990) and more excessive media use (Blinka et al., 2015;Khang et al., 2013;Koo & Kwon, 2014). Students who cannot control their own gaming and internet behavior spend more time online and playing video games. ...
... Self-control is defined as the ability to not only curb unwanted behavioral tendencies on one's own, but also change one's behavior patterns [18]. This ability has been shown to function positively in areas such as academic achievement, diet, drugs, and smoking because they intentionally suppress behaviors one deems inappropriate by oneself to achieve greater satisfaction and results [19]. Self-control, as the ability to replace current emotions and habitual behaviors with desirable ones through conscious effort, serves as a very useful tool in life [20]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to verify the influence of autonomy and self-control as psychological factors on the changes in lifestyles of inactive college students by participating in regular exercise. A total of 188 university students in Seoul, Korea, taking physical fitness classes for 5 weeks held three times a week participated in the surveys. Surveys were conducted in the first session (T1) and 15th session (T2) of the classes. Autonomy in exercise participation and self-control were measured at T1, and healthy lifestyle was measured at both T1 and T2. A paired t-test was used to measure the changes in healthy lifestyle between two time points, and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of autonomy in exercise participation and self-control measured at T1 on the healthy lifestyle score at T2. According to the analysis, participants’ healthy lifestyles were improved with a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-exercise. Furthermore, the levels of autonomy and self-control before the fitness classes positively influenced the participants’ healthy lifestyle after the classes even when the influence of healthy lifestyle measured before the classes was controlled. Thus, it was confirmed that autonomy for participation and self-control are important to change one’s healthy lifestyle through regular exercise participation.
... En effet, celui-ci a été multiplié par trois au cours de la dernière décennie (figure 25.1). Cette explosion d'intérêt résulte de la mise en cause d'un dysfonctionnement exécutif dans de nombreux troubles chez l'enfant (e.g., trouble déficitaire de l'attention/hyperactivité, autisme et trouble des conduites ;Casey, Tottenham & Fosella, 2002) et s'associe à divers résultats négatifs d'ajustement (e.g., Blair & Razza, 2007 ;Hugues & Ensor, 2011 ;Ozonoff & Jensen, 1999 ;Shoda, Mischel & Peake, 1990). Par exemple, une FE médiocre dans l'enfance prédispose 13 au comportement criminel, à l'abus d'alcool et de drogue, à un statut socioéconomique (SSE) inférieur, et à d'autres problèmes à l'âge adulte (Moffitt, Arsenault, Belsky, Dickson, Hancox et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Nous présentons ici la traduction d’un texte sur les aspects développementaux de la fonction exécutive chez les enfants typiques et atypiques. Il s’agit d’une synthèse, assez unique en son genre. En effet, s’appuyant sur l’expérience clinique et la recherche (plus de 400 références expérimentales), elle privilégie une approche qui intègre la multiplicité des niveaux d’analyse en abordant notamment les phénomènes de la plasticité cérébrale et les influences multiples intervenant dans le développement des fonctions exécutives. Les auteurs abordent également les influences dynamiques réciproques des processus et des contextes (notamment familial et scolaire), sans oublier les implications possibles dans le domaine de l’éducation. Ce chapitre, rédigé par des chercheurs de pointe en psychologie du développement, présente donc un intérêt majeur pour les professionnels de l’enfance, pédopsychiatres, pédiatres, psychologues et neuropsychologues, rééducateurs (psychomotriciens, orthophonistes, ergothérapeutes ou thérapeutes occupationnels), infirmiers, éducateurs et enseignants (voire les parents informés). Mais ces aspects de la trajectoire développementale jettent un éclairage singulier sur la psychopathologie adulte, ce qui n’est pas sans intérêt pour la psychiatrie. Comme le rappelait encore tout récemment Adele Diamond (2016), les fonctions exécutives sont des facteurs clés qui prédisent la réussite à l’école et la réussite professionnelle, bien mieux que le QI : la prise en compte de la trajectoire développementale des composantes de la fonction exécutive d’un individu permettra de spécifier et d’optimiser les thérapeutiques, de favoriser une prévention optimale des troubles psychosociaux psychiatriques et développementaux, d’assurer une meilleure qualité des apprentissages réalisés par les enfants. Par ailleurs, de plus en plus d’équipes oeuvrent au développement de techniques et de programmes de remédiation cognitive, susceptibles de promouvoir le rétablissement (Franck, 2016 ; Giraud-Barod & Roussel, 2012) des patients en souffrance psychique. Ces programmes validés ne sont pas des procédures standard d’application indifférenciée mais doivent s’accorder avec les attentes, les points forts et les faiblesses du sujet qui s’y engage et vis-à-vis du contexte dans lequel il vit. Il s’agit de rendre au patient la capacité d’agir, d’être et de trouver un équilibre physique et mental dans son milieu. « Les techniques de remédiation cognitive ont pris une place centrale, incontournable au sein des techniques classiques de réhabilitation psychosociale » (Giraud-Baro & Roussel, 2012). Elles visent des processus neuropsychologiques extrêmement subtils et notamment les fonctions exécutives, indispensables à la réalisation des comportements adaptés aux situations nouvelles. Elles sous-tendent la capacité de se reconnaître être humain à part entière parmi les autres, doté et responsable d’un réel pouvoir de compréhension, de décision, d’action et d’échange. Un des premiers programmes est le CRT, pour Cognitive Remediation Therapy ou thérapie par remédiation cognitive, dont les versions initiales australiennes cherchaient à lutter contre les conséquences délétères des lésions cérébrales chez l’enfant (Frontal/executive program, Delahunty et al., 1993). Développé par T. Wykes et C. Reeder en Grande-Bretagne dans le domaine de la schizophrénie (2002), il a été traduit et validé en français par l’équipe du Professeur Nicolas Franck (2009). Depuis, l’alliance de cliniciens et de chercheurs permet d’adapter ou d’utiliser ce programme (et bien d’autres), de type crayon-papier, avec des enfants ou des adolescents présentant un TSA, un TDA/H, un trouble des apprentissages non verbaux, du contrôle de soi, des troubles des conduites ou une anorexie (i.e., Doyen, 20127 ; Doyen et al., 2015 ; Lapasset et al., 2013). De nouveaux programmes sont en cours de développement, y compris dans le cadre d’une déficience intellectuelle et peuvent combiner les approches informatisée et crayon papier (Cognitus et moi, Demily et al., 2016), mais tous tirent profit de l’affinement des connaissances sur la nature et le rôle des fonctions exécutives, y compris dans le domaine des relations sociales et affectives. Bien qu’il y ait un intérêt considérable pour ces dernières et de nombreuses recherches, nous ne disposions d’aucune synthèse complète en langue française, notamment sur le développement du fonctionnement exécutif et les facteurs qui l’influencent. Nous remercions donc le professeur Nicolas Franck de nous avoir permis de collaborer pour réviser la première traduction de Jérôme Alain Lapasset (psychomotricien en pédopsychiatrie après l’avoir été en psychiatrie, et praticien en remédiation cognitive) du chapitre des professeurs Stephanie Carlson, Philip David Zelazo et Susan Faja. Au fur et à mesure, nous est apparue la portée de l’enjeu. Comprendre le développement (typique et atypique) des fonctions exécutives depuis les stades les plus primaires, où elles ne sont encore qu’un concept unitaire, à l’adolescence, en suivant leurs différenciations et leurs spécifications, ouvre bien des perspectives quant à la prévention et la réhabilitation des troubles psychiatriques et autres conditions singulières. Tout homme, et le sens de soi, étant le fruit de ses expériences, de ses capacités d’adaptation et d’intégration, il est heureux que nous commencions à disposer d’éléments fiables susceptibles de déboucher sur de nouveaux modèles de la santé et de soins, liant la réhabilitation avec les dispositifs médicaux sociaux psychiatriques dont la pédopsychiatrie. En conséquence, nous mettons à la disposition de nos collègues francophones, et des étudiants, une traduction de cette synthèse remarquable.
