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Empirical study on the healing nature of mandalas

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Abstract

Mandalas were first used in therapy by Carl Jung, who found that the act of drawing mandalas had a calming effect on patients while at the same time facilitating psychic integration. There is a scarcity of controlled empirical studies of the healing impact of mandalas on mental health. Based on the efficacy of James Pennebaker's written disclosure paradigm in promoting mental well-being (Pennebaker, 1997a, 1997b), the purpose of our study was to examine the benefits for those suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of processing traumatic events through the creation of mandalas. Benefits to participants were measured in terms of changes in the variables of PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, anxiety, spiritual meaning, and the frequency of physical symptoms and illness. Relative to those in the control condition, individuals assigned to the experimental mandala-creation group reported greater decreases in symptoms of trauma at the 1-month follow up. There were no other statistically significant outcome differences. Alternative modes of processing traumatic events (e.g., visually symbolically) may serve individuals who are either reluctant or unable to write about their experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Art-making, similar to gardening, is thought to be an innate behavior of humans [17,18], and both art-making and art therapy (AT) have been shown to provide therapeutic benefits across a range of clinical settings [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. Art therapy is centered on the idea that art-making is often a nonverbal form of communication of one's thoughts and feelings involving a creative process that fosters healing, personal growth, self-understanding, quality of life improvements, and transient respite from life's ongoing challenges [35]. ...
... Conversely, studies involving art interventions have shown mixed results for BDI-II score changes. One study found scores did not change following a few days of art sessions for individuals with PTSD [21], while a second study found nearly an eight-point reduction in BDI-II score (d = 0.15) following an eight-week art intervention with inmates [75]. After the gardening intervention, STAI-State Anxiety scores declined by 15%, but no change was observed following the art intervention. ...
... Several studies in the art literature used the STAI, and some reported statistically significant improvements following art interventions [25,27], while others reported no statistically significant changes after an art intervention [21,78,79]. In the present study, SF-36 Physical Health and Mental Health component scores improved by 1% and 4%, respectively, following the art intervention and 2% and 7%, respectively, following gardening. ...
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Background: There is mounting anecdotal and empirical evidence that gardening and art-making afford therapeutic benefits. Objectives: This randomly controlled pilot study tested the hypothesis that participation in group-based indoor gardening or art-making activities for one hour twice a week for four weeks would provide quantifiably different therapeutic benefits to a population of healthy women ages 26-49. Methods: A population of 42 volunteers was randomly assigned to parallel gardening or art-making treatment groups. A total of 36 participants initiated the treatment protocol and 32 (Gardening n = 15 and Art n = 17) received the interventions and completed all assessments. Treatments included eight one-hour group-based gardening or art intervention sessions. Self-report psychometric assessments were conducted for anxiety, depression symptomatology, mood disturbance, stress, satisfaction with discretionary social activities, and quality of life measures. Cardiac physiological data were also collected. Outcomes were measured at baseline, during, and post-intervention. Results: Engaging in both gardening and art-making activities resulted in apparent therapeutic improvements for self-reported total mood disturbance, depression symptomatology, and perceived stress with different effect sizes following eight one-hour treatment sessions. Gardening also resulted in improvements for indications of trait anxiety. Based on time-course evidence, dosage responses were observed for total mood disturbance, perceived stress, and depression symptomatology for both gardening and art-making. However, gardening or art-making did not have an apparent influence on heart rate or blood pressure or result in marked improvement for satisfaction with discretionary leisure activities. Conclusion: The data did not support the hypothesis of differential therapeutic benefits of gardening and art-making for healthy women. When taken together, group-based gardening or art-making can provide quantitatively measurable improvements in healthy women's psychosocial health status that imply potentially important public health benefits. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03266120.
... AT has many forms and one of them is mandala [28,29]. Mandala is a meditation medium used in various religions, especially Tibetan Buddhism [30]. In its development, the mandala is then used for certain activities such as art therapy. ...