... Self-control is generally assumed to be more cognitively demanding than response inhibition as it involves an additional decision component. Indeed, past research has shown that individual self-control abilities are linked to success in later life in humans (Shoda et al., 1990;Moffitt et al., 2011; but see Watts et al., 2018). Also, in chimpanzees, self-control is linked to other measures of general intelligence (Beran and Hopkins, 2018). ...
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Self-control, defined as the ability to forgo immediate satisfaction in favor of better pay-offs in the future, has been extensively studied, revealing enormous variation between and within species. Horses are interesting in this regard because as a grazing species they are expected to show low self-control whereas its social complexity might be linked to high self-control abilities. Additionally, self-control may be a key factor in training and/or coping with potentially stressful husbandry conditions. We assessed horses’ self-control abilities in a simplified delay of gratification test that can be easily implemented in a farm setting. In Experiment 1, we gave horses (N = 52) the choice between an immediately available low-quality reward and a delayed high-quality reward that could only be obtained if the horse refrained from consuming the immediate reward. Different experimenters (N = 30) that underwent prior training in the procedures, tested horses in two test phases either with their eyes visible or invisible (sunglasses). Twenty horses waited up to the maximum delay stage of 60 s while all horses performed worse in the second test phase. In Experiment 2, we improved the test procedure (i.e., one experimenter, refined criterion for success), and tested 30 additional horses in a quality and quantity condition (one reward vs. delayed bigger reward). Two horses successfully waited for 60 s (quality: N = 1, quantity: N = 1). Horses tolerated higher delays, if they were first tested in the quantity condition. Furthermore, horses that were fed hay ad libitum, instead of in a restricted manner, reached higher delays. Coping behaviors (e.g., looking away, head movements, pawing, and increasing distance to reward) facilitated waiting success and horses were able to anticipate the upcoming delay duration as indicated by non-random distributions of giving-up times. We found no correlations between owner-assessed traits (e.g., trainability and patience) and individual performance in the test. These results suggest that horses are able to exert self-control in a delay of gratification paradigm similar to other domesticated species. Our simplified paradigm could be used to gather large scale data, e.g., to investigate the role of self-control in trainability or success in equestrian sports.
... Patient people generally experience better lifetime outcomes than their impatient peers. 1 Time preferences elicited during childhood are predictive of how individuals fare in later life-for instance, in terms of education, health, and earnings (Golsteyn et al., 2014;Mischel et al., 1988;Shoda et al., 1990). 2 If parents transmit time preferences to their children, parental patience may thus have long-term consequences for how their children fare during adulthood. ...
Article
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We study how parents transmit patience to their children with a focus on two theoretically important channels of socialization: parenting values and parental involvement. Using high-quality administrative and survey data, and a setting without reverse causality concerns, we document a substantial intergenerational transmission of patience. We show that parenting values represent a key channel of the transmission. Authoritative parents (high in control and warmth) do not transmit patience to their children, in contrast to authoritarian and permissive parents. Thus, the authoritative parenting style seems to counteract the transmission of impatience. While parental involvement does not appear to be a relevant channel at the aggregate level, we document important heterogeneity by parent gender.
... The PFC is a brain area associated with executive function [19,20]. Executive functions develop rapidly during early childhood and play a crucial role in cognitive functioning, behaviour, and social and emotional control [21][22][23][24][25]. Children's executive function has been linked to a wide variety of outcomes including prosocial behaviour, better concentration, and self-regulation [26,27]; drug use [28,29]; physical health and obesity [29,30]; motor control [31]; theory of mind [22]; and school readiness and academic achievement [32]. Executive processes include such things as cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory [33]. ...
Article
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Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) between fathers and children has been linked to many social, emotional, and behavioural child outcomes, such as reduced aggression and increased self-regulation. This study extends our understanding of the importance of RTP to the development of the executive function, working memory. Father–child dyads (N = 30) were asked to play two RTP games that were videorecorded for later observational coding. Fathers were also asked to report the frequency with which they play RTP games with their child. Two measures of working memory were also collected. The working-memory index of the Wechsler Preschool and the Primary Scale of Intelligence—Fourth Edition were used to measure working-memory ability, and the working-memory subscale of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function was used as a measure of working-memory problems. RTP frequency was associated with improved working-memory ability and fewer working-memory problems. RTP quality was associated with higher working-memory ability. This study adds to the growing evidence of the importance of father–child RTP for child development.
... Such delaying of gratification is often measured by the well-known "marshmallow task" (Mischel et al., 1972(Mischel et al., , 1989, in which children must resist the urge to enjoy one treat now in order to get more treats later. Individual differences in this task predict important later life outcomes such as academic success, socioemotional competence, and health (e.g., Ayduk et al., 2000;Mischel et al., 1988;Schlam et al., 2013;Shoda et al., 1990;cf. Watts et al., 2018), thus drawing the attention of researchers, practitioners, and the public at large. ...
Article
Resisting immediate temptations in favor of larger later rewards predicts academic success, socioemotional competence, and health. These links with delaying gratification appear from early childhood and have been explained by cognitive and social factors that help override tendencies toward immediate gratification. However, some tendencies may actually promote delaying gratification. We assessed children’s delaying gratification for different rewards across two cultures that differ in customs around waiting. Consistent with our preregistered prediction, results showed that children in Japan ( n = 80) delayed gratification longer for food than for gifts, whereas children in the United States ( n = 58) delayed longer for gifts than for food. This interaction may reflect cultural differences: Waiting to eat is emphasized more in Japan than in the United States, whereas waiting to open gifts is emphasized more in the United States than in Japan. These findings suggest that culturally specific habits support delaying gratification, providing a new way to understand why individuals delay gratification and why this behavior predicts life success.