... According to Jung the design of elements in the mandala is an active element in producing psychological changes [32]. Mandala functions as a symbolic representation of the emotional and conflict burden that an individual has, but at the same time also provides a sense of order and integration of this conflict [30]. Mandala allow people to forget the turmoil they are experiencing and help individuals to re-focus themselves to concentrate in the drawing process itself [31]. ...
... According to Buchalter the process of drawing a mandala is useful as a tool for releasing anxiety energy and maintaining positive energy within [29]. Mandala provides a calming and healing effect for the maker, so that it can help individuals in the healing process [30]. ...
... In one study, AT is combined with another treatment: a group interview [72]. The other two studies solely concern AT (Table 2) [70,71]. ...
... The provided AT varies considerably: mandala creation in which the trauma is represented [70] or colouring a pre-designed mandala, free clay work, free form painting, collage making, still life drawing [71], and house-tree-person drawings (HTP) [72]. Session duration differs from 20 minutes to 75 minutes. ...
... In one study, the control group receives the co-intervention only: group interview in Yu et al. [72]. Henderson et al. [70] use three specific drawing assignments as control condition, which are not focussed on trauma, opposed to the provided art therapy in the experimental group. Sandmire et al. [71] used inactive treatment. ...
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Background Anxiety disorders are one of the most diagnosed mental health disorders. Common treatment consists of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. In clinical practice, also art therapy is additionally provided to patients with anxiety (disorders), among others because treatment as usual is not sufficiently effective for a large group of patients. There is no clarity on the effectiveness of art therapy (AT) on the reduction of anxiety symptoms in adults and there is no overview of the intervention characteristics and working mechanisms. Methods A systematic review of (non-)randomised controlled trials on AT for anxiety in adults to evaluate the effects on anxiety symptom severity and to explore intervention characteristics, benefitting populations and working mechanisms. Thirteen databases and two journals were searched for the period 1997 –October 2017. The study was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42017080733) and performed according to the Cochrane recommendations. PRISMA Guidelines were used for reporting. Results Only three publications out of 776 hits from the search fulfilled the inclusion criteria: three RCTs with 162 patients in total. All studies have a high risk of bias. Study populations were: students with PTSD symptoms, students with exam anxiety and prisoners with prelease anxiety. Visual art techniques varied: trauma-related mandala design, collage making, free painting, clay work, still life drawing and house-tree-person drawing. There is some evidence of effectiveness of AT for pre-exam anxiety in undergraduate students. AT is possibly effective in reducing pre-release anxiety in prisoners. The AT characteristics varied and narrative synthesis led to hypothesized working mechanisms of AT: induce relaxation; gain access to unconscious traumatic memories, thereby creating possibilities to investigate cognitions; and improve emotion regulation. Conclusions Effectiveness of AT on anxiety has hardly been studied, so no strong conclusions can be drawn. This emphasizes the need for high quality trials studying the effectiveness of AT on anxiety.
... Jung's (1973) mandala approach is supported by the psychoanalytic theory, which states that engaging in a creative process by drawing and/or coloring a symmetrical mandala induces positive cognitive and emotional benefits because of its ability to calm the "inner chaos" of individuals' emotional states. Studies have shown that mandala drawing and coloring has led to reduced anxiety in a variety of contexts in individuals that have faced dissociative disorders (Cox & Cohen, 2000), ADHD (Smitherman-Brown & Church, 1996), dementia (Couch, 1997), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Henderson, Rosen, & Mascaro, 2007). ...
... In 2005, Curry and Kasser examined the effect of mandala drawing in reducing individuals' anxiety levels using mandala-drawing and plaid-form drawing intervention activities, and found that mandala drawing reduced individuals' anxieties. Another experimental study found that anxiety and trauma levels were reduced by drawing and coloring a mandala in comparison to random drawing on a blank sheet of paper (control condition) (Henderson, Rosen, & Mascaro, 2007). Follow up replication studies also confirmed that coloring pre-drawn mandalas reduced individuals' anxiety (Kersten & van der Vennet, 2010;van der Vennet & Serice, 2012). ...
... Previously, Sandmire and colleagues (2012) demonstrated that coloring structured mandalas reduce anxiety in college students, and this study's findings extends this research by providing initial evidence that coloring mandalas may reduce math anxiety in business undergraduate students. Previous studies have confirmed that coloring mandalas calms individuals' anxieties due to its therapeutic and meditative nature (Henderson, Rosen, & Mascaro;2007;Sandmire et al., 2012). Mandala art activities are effective because they enable individuals to express their inner conflicting emotions and psychological trauma through the expression of symbols, which are often difficult to disclose about with other people, which supports Jung's psychoanalytic theory (Henderson, Rosen, & Mascaro, 2007;Jung, 1973). ...
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Purpose – the purpose of this article is to review a quasi-experiment study examining whether business students’ math anxiety is reduced after participating in mandala coloring activities. Research methodology – the research methodology integrated quantitative methods including independent t-tests and ANOVAs in a non-random convenient sample of 106 undergraduate students in 2018 in Texas, United States. Findings – results from the one-way ANOVA and t-test analyses revealed that anxiety levels differed across groups, such that after coloring a pre-drawn mandala, math anxiety was significantly reduced in comparison to the control (doodling) group. Paired sample t tests also demonstrated that when comparing the anxiety levels at the baseline and post-treatment, math anxiety was reduced after performing both the pre-drawn and free-coloring mandala activities. Additionally, an independent sample t-test and a two-by-two factorial ANOVA demonstrated that males experienced a significant reduction in their math anxiety than the females did after performing the mandala coloring activity. Research limitations – the study used a convenient sample, self-reported items, and a math anxiety measurement. Also, the findings found short-term evidence of math anxiety. Practical implications – the findings of this study suggest that business statistics instructors who integrate a mandala coloring activity in anxiety-provoking undertakings may help to reduce their students’ math anxiety. Originality/Value – This study is the first to investigate mandala coloring to reduce math anxiety in business students. Unlike previous studies that focus on anxiety in general, this study examines the benefit of mandala coloring on students’ math anxiety.
... Mode of study as used in this study refers to the reading style adopted by the undergraduate students to read and studying in the school. Carlsson (2002) found that mode of study provided a defense mechanism to anxiety and this was later supported by Henderson et al. (2007) who indicated that mode of study provided a calming effect on post-traumatic stress disorder patients. On the other hand, Mitchell et al. (2008) also showed effective mode of study as a therapeutic key that significantly decreased anxiety. ...
... This means that 58.2% of the variance was accounted for by the predictor variables when taken together. In collaboration with this study, Henderson et al. (2007) indicated that mode of study provided a calming effect on students with examination anxiety. On the other hand, Mitchell et al. (2008) also showed effective mode of study as a therapeutic key that significantly decreased examination anxiety in the students. ...
... Besides, Henderson et al. (2007) conducted an experimental study on mandala designs to reduce patients' Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. They concluded that relative to those in the control condition, individuals assigned to the experimental mandala-creation group reported greater decreases in traumatic symptoms. ...
... Such conditions included PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, anxiety, spiritual meaning, and the frequency of physical symptoms and illness experiences. They concluded that mandala designs may be very useful for individuals reluctant or unable to write about their experiences (Henderson et al., 2007). ...