... Tower of London (Kochanska et al., 1996) cognitive + academic competence & ability to cope with frustration + stress in adolescence (Shoda et al., 1990), as well as physical health, finances, substance dependence, & criminal offenses at age 32 (Moffitt et al., 2011) Longitudinally, preschool self-control found to predict numerous outcomes in later life, including unemployment, depression, peer problems, anxiety, etc. (Robson et al., 2020) Childhood selfregulation predicts § But these constructs (self-control/regulation) operationalized and measured differently than EF § So does EF, as traditionally defined and measured, predict social, health, and behavioral outcomes now and later? ⇒ This meta-analysis will be an overdue quantitative synthesis of the literature -putting these claims to the test. ...
Poster
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Executive function is a widely studied psychological construct proposed to play a key role in healthy development and success in life. In children, executive function is often measured using particular behavioral laboratory tasks. Performance on these tasks robustly correlates with academic-related outcomes, yet they have also been claimed to predict a variety of outcomes outside the classroom, such as social skills, externalizing behaviors, and physical health. The evidence for these latter claims is less clear. Here, I propose a meta-analysis testing the relation between executive function measured in preschool, and social, health, and behavioral outcomes measured concurrently and in later childhood and adolescence.
Article
This paper attempts to understand how emotional intelligence (EI) can affect students’ academic performance by investigating the relationship between EI and student performance. A structured questionnaire comprising 25 questions was developed on a five-point Likert scale employing the five components of EI stated by Daniel Goleman. The five elements are self-analysis, self-control, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills. 350 MBA students from premier institutes in Warangal, India, were taken as a sample through a convenience sampling technique. Correlation analysis was performed amongst students’ EI and their cumulative grade point average (CGPA). The coefficient value obtained showed a minimal linear relationship between EI and student performance. For further analysis, students were segregated gender-wise, male and female, and then a correlation was performed. In the case of female students, a negative relationship is exhibited between EI and performance. In contrast, in the case of male students, a positive relationship is exhibited that is higher than the overall coefficient. Moreover, correlation is applied to each component separately to identify which of the five components has higher linear relationship. The findings concluded that self-control and empathy followed by self-motivation had linear relationship, especially in the case of male students. Finally, it was difficult to correlate the EI of female students with their performance.
Article
The development of strategies that support autonomous self-regulation of emotion is key for early childhood emotion regulation. Children are thought to transition from predominant reliance on more automatic or interpersonal strategies to reliance on more effortful, autonomous strategies as they develop cognitive skills that can be recruited for self-regulation. However, there are few longitudinal studies documenting age-related changes in different forms and dimensions of strategies. The current study tested predicted age-related changes in strategy use in a task requiring children to wait for something they want. Specifically, we examined the longitudinal trajectories of 3 strategies commonly observed in delayed reward tasks: self-soothing, seeking attention about the demands of waiting (bids), and distracting oneself. We followed a sample of 120 children (54% male, 93.3% white, from semirural and rural economically strained households) from ages 24 months to 5 years who participated in a waiting task each year. Using growth curve modeling, we found declines in self-soothing, rises and then declines in bidding, and increases in distraction from 24 months to 5 years. Next, we investigated whether strategy use trajectories predicted adult ratings of children’s emotion regulation during the task, that is, whether children appeared calm and acted appropriately while waiting. Growth in duration and dominance of distraction use predicted judgments that children were well-regulated by age 5 years, whereas growth in dominance of bidding use negatively predicted being rated as well-regulated. We discuss implications for the understanding of strategy development and future directions, including understanding strategy effectiveness.
Chapter
Correlations between real-world behaviors and judgment and decision-making paradigms are of great interest to developmentalists to inform our understanding of how to promote positive development and outcomes for our children and youth. There is relatively less research on these associations in child and youth samples relative to adult samples. Several real-world outcomes were examined in the longitudinal developmental study and correlated with judgment and decision-making performance. Youth reported positive outcomes were significantly correlated with judgment and decision-making paradigms and cognitive abilities at Time 2 and Time 3, when youth were 11–17 (Time 2) and 14–20 (Time 3) years of age. Some effect sizes were larger at Time 3 and significant correlations were also obtained with negative outcomes at Time 3. Positive outcome domains that displayed significant correlations were behaviors related to initiative and responsibility, grades, and academic conscientiousness. Negative outcome domains that displayed significant correlations were antisocial behavior and technology overuse. Parent reported real-world correlates at Time 2 displayed few significant correlations with judgment and decision-making paradigms.
Chapter
Learning is a key component of the acquisition and maintenance of aggression and violence and related social and communication behavior over the lifespan. Specific learning processes are involved and include both respondent and operant processes. Respondent processes include pain-induced aggression which has been widely studied. Operant processes include differential reinforcement, shaping, chaining, generalized imitation, and schedule-induced aggression. Anger is sometimes also an important aspect of aggression and violence and behavioral accounts of emotional behavior are a significant part of the explanation of aggression and violence. Two final learning processes are behavioral self-control and verbal behavior. This chapter finally reviews social learning theory accounts of aggression.KeywordsAggressionViolenceLearningClassical conditioningRespondent conditioningPain-induced aggressionOperant learningDifferential reinforcementExtinctionChainingGeneralized imitationBobo dollsBanduraSchedule-induced aggressionSkinnerEmotionsAngerSelf-controlImpulsivityVerbal behaviorSocial learning theory
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The aim of this paper is to explain the possibilities of applying yoga in education through the presentation of the conducted research. Yoga involves various techniques with the aim of achieving psychosocial balance. We are witnessing an increase in stress and emotional disorders in children; children are becoming more sedentary, and are preoccupied with the multitude of stimuli that come constantly via cell phone, computer, and television. By examining a series of research effects of yoga, we can conclude that yoga has proved to be effective in treating a variety of conditions and diseases. Practicing yoga can help reduce stress, anxiety symptoms, and depression. It examines the possibilities of introducing yoga as part of the school curriculum for healthy children and children with disabilities. Results have so far shown possible contributions of yoga in schools in the form of attention improvement, self-regulation and reduction of tension.
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The aim of this paper is to explain the possibilities of applying yoga in education through the presentation of the conducted research. Yoga involves various techniques with the aim of achieving psychosocial balance. We are witnessing an increase in stress and emotional disorders in children; children are becoming more sedentary, and are preoccupied with the multitude of stimuli that come constantly via cell phone, computer, and television. By examining a series of research effects of yoga, we can conclude that yoga has proved to be effective in treating a variety of conditions and diseases. Practicing yoga can help reduce stress, anxiety symptoms, and depression. It examines the possibilities of introducing yoga as part of the school curriculum for healthy children and children with disabilities. Results have so far shown possible contributions of yoga in schools in the form of attention improvement, self-regulation and reduction of tension.