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Background: Bullying and the lack of social skills are essential for future risk-related problems, such as delinquency and feelings of rejection in children. The present study aimed to assess the effects of coloring mandala as Jungian art to reduce bullying and increase social skills in Afghan male working children. Methods: It was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and a control group design. The research population included all 10- to 12-year-old Afghan immigrant boys in Tehran City, Iran, who were studying in Parto School for Working Children, in 2019. The research sample consisted of 30 children who have obtained maximum scores on the Illinois Bully Scale (IBS) and minimum scores on the Teenage Social Skills Inventory (TSSI). The research participants were selected using a convenience sampling method. Then, they were assigned to the control and treatment groups by drawing lots. The treatment group attended ten 45-minute sessions of coloring mandalas and Jungian art. The data collection tools were the IBS: Student Version (Espelage & Holt, 2001) and the TSSI (Inderbitzen & Foster, 1992). The data were analyzed using the one-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) in SPSS. Results: The present research results suggested that the bullying scores for the participants in the treatment group significantly decreased at the post-test, compared to the pre-test (F=24.29, P=0.001); however, their social skills scores significantly increased at the post-test, in comparison with the pre-test (F=42.41, P=0.001). However, no significant differences were found in the bullying and social skills scores of the controls between the pre-test and post-test phases. Conclusion: Mandala coloring art was effective in reducing bullying behaviors and increasing social skills among the explored Afghan migrant working children. Therefore, this artistic method can be used as a suitable option for psychological therapies, teaching social skills, and creating participation and empathy in children in educational centers and schools for child labor.
... Pisarik & Larson (2011) mengemukakan bahwa Jung memandang mandala sebagai desain artistik yang dibuat dalam bentuk lingkaran yang mewakili makna diri. Hal ini juga sesuai dengan hasil peneltian Henderson, Rosen, & Mascaro (2007) yang menunjukkan bahwa struktur desain melingkar yang terdiri dari bentuk simetris yang secara teratur dari mandala dapat digunakan untuk tujuan meditasi. Mewarnai mandala adalah aktivitas memberi warna tertentu pada pola khas berbentuk garis dan lingkaran yaitu pola geometri (Harms, 2011) Warna memiliki peran penting dalam memberikan pengaruh tertentu dan sebagai penghidup jiwa. ...
... Pisarik & Larson (2011) mengemukakan bahwa Jung memandang mandala sebagai desain artistik yang dibuat dalam bentuk lingkaran yang mewakili makna diri. Henderson, Rosen, & Mascaro (2007) mengemukakan bahwa mandala memiliki struktur desain melingkar yang terdiri dari bentuk simetris yang secara teratur digunakan untuk tujuan meditasi. ...
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Mahasiswa yang mengalami kecemasan mengerjakan skripsi merasa tidak mampu mengerjakan skripsi, khawatir tidak menguasai tema penelitian, perasaan tidak tenang ketika sulit menemukan literatur. Mahasiswa yang tidak mampu mengatasi kecemasan akan memilih untuk menunda hingga meninggalkan pengerjaan skripsi. Kecemasan mengerjakan skripsi mahasiswa tergolong tinggi, sehingga dibutuhkan suatu metode untuk menangani kecemasan. Salah satu metode penanganan kecemasan adalah dengan mewarnai mandala. Pola mandala yang terstruktur dapat memberi efek meditasi yang menenangkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peranan metode mewarnai mandala dalam menurunkan kecemasan pada mahasiswa Fakultas Psikologi di Universitas Negeri Makassar yang sedang mengerjakan skripsi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode quasi-eksperimental dengan desain pretest-posttest one group with follow up. Mewarnai mandala dilaksanakan selama empat hari (masing-masing 45 menit). Partisipan berjumlah delapan orang yaitu mahasiswa yang memiliki skor pretest berkategori tinggi dan sangat tinggi. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah skala (rxy = 0,5549-0,909), koefisien alpha = 0,924) yang disusun oleh Lovibond & Lovibond (1995). Uji Wilcoxon menunjukkan bahwa pada saat pretest vs. posttest (MD = 50,37), pretest vs. follow up (MD = 24,745), posttest vs. Follow up (MD = 17,81). Uji Friedman menunjukkan skor p = 0,001, sehingga terdapat perbedaan skor kecemasan yang signifikan. Implikasi dari penelitian ini adalah pemberian metode mewarnai mandala yang dilakukan dapat menurunkan kecemasan mengerjakan skripsi yang dialami mahasiswa FPSI UNM.