Article
Emotion regulation (ER), the ability to flexibly monitor and modify emotions, is related to positive adjustment throughout the lifespan. Biological indexes of ER in childhood that predict behavior are valuable for clinical applications and our understanding of affective neurodevelopment. Delta-beta correlation (DBC), or the coupling between resting state slow-wave (delta) and fast-wave (beta) neural oscillations derived from EEG, may be a metric of the functional coherence between subcortical and cortical neural circuitry implicated in ER. Yet, little is understood about how DBC corresponds to observed ER during emotional challenges. To address this question, in the present study, resting-state EEG was recorded to generate DBC when children were 5 to 7 years old (T1) and again two years later (T2). Children also completed two emotionally challenging behavioral tasks [delay of gratification (DoG) task and waiting task (WT)] from which observed ER strategies were subsequently coded. Results showed that higher DBC was associated with greater use of adaptive, and relatively active, ER strategies. Specifically, higher frontal DBC at T1 longitudinally predicted greater use of the ER strategy alternative activity engagement and greater parent-reported positive ER at T2. These findings add to growing evidence supporting the use of resting state DBC as a neurophysiological index of ER with clinically and developmentally relevant predictive power.
Chapter
Judgment and decision-making paradigms have been relatively well-studied in developmental samples. The measurement of these competencies in developmental samples has been of scientific interest. They have been recognized as having important implications for defining rational thinking in children and youth but also for teaching and training (such as, critical thinking in education). The origin of the theories and paradigms come from the adult literature, which has also undergone considerable progress in theoretical advancements and empirical studies over the last several years. The integration of our understanding from the work conducted in adults with consideration of developmental factors provides a way to advance our understanding of judgment and decision-making in children and youth. To accomplish this, establishing stimulus equivalence will be important given that these paradigms were first designed for adult samples. In addition, taking into account the rapid growth and change in cognitive capacities, that happen in development, are central for understanding performance on these paradigms. Using a working taxonomy of rational thinking based on adult samples, data from a longitudinal developmental study were used to empirically examine performance patterns on these paradigms.
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Background Self-regulation has frequently been shown to be context-sensitive, suggesting the influence of different cultural contexts on its development. However, up until now, self-regulation has been mainly studied in Western countries with similar cultural contexts.Objective Thus, with the present study we compared self-regulation of preschool children in Iran and Germany, hypothesizing that self-regulation differs between these two countries.Methods In total, 148 preschool children (n = 100 Iranian, n = 48 German) participated in this study. Self-regulation was operationalized as waiting in the delay of gratification task. Moreover, behavioral strategies (i.e., focusing, withholding, and distracting) used by children while waiting in the task were video recorded and later rated using a behavioral rating scale.ResultsOn average, Iranian children waited less time than their German peers and used fewer withholding strategies to stop themselves from touching the reward. Interestingly, focusing strategies directing attention towards the reward undermined the waiting time in the delay of gratification task for German but not Iranian children.Conclusion Our findings are consistent with previous cross-cultural/national studies in suggesting that childhood self-regulation may be developed and applied differently depending on cultural context. However, based on our results, the assumption that children from Eastern countries generally show a greater level of self-regulation than children from Western countries as discussed in previous cross-cultural/national studies is to be viewed critically.
Chapter
The development of the human being to an autonomous and self-effective being is one of the basic requirements to avoid victimization, to defy resistance or to survive attacks with the least possible damage. Both the disposition and the environment play a certain role. The possibilities of influence of parents, friends and school change through the phases of life before birth, the childhood, the preschool and the elementary school age as well as in the adolescent age. The limits of influence lie in the laws of development in early years which cannot be influenced or only very limited. The development, the consideration and the conscious handling of emotions belong to the great challenges. This is achieved, among other things, by the fact that emotional knowledge is imparted to children and adolescents in an age-appropriate manner.
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Recent empirical research has shown that improving socio-emotional skills such as grit, conscientiousness and self-control leads to higher academic achievement and better life outcomes. However, both theoretical and empirical works have raised concerns about the reliability of the different methods used to measure socio-emotional skills. We compared the reliability and validity of the three leading measurements methods—a student-reported questionnaire, a teacher-reported questionnaire, and a behavioral task—in a sample of 3997 French students. Before analyzing the data, we polled 114 international researchers in cognitive development and education economics; most researchers in both fields predicted that the behavioral task would be the best method. We found instead that the teacher questionnaire was more predictive of students’ behavioral outcomes and of their grade progression, while the behavioral task was the least predictive. This work suggests that researchers may not be using optimal tools to measure socio-emotional skills in children.
Chapter
To teach that being ethical requires knowing foundational ethical principles – or, as Socrates claimed, airtight definitions of ethical terms – is to invite cynicism among students, for students discover that no such principles can be found. Aristotle differs from Socrates in claiming that ethics is about virtues primarily, and that one can be virtuous without having the sort of knowledge that characterizes mathematics or natural science. Aristotle is able to demonstrate that ethics and self-interest may overlap, that ethics is largely compatible with common sense, and that Aristotle’s virtuous person can make ethical decisions rationally. Case studies can help students improve their ethical perception and keep their values from being overwhelmed by corporate culture.
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We study the role of cognitive ability and financial literacy for inter-temporal decision-making using an adapted version of the Convex Time Budget Protocol. We document heterogeneity in choice-patterns and estimated parameters at the individual-level: We find that subjects with higher cognitive ability and financial literacy are more likely to make patient inter-temporal choices, to allocate the entire budget to a single payment-date, and to allocate the entire budget to corner choices as interest rates increase. At the same time, financial literacy is uncorrelated with choice consistency and estimated individual error parameters, suggesting these results are not driven by a reduction in random noise among high ability respondents. These results serve as suggestive evidence for inter-temporal arbitrage among high ability respondents, thereby revealing a potential confound in time-preference elicitation tasks relying on time-dated monetary rewards.
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Early life poverty confers risk for unfavorable outcomes including lower academic achievement, behavioral difficulties, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Disruptions in inhibitory control (IC) have been posed as one mechanism to explain the relationship between early life poverty and deleterious outcomes. There is robust research to suggest that early life poverty is associated with development of poorer IC. Further, poorer IC in children is related to decreased academic achievement and social competence, and increased externalizing and internalizing behavior. There is some parent-report evidence to suggest that IC is a mediator of the relationship between poverty and externalizing behaviors, as well as some limited evidence to suggest that IC is a mediator between poverty and academic achievement. Future work should aim to examine whether poverty is related to IC because of an association between poverty and verbal ability, which is thought to be central to the development of effective IC. Additionally, future neuroimaging work should utilize IC fMRI tasks to determine neural mechanisms that might contribute to a relationship between poverty and IC.
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Executive functions are a broad term used to describe the cognitive functions necessary to help individuals complete tasks and achieve goals. Executive functioning weaknesses are a hallmark feature of psychopathology, particularly in youth. These weaknesses are associated with chronic impairment across academic, social and family domains and do not typically improve into adulthood. Despite these negative outcomes, few behavioral interventions have been successfully developed to target executive functioning outside of ADHD, particularly in adolescents with various types of psychopathology. The thinkSMART® program was created to target the broad heterogeneity of adolescents with executive function weakness. We discuss the rationale for the development of the program, as well as outline the primary skill areas addressed. We also present an open-trial pilot study using the program in adolescents ages 12–17 who identify as having executive functioning weaknesses. Preliminary findings highlight the acceptability and feasibility of the program, as well as the initial efficacy in improving adolescents’ day-to-day executive functioning. We discuss the limitations and benefits of providing broad skills and compensatory strategies to improve adolescent executive functioning.
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In this paper, we ask whether variation in preference anomalies is related to variation in cognitive ability. Evidence from a new laboratory study of Chilean high-school students with similar schooling backgrounds shows that small-stakes risk aversion and short-run discounting are less common among those with higher standardized test scores. The relationship with test scores survives controls for parental education and wealth. We find some evidence that elementary-school GPA is predictive of preferences measured at the end of high school. Two laboratory interventions provide suggestive evidence of a possible causal impact of cognitive resources on expressed preferences. (JEL: J24, D14, C91).
Chapter
Psychological research is increasingly concerned with the interactions between the use of digital games and the development of intelligence in children and adolescents. This paper integrates the findings of neurocognitive research on effects of gaming on attentional processes and executive functions as well as the findings of clinical psychological studies on cognitive consequences of addictive gaming. For specific cognitive abilities such as processing speed, attentional control, and spatial cognition, positive effects of video games are well documented. Media multitasking, on the other hand, is associated with weaker executive functions and impairs performance in tasks performed in parallel. Frequent gaming leads to structural changes in the mesolimbic reward system that are similar to those found in people with addicted video game use. Such brain structural changes are associated with sensitization of the reward system and maintenance of addictive computer game behavior, which is associated with developmental decline and reduced academic performance. To integrate findings from the fields of cognition and addiction, we present a model of the reciprocal influence of intelligence and media use in which attentional control, reward sensitivity, and a decision-making process that weighs expected positive against possible negative behavioral consequences are postulated as mediating factors. We hypothesize that high reward sensitivity and low attentional control represent risk factors for adverse media use behaviors that include unproductive media multitasking, excessive gaming and addictive video game use, and performance decrements due to neglect of other life domains (school, college, work). On the other hand, moderate reward sensitivity and a high ability to control attention represent protective factors that favor the controlled and purposeful use of digital media. We assume that intelligence plays an important role in the individual pattern of media use and its consequences.
Article
Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have suggested a neuroanatomical basis that may underly attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the anatomical ground truth remains unknown. In addition, the role of the white matter (WM) microstructure related to attention and impulsivity in a general pediatric population is still not well understood. Using a state-of-the-art structural connectivity pipeline based on the Brainnetome atlas extracting WM connections and its subsections, we applied dimensionality reduction techniques to obtain biologically interpretable WM measures. We selected the top 10 connections-of-interests (located in frontal, parietal, occipital, and basal ganglia regions) with robust anatomical and statistical criteria. We correlated WM measures with psychometric test metrics (Conner’s Continuous Performance Test 3) in 171 children (27 Dx ADHD, 3Dx ASD, 9–13 years old) from the population-based GESTation and Environment cohort. We found that children with lower microstructural complexity and lower axonal density show a higher impulsive behavior on these connections. When segmenting each connection in subsections, we report WM alterations localized in one or both endpoints reflecting a specific localization of WM alterations along each connection. These results provide new insight in understanding the neurophysiology of attention and impulsivity in a general population.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the interactions between social‐emotional competencies (SECs) and learning in preschool and school‐aged children. It details some programs that enable students to learn SECs at school, through examples of international programs, and details the benefits associated with this type of learning. SECs can be divided into five categories: self‐awareness, self‐management, social awareness, relationship skills and responsible decision‐making. Young children with behavioral problems also tend to have deficits in SECs. In the long‐term, SECs have a positive influence on health and life expectancy, occupational status and salary, and social and personal well‐being. Numerous programs aimed at developing SECs in students from kindergarten through high school have been implemented and evaluated, particularly in the United States. The meta‐analysis by Durlak et al . is based on 213 evaluation studies of this type of program.
Chapter
Prudent temporal discounting has been conceptualized as a direct indicator of rational thinking in adult samples. The paradigms used to study temporal discounting have used psychophysical methods involving choices between smaller immediate rewards and larger delayed rewards. These paradigms have demonstrated that individuals tend to be more hyperbolic than exponential in their choice patterns on these tasks. That is, most individuals tend to temporally discount the value of delayed rewards too steeply. From the perspective of rational thinking, overriding the salience of the immediate reward in favor of the larger delayed reward requires resistance to miserly information processing. Studies conducted in developmental samples have indicated that older children and youth tend to favor the larger delayed reward over the smaller immediate reward relative to younger children and youth. Individual differences in cognitive abilities, thinking dispositions, knowledge and resistance to miserly information processing are also correlated with prudent temporal discounting in child and youth samples. These findings are consistent with data patterns in adult samples. Prudent temporal discounting is measurable in developmental samples as a measure of rational thinking.
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Investigated diagnostic properties based on nearest neighbor data. It is suggested that geometric models impose an upper bound on the number of points that can share the same nearest neighbor. A much more restrictive bound is implied by the assumption that the data points represent a sample from some continuous distribution in a multidimensional Euclidean space. Analysis of 100 data sets showed that most perceptual data satisfy the geometric-statistical bound, whereas many conceptual data sets exceed it. The most striking discrepancies between the data and their multidimensional representations arise in semantic fields when the stimulus set includes a focal element (e.g., a superordinate category) that is the nearest neighbor of many of its instances. Theoretical and methodological implications of nearest neighbor analysis are discussed, with particular reference to the properties of centrality and reciprocity. (78 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Results of 3 experiments with 211 undergraduates corroborated I. N. Sandler and B. Lakey's (see record 1982-30415-001) findings that persons with an internal locus of control derive greater benefits from social support than do those who have a more external orientation. It was also found that the moderating effect of social supports largely occurred among Ss who were less affiliative and more autonomous. It is concluded that social supports are most beneficial to those who are more instrumental and sparing in their approach to social interactions. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The concept of social competence presents problems for conceptualization and assessment. At times researchers have tried to circumvent these problems by defining competence in terms of specific capacities or skills, with the consequence that the integrative potential of the concept is lost. On the other hand, more molar definitions (e.g., “effectiveness”), while being true to the integrative nature of the construct, provide little guidance for assessment. In this paper a developmental perspective on competence is presented which is congruent with a molar definition of competence while still guiding assessment efforts. In addition to this developmental viewpoint, certain practical guidelines are presented for assessment of competence across ages. These include the use of broadband assessments, which are tied to real-life adaptational problems, call for the coordination of affect, cognition, and behavior, and tax the integrative capacities of the child. Initial validation of the developmental competence construct and this approach to assessment is presented.