... 40 Unlike a free drawing or coloring activity in which students might feel anxiety and judgment of their product as they create their own structure, engaging in this structured design provides some type of direction in which individuals can organize their experience in that moment and develop mindfulness and focused attention and awareness, which can also be found in other types of meditation exercises. 4,10,41 The first study to empirically assess the effectiveness of a structured mindfulness coloring activity was conducted by Curry and Kasser 10 and replicated by Van der Vennet and Serice. 13 University students were randomly assigned to a mandala coloring condition, a plaid form coloring condition, or a free coloring condition. ...
Article
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Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of mindfulness coloring (mandala), free drawing/coloring, and a noncoloring control activity for university students’ test anxiety, and assessed the relationship of dispositional mindfulness and response to intervention on mindfulness and test anxiety states. Participants: University students (n = 167; 81.4% female; M age = 21.29 years, SD = 4.46) were randomly assigned to a mandala (n = 57), free draw/coloring (n = 58), or noncoloring condition (n = 52). Methods: Participants completed standardized measures assessing test anxiety and state mindfulness pre–postactivity before completing a test, and two dispositional mindfulness measures. Results: Participants in both coloring conditions reported significant decreases in test anxiety and significant increases in state mindfulness pre–postintervention, and participants in the control condition reported significant increases in test anxiety. Reports of preintervention state mindfulness and test anxiety fully mediated relations between dispositional mindfulness and postintervention state mindfulness and test anxiety. Conclusions: Implications for research and practice on mindfulness coloring and test anxiety are discussed.
... For the homeless, a weekly arts programme acted as a centrepiece of the individual's week, a form of engagement in a meaningful occupation that could foster improved well-being and 'contribute to the goal of community participation' (Thomas et al. 2011: 434). Drawing mandalas, seen as sources of healing in certain traditions, including Jungian theory and Buddhist spiritual thinking, across three consecutive days for only twenty minutes each session, can reduce symptoms of trauma for those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (Henderson et al. 2007). Expressing the trauma could be the route towards a healing process: ...
Article
This article reports on an investigation of the effects of ‘visual arts’-based programmes on subjective well-being (SWB) outcomes for adults with mental health conditions. In a systematic review, electronic databases were searched for articles published from January 2007 to April 2017. Grey literature completed from January 2014 to April 2017 was also considered. Six published articles of mostly moderate quality and six evaluation reports (grey literature) covering a wide range of visual arts practice, population groups and settings were included. Key themes emerged connected to the concept of ‘bonding’, sense of belonging, appreciation of self-identity and the confidence that engagement in visual arts can facilitate. The overall conclusion supports that visual arts have the potential to enhance the SWB of adults with mental health conditions. The evidence is relatively limited in terms of scope and quality – increased funding across sectors should be secured to support more extensive and long-term research.
... Precedents that are somewhat closer to our approach can be found in Jungian psychotherapy. Some researchers have carried out empirical studies on links between therapeutic benefits, such as anxiety reduction, and the creation and coloring of mandala patterns [25][26][27][28][29][30]. However, neither of these lines of inquiry are directly concerned with symmetrical knot designs, nor are they focused on hypotheses related to potential links with congruent thought patterns. ...
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Ritual knots are symmetrical crisscrossing designs that appear in distant cultures around the world. Their independent emergence is plausibly due to shared features of human cognition and experience that such patterns represent. Since empirical investigation of this possibility is lacking in the literature, our aim is to open up this research area. We do so by asking whether the cultural production and appreciation of ritual knots could be conditioned or motivated by alignments and affordances linked to creative human cognition—advanced analogical modeling processes that are themselves often discussed in terms of bidirectional blending and symmetrical mapping. If manual tracing of a traditional knot design had positive priming effects on such reasoning processes, as we hypothesize, this would suggest an explanatory link between the two. To begin testing this hypothesis, we selected a basic, traditional knot design from Tibet, along with three established measures of formal analogical reasoning and one original measure of syntactic preference involving reciprocal constructions. We then undertook a series of cognitive trials testing for potential cognitive benefits of manually tracing the design. We contrasted prime condition results with a control group and an anti-prime condition group. The data show observable effects of time across multiple measures but no significant effects of time or condition, controlling for reported mindfulness. While this rules out the short-term priming effects of enhanced analogical reasoning at the analytic level following brief manual tracing of this design, the research opens the way for further empirical experimentation on the nature and emergence of symmetrical knots and their potential relationships with patterns of human thought.