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Chapter to appear in R. Siegler (Ed.), Children's Thinking : What develops. Thirteenth annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., 1978. Bibliography: leaves 50-58
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of research on choice preferences for delayed, larger versus immediate, smaller gratifications. In spite of the widespread recognition of the important role of delay of gratification in human affairs, previous experimental research on the topic has been limited. At the empirical level, extensive experimental work has been done on delay of reward in animals. Surprisingly, although voluntary delay behavior has been assumed to be a critical component of such concepts as “ego strength,” “impulse control,” and “internalization,” prior to the present research program relatively little systematic attention had been devoted to it in empirical work on human social behavior. The chapter presents, in greater detail, selected studies that focus on the role of cognitive processes during self-imposed delay. Many theorists have paid tribute abstractly to the importance of cognition for the phenomena of personality in general and for self-regulatory processes in particular. These tributes have been accompanied by some correlational research that explores, for example, the links between intelligence, self-control, cognitive styles, and other dispositional. The chapter offers a further theoretical analysis of the determinants of delay behavior.
Article
This study replicated a preliminary study and supported the validity of choice tasks as measures of delay of gratification with preschoolers. 4 choices between an immediate reward and a delayed reward of higher value were presented to 66 children 3, 4, and 5 years of age who had been randomly assigned to short (7 hours) or long (1 day) conditions of delay. As predicted, with a long delay, children were less likely to choose the delayed reward; the effect was the same for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Choice across the 4 pairs was of moderate internal consistency. Contrary to psychoanalytic theory and research on older children but consistent with previous research on preschoolers, choice of the delayed reward was unrelated to age or vocabulary IQ. Children as young as 3 years choose to delay gratification to maximize reward and, like adults, are sensitive to the anticipated length of the delay.
Article
The study of “metacognition” has become vigorous in recent years, with extensive research exploring the development of children’s knowledge of effective strategies in attention, comprehension, and memory (e.g., Brown, 1980; Flavell & Wellman, 1977). In contrast, the child’s developing understanding of essential strategies for self-regulation — a core aspect of human functioning, basic to virtually all conceptions of personality — has been neglected. Perhaps this neglect reflects the fact that until recently there were few objective criteria against which one could assess the relative efficacy of various strategies for self-control. Studies of the conditions that enhance or impede successful delay of gratification in children (e.g., Miller & Karniol, 1976a, 1976b; Mischel, 1974, 1981b; Toner, 1981; Toner & Smith, 1977; Yates, Lippett, & Yates, 1981) now provide a basis for assessing the child’s developing understanding against objective criteria of efficacy.
Article
Describes 3 experiments with a total of 92 3-5 yr. olds. Exp. I compared the effects of external and cognitive distraction from reward objects on the length of time which Ss waited for a preferred delayed reward before forfeiting it for a less preferred immediate one. In accord with predictions from an extension of frustrative nonreward theory, Ss waited much longer for a preferred reward when they were distracted from the rewards. Exp. II demonstrated that only certain cognitive events (thinking "fun things") served as effective ideational distractors. Thinking "sad thoughts" produced short delay times, as did thinking about the rewards themselves. In Exp. III the delayed rewards were not physically available for direct attention during the delay period, and Ss' cognitive attention was manipulated by prior instructions. While Ss waited, cognitions about the rewards significantly reduced, rather than enhanced, the length of their delay of gratification. Overall, attentional and cognitive mechanisms which enhanced the salience of rewards shortened the length of voluntary delay, while distractions from the rewards, overtly or cognitively, facilitated delay. Results permit a reinterpretation of basic mechanisms in voluntary delay of gratification and self-control. (16 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a theory that organizes mental abilities into four levels—composite tasks, subtasks, information-processing components, and information-processing metacomponents. Composite tasks can be decomposed into subtasks, and subtasks into components. Metacomponents control the use of components in composite tasks and subtasks. The article describes each of these levels of mental abilities, poses the fundamental theoretical questions relevant at each level, and proposes answers to these questions. The role of factors in the theory is described and is shown to be quite different from the role of factors in traditional theories of mental abilities. Full understanding of mental abilities requires understanding of all four levels. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explored the role of attentional processes in voluntary delay of reward by manipulating children's attention to the rewards for which they were waiting in a delay-of-gratification paradigm. 32 preschool children waited for a preferred but delayed reward while facing either the delayed reward, a less preferred but immediately available reward, both rewards, or no rewards. The dependent measure was the amount of time they waited for the preferred outcome before forfeiting it for the sake of the less desired but immediately available one. Results contradict predictions from psychodynamic theory and from speculations concerning self-instructions during time binding. Unexpectedly, but in accord with frustrative nonreward theory, voluntary waiting time was substantially increased when Ss could not attend to rewards during the waiting period. Implications are discussed for a theory of the development of delay of gratification. (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effects of temporal aids and frustration level on the voluntary delay behavior of 60 lower-class, black, 1st-grade children. 3 types of temporal aids (sandglass timer plus instructions about its relevance, timer without instructions, and no timer control) and 2 frustration levels (visual presence or absence of rewards) were compared. In general, Ss waited longer when rewards were absent. However, Ss in the toys-present-time-instructions group waited longer than Ss in the other 2 toys-present groups and did not differ from Ss in the toys-absent groups. Results are discussed in terms of the facilitatory effect on waiting of the perception of a decrease in temporal distance from a goal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Do ill-tempered children become ill-tempered adults? What are the life-course consequences of such an explosive interactional style? What processes can account for the persistence of maladaptive behavior across time and circumstance? To answer these questions, this study used data from the Berkeley Guidance Study (Macfarlane, Allen, & Honzik, 1954) to identify children with a pattern of temper tantrums in late childhood (ages 8–10) and to trace the continuities and consequences of this behavioral style across the subsequent 30 years of their lives. Life-course continuities in this behavioral style were found for both sexes. Men with histories of childhood tantrums experienced downward occupational mobility, erratic work lives, and were likely to divorce. Women with such histories married men with lower occupational status, were likely to divorce, and became ill-tempered mothers. It is proposed that maladaptive behaviors are sustained through the progressive accumulation of their own consequences (cumulative continuity) and by evoking maintaining responses from others during reciprocal social interaction (interactional continuity). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two brief laboratory tasks measuring delay of gratification in different ways were administered to 116 4-yr-old children. Personality data were available on these children separately at ages 3, 4, 7, and 11 yrs in the form of California Child Q-Set ratings by independent sets of teachers and examiners. The 2 delay-of-gratification measures were used to generate a more broadly based index of delay of gratification, and this index was correlated with the personality ratings available at the 4 ages. Boys who delayed gratification tended to be described as deliberative, attentive, reasonable, reserved, cooperative, and able to modulate motivational and emotional impulse. Boys who did not delay gratification, by contrast, were irritable, restless, aggressive, and generally not self-controlled. Girls who delayed gratification were consistently described as intelligent, resourceful, and competent. Girls who did not delay tended to go to pieces under stress; to be victimized by other children; and to be easily offended, sulky, and whiny. Findings are interpreted in terms of the constructs of ego control and ego resiliency and the differential socialization of the sexes. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigated the effects of situational and generalized expectancies for success on choices of immediate, less valuable, noncontingent rewards as opposed to more valuable contingent rewards. Measures of generalized expectancy for success were administered to 8th-grade boys who later worked on a series of problems and obtained either success, failure, or no information for performance. Thereafter, each S chose between less valuable, noncontingent rewards and more valuable rewards whose attainment was contingent on successful solutions of problems varying in their similarity-dissimilarity to the original problems and/or an additional delay period. As predicted, contingent rewards were chosen more after success than failure and Ss discriminated between specific contingencies. The effects of situational success and failure tended to minimize the effects of generalized expectancies. Moreover, in the no-information condition children with high generalized expectancies for success chose more contingent rewards than those with low expectancies and behaved like Ss in the success condition. Children with low generalized expectancies who received no information about their performance behaved like those with similarly low generalized expectancies who had obtained failure. Following failure, generalized expectancies for success affected willingness to wait for larger rewards even when their attainment was independent of performance. (19 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The influence of overt self-verbalization on the maintenance of self-imposed delay of gratification was investigated in a task in which the child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child stopping further accumulation. Preschool girls who verbalized about the goodness of waiting and preschool girls who uttered an irrelevant verbalization waited longer before terminating their delay than did preschool girls who verbalized about the delayed reward or were silent. Second- and third-grade girls who verbalized about the goodness of waiting or who were silent waited longer than girls of the same age who verbalized about the delayed reward.
Article
Most research on health and behavioral outcomes of stressors has focused on adults. One stressor identified in this literature is lack of "fit," or congruence, between individual needs and environmental opportunities. This study examines relations between person-environment congruence in three settings (home, school, and peer group) and several indices of health and behavioral disorder among adolescents. We also examine whether person-environment congruence contributes to the prediction of health and behavioral disorder once the effects of stressful life events have been taken into account. Using self-report data from 531 high school students, we find (a) person-environment congruence has relatively little impact on youngsters' health and well-being; and (b) although the contribution of congruence is small it is independent of the contribution of life events. Problems in the measurement of congruence are noted.
Article
This study examined the manner in which the probability of delaying gratification is affected by the exchange values and the appetitive values of the rewards offered. Several delay-of-gratification questions were used, requiring a choice between an early small reward and a reward twice as great due at a later time. A total of 6,799 fourth- and sixth-grade Israeli public school pupils participated in the study. Results consistent across sexes, grades, and two delay conditions (now versus in a week from now and in a week versus in a month) indicated that the tendency to delay gratification is directly related to the exchange values of the rewards offered but inversely related to their appetitive values. Several implications of these results for the Value X Expectancy model of delay behavior were discussed.
Article
In a self-imposed delay of gratification paradigm, preschool children waited for preferred but delayed rewards. We systematically varied the contents of slide-presented images of the rewards and instructions about ideation during the delay. As predicted, exposure to the relevant slide-presented rewards greatly enhanced delay; this effect was totally reversed by instruction-induced ideation that focused on the consummatory (arousing) qualities of the rewards. Theoretical implications for understanding the role of reward-relevant ideation during delay by preschool children were discussed.
Article
The delay-of-gratification behavior of 104 14-year-old Ss (54 girls and 50 boys) was assessed in an experiment in which each subject chose between immediate monetary payment and larger, delayed payment on 5 occasions. Personality data were obtained on these adolescents in the form of California Adult Q-Set ratings made by several research examiners who were blind to the subjects' delay behavior. The number of delayed payments chosen was strongly correlated with these personality ratings, within both sexes. Ss who exhibited the most delay of gratification tended to be independently described as responsible, productive, ethically consistent, interested in intellectual matters, and overly controlled. They tended not to be described as unable to delay gratification, rebellious, unpredictable, self-indulgent, or hostile. Delay behavior in both sexes was also correlated positively with IQ and with Q-sort-derived indexes of ego resiliency and ego control. The relationship between ego control and delay behavior was particularly strong after both IQ and ego resiliency were partialled. These results were interpreted as reflecting the fundamental importance of both cognitive skillfulness and impulse control for adaptive delay behavior in situations that contain strong motivational inducements.
Article
The components of self-regulation were analyzed, extending the self-imposed delay of gratification paradigm to older children with social adjustment problems. Delay behavior was related to a network of conceptually relevant cognitive person variables, consisting of attention deployment strategies during delay, knowledge of delay rules, and intelligence. A positive relationship was demonstrated between concurrent indexes of intelligence, attention deployment, and actual delay time. Moreover, attention deployment, measured as an individual differences variable during the delay process, had a direct, positive effect on delay behavior. Specifically, as the duration of delay and the frustration of the situation increased, children who spent a higher proportion of the time distracting themselves from the tempting elements of the delay situation were able to delay longer. The effect of attention deployment on delay behavior was significant even when age, intelligence, and delay rule knowledge were controlled. Likewise, delay rule knowledge significantly predicted delay time, even when age, attention deployment, and intelligence were controlled.
Article
Delay of gratification, assessed in a series of experiments when the subjects were in preschool, was related to parental personality ratings obtained a decade later for 95 of these children in adolescence. Clear and consistent patterns of correlations between self-imposed delay time in preschool and later ratings were found for both sexes over this time span. Delay behavior predicted a set of cognitive and social competencies and stress tolerance consistent with experimental analyses of the process underlying effective delay in the preschool delay situation. Specifically, children who were able to wait longer at age 4 or 5 became adolescents whose parents rated them as more academically and socially competent, verbally fluent, rational, attentive, planful, and able to deal well with frustration and stress. Comparisons with related longitudinal research using other delay situations help to clarify the important features of the situations and person variables involved in different aspects of delay of gratification.