... Mandala's are used in various religious traditions as a meditative tool and when created by an individual they can promote psychological healing and integration (Henderson, Mascaro and Rosen, 2007). Jung was first to use mandalas in western psychotherapy as he believed drawing them had a calming, healing effect and facilitated personal meaning in the artist's life (Jung, 1973). ...
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When concepts are too complex to grasp using a reductionist approach, they can be labelled as superstitious ideas or not worthy of scientific consideration. This article is an exploration of the transformative implications of noticing and deriving meaning from these so called ‘superstitious’ experiences that often test our notion of common sense. Aiming to address some of the difficulties around the perceived mystical nature of synchronicity, it is hoped that this paper may contribute to a more objective and scientific grounding on the subject. It is asserted that the experience of synchronicity can transform our accepted and limiting boundaries between what is and what can be, guiding us towards a more meaningful lived experience, that lays the foundation for the emergence of the Self. The theory of Meaningful Mutations of the Psyche is a theoretical framework that describes a five-stage process initiating from the inexplicable experience of our inner and outer worlds merging together in a meaningful way, and the linear trajectory towards psychological evolution and objective, positive outcomes. Just as conversations on the matter of synchronicity were brought to life through a syncretic approach, this paper aims to draw upon a synthesis of perspectives to make the argument for why the phenomenology of meaningful coincidences should be accepted as a relevant and significant component of positive psychology, especially within what could be an emerging third wave. Key words: Synchronicity; Meaningful Coincidence; Carl Jung; Acausal; Emergence of the Self; Peak Experience; Numinous Experience; Awe; Serendipity; Positive Emotions; Non Locality; Patterns; Circles; Destiny
... The mandala can be a vital regulation and wellness tool (Henderson et al. 2007). The mandala, a technique where artists create their work inside either a pre-designed controlled space, which sometimes uses the Zentanlge method or a blank circle, has a strong research base as a technique that improves well-being (Campenni & Hartman 2020). ...
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Ashes2Art, a nonprofit organization working with fire fighters and first responders since 2017, promotes creativity to counter balance the exposure to extreme loss and trauma. Operating under the Northern Virginia Emergency Medical Services Council, Ashes2Art provides art supplies, art classes, and a creative community of support to mitigate the deleterious effects the stress of the job can take on fire fighters and first responders’ health and mental health. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Ashes2Art has seen an increased demand for art supplies and the, now online, creative arts classes and self-care strategies. Currently, approximately 100 emergency services personnel and family members are actively participating in these initiatives during this crisis. Managing the cumulative emotional load these first responders and their families experience is paramount to COVID-19 recovery efforts and post-pandemic operations. Helping first responders and their families manage the short- and long-term emotional toll from the work they do in responding to the COVID-19 crisis is paramount to the United States’ successful recovery back to a well-functioning post-pandemic society. This paper suggests that enhancing well-being through mindfulness-focused creative arts engagement might be one effective tool to be included as part of routine self-care protocols for first responders and their families.
... Clients in this experiment reported being in a meditative state while colouring, encountering a trance-like flow experience. Although research on the employment of Mandalas in art therapy has as yet been limited, results indicate that subconscious feelings connected with trauma might find an expression, especially for children (Henderson, Rosen, & Mascaro, 2007). This effect of an art therapy session is likened by Kapitan (2013) to reading a book and being lost "in time, space, and consciousness" while fleetingly feeling "suspended between the worlds of illusion and ordinary reality" or seeing it as "a kind of liminal or potential space pregnant with possibility" (Winnicott, as cited in Kapitan, 2013, p. 140). ...