Article
A conditional approach to dispositions is developed in which dispositional constructs are viewed as clusters of if-then propositions. These propositions summarize contingencies between categories of conditions and categories of behavior rather than generalized response tendencies. A fundamental unit for investigating dispositions is therefore the conditional frequency of acts that are central to a given behavior category in circumscribed situations, not the overall frequency of behaviors. In an empirical application of the model, we examine how people's dispositional judgments are linked to extensive observations of targets' behavior in a range of natural social situations. We identify categories of these social situations in which targets' behavior may be best predicted from observers' dispositional judgements, focusing on the domains of aggression and withdrawal. One such category consists of subjectively demanding or stressful situations that tax people's performance competencies. As expected, children judged to be aggressive or withdrawn were variable across situations in dispositionally relevant behaviors, but they diverged into relatively predictable aggressive and withdrawn actions in situations that required the social, self-regulatory, and cognitive competencies they lacked. Implications of the conditional approach for personality assessment and person perception research are considered.
Article
Earlier cross-sectional analyses have made causal inferences about stress-resistance variables problematic. This study used a longitudinal analysis where stress-resistance factors in the areas of personality, coping, and family support assessed at an initial testing were used to predict psychological and physical adjustment one year later, controlling for initial adjustment. The study involved a survey of 245 men and 248 women in randomly selected families in the San Francisco Bay area. Findings demonstrated that feelings of self-confidence, an easy-going disposition, a disinclination to use avoidance coping, and the availability of family support operate jointly to protect individuals from negative psychological consequences of life stress. For women the stress-resistance index also predicted psychosomatic complaints experienced one year after initial testing.
Article
Proposes that diverse data challenge and undermine the central assumptions of the traditional trait approach to personality. The implications for conceptions of individual differences and situations in the study of personality are examined. The issues discussed include the nature of behavioral "specificity," the acquired meaning of stimuli, the uses and misuses of traits, and the construction of personality. The following cognitive social learning variables are proposed as basic units for the study of individuals: cognitive and behavioral construction competencies, encoding strategies and personal constructs, behavior-outcome and stimulus-outcome expectancies, subjective stimulus values, and self-regulatory systems and plans. The specific interactions between these person variables and psychological situations are analyzed within the framework of a cognitive social learning approach. (4 p. ref.)
Article
Investigated the effects of 3 treatments on 90 2nd and 3rd grade disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged children's choices between an immediate smaller and a deferred larger reward. In 1 condition, Ss earned the larger reinforcement by working during the delay period. A 2nd group received pretraining delay experiences and a control condition involved only the criterion choice. As expected, disadvantaged Ss made more nondelay decisions than middle-class Ss on the criterion choice, and the multiple pretraining experience was most effective in overcoming this nondelay tendency. However, disadvantaged Ss were found to select a larger delayed reinforcement in situations involving a relatively short waiting period. Findings were related to social responsibility, locus of control, and time perspective. (23 ref.)
Article
IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED AND DEMONSTRATED THAT THE CAPACITY TO PREFER A LARGER REWARD, DELAYED FOR A SHORT AND SPECIFIED TIME, OVER A SMALLER REWARD AVAILABLE IMMEDIATELY, IS RELATED TO (1) THE DEGREE TO WHICH IMAGES OF PERSONAL FUTURE EVENTS IN GENERAL ARE ENDOWED WITH A SENSE OF REALITY, AND (2) THE DEGREE OF EVERYDAY PREOCCUPATION WITH FUTURE RATHER THAN PRESENT EVENTS. 47 10.5-12.5 YR. OLD MALES WERE INDIVIDUALLY INTERVIEWED. 25 SS WHO CONSISTENTLY CHOSE DELAYED LARGER REWARDS WERE COMPARED WITH THE REMAINING 22 SS WHO PREFERRED IMMEDIATE SMALLER REINFORCEMENTS ON MEASURES OF 5 DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THEIR OUTLOOK ON THE FUTURE. AS PREDICTED, THERE WAS NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHOICES MADE IN THESE SITUATIONS AND MEASURES OF THE LENGTH OF FUTURE TIME PERSPECTIVES. (18 REF.)
Article
"This study introduces Rotter's expectancy construct as an important factor in delayed reinforcement situations. The hypotheses were: (a) other factors being equal, the preference strength for a delayed reward will be low, moderate, or high as the expectancy for the occurrence of the delayed rewards is respectively low, moderate, or high; (b) social agents (i.e., Es) will serve as cues for different levels of expectancy." These hypotheses were supported. 15 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Ss included 53 male and female children between the ages of 7 and 9 in a rural Trinidad school. 35 were Negro and 18 were East Indian (29 males, 24 females). The "findings appear to have implications for further research on relationships between personality variables." 15 references.
Article
The present investigation combines the methodology of 2 previous works, one by the author involving Ss making a choice between a smaller immediate reinforcement vs. a larger reinforcement promised at a later time, and a Social Responsibility Scale (SRS). The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that willingness to postpone gratification (choose delayed reinforcement) was positively related to social responsibility and negatively to delinquent behavior. Ss were Negro children of Trinidad, from a public school and a reform school. Choice for immediate reward was seen to be related to low scores on the SRS scale and for poorer estimation of time. Results are related to previous work and to a cross-cultural frame of reference. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3HJ01M.
Article
Yielding to temptation, in a situation in which attainment of achievement rewards is contingent upon deviant (cheating) behavior, was conceptualized to be a function of (a) the strength of the motivation to attain the prohibited gratification, and (b) the inability to delay immediate gratification. 6th-grade boys participated in an experimentally controlled "shooting gallery" game of skill in which attainment of achievement rewards (prizes) was contingent upon the child's falsifying his own scores. Motivation for the prohibited gratification was inferred from "n Achievement" scores: preference for immediate, smaller (ImR) or delayed, larger (DelR) rewards in choice situations was the index of the ability to delay gratification. Achievement motivation was related to the S's producing sufficiently deviant scores to obtain an achievement reward, and preference for DelR was related negatively to the amount of cheating and positively to the latency of cheating, i.e., the number of trials before the occurrence of the 1st deviation.
Article
The present research extends the knowledge of that found in other investigations (Levine, et al, 1957, 1959; Singer, et al, 1956; Spivack, et al, 1959) regarding the capacity to delay gratification and the implication for ego psychology. The present research utilizes direct measures of approach to delay or not immediate gratification, as gleaned from a conflict situation, and relates this to need for achievement (as measured from fantasy material as described by McClelland, et al, 1953) and acquiescence (Bass, 1956). Trinidadian Ss were utilized; the postulated positive relationship between the capacity for delay and the need for achievement, and the inverse relationship between capacity to delay and acquiescence, were found. The study also points up a methodologically simple way of getting at capacity for delay which may be used cross-culturally. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HJ43M.
Article
Using a simple choice measure of preference for delayed reward on elementary school children ranging in age from 5 to 12, and under five different lengths of delay interval, the following hypotheses were tested and confirmed: (a) preference for delayed reward is positively related to age; (b) positively to intelligence; (c) and negatively to length of the delay interval An additional finding was that subjects preferring the immediate reward tend to have more variable future time perspectives and that length of time perspective is slightly related to IQ, but not to age.
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