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The process of creating art seems to be a healing as much as an expressive practice for children. Not only are art activities recognized as a necessity for children’s cognitive development, but also as a voice to express the trauma of their distressing experiences. The following article is based on art making as an effective trauma intervention therapy, adding to previous knowledge of childhood trauma and liminality for teachers and health community services. In our diverse, fast changing, challenging times, we need to encourage reflecting and utilising social justice in professionalism to achieve lasting changes in society. Therefore, the authors investigated the concept of “liminality” (a phase of change, transition and transformation) as a framework for understanding how the process of art making soothes “childhood trauma.” Recent research has revealed that the beneficial effects of drawing are due to children entering a time and phase of liminality. Emotions and states such as despair, depression and fear, accompanied by intuitive knowledge, memory, resilience and wellness might be experienced. This leads to an integrative process: while children are drawing, they are completely engaged in a non-verbal activity which needs their total involvement, concentration, imagination and creativity. The healing effect of drawing while in the flow, which helps children with trauma, has been translated from research findings into a poem. This unique contribution to the literature on art therapy’s transformative effects summarizes the results of the above study.
... Before beginning, the group participants discussed how colors can represent emotions through metaphor and expression. Mandalas have proven to be successful in improving symptoms of PTSD (Henderson & Rosen, 2007) since Carl Jung's initial utilization of the mandala for its therapeutic and soothing effect while facilitating meaning (Jung, 1973). Establishing group rules and using mandalas in the group's introduction were methods used to focus on building rapport and safety amongst the participants as well as allowing an opportunity for feeling identification and catharsis. ...
Article
Human trafficking results in tragedy, trauma, and devastation. Sex trafficking has become a universal dilemma demanding awareness, education, and restorative treatment for the survivors of its illegal and wide ranging crimes. Art therapy is an effective, engaging, and non-verbal treatment to provide healing support to sex trafficking survivors, and for the advocates who work with them. Art therapy facilitates emotional catharsis and empowerment, connection to others and strengthens concepts of the inner self to enhance resilience. Art therapy addresses trauma, and provides hope for the future. This article presents the application of art therapy to enhance resilience within a trauma-informed approach and provides recommendations for victim and advocate programming.
... Based on this constant opportunity to exercise the neural circuits to weaken the sympathetic nervous system, thus it can inhibit the unnecessary activation of the autonomic nervous system and the ensuing fight-or-flight state (Porges, 2009). Collaborative mandala drawing can help college students to practice social skills, and the paintings can be used as a protective space for college students, because the circle of the mandala created a protection space, in which participants can use positive imagination to create and experience the calm, meet, love, happiness, and other positive emotions, and it provides the community to share and discuss them (Henderson et al., 2007). ...
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Mandala drawing was first practiced by Tibetan buddhists and then developed by Carl Gustav Jung, who felt certain that mandala drawing has the function of integrating psychological division, enhancing psychological harmony, and preserving personality integrity. Previous studies on mandala drawing have mainly focused on alleviating people’s negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression. Therefore, this study explored the effect and mechanism of mandala drawing on the improvement of subjective well-being (SWB), mindfulness, and spirituality from positive psychology’s viewpoint and compared the different effects of cooperative mandala drawing (CMD) and individual mandala drawing (IMD) on mindfulness, spirituality, and SWB. A total of 76 students were recruited from Chang Gung University, and the aforementioned three main variables were measured before and after the coloring experiment. The results indicated that both CMD and IMD significantly enhanced the subjects’ spirituality. Compared with IMD, CMD has a more significant improvement and promotion effect on SWB of subjects by affecting PA, while IMD had no significant effect on PA, and the enhancement effect of SWB was weaker than that of CMD. Mindfulness, spirituality, and SWB all positively correlated with each other. This study highlights the mechanism of mandala drawing and the theoretical understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and SWB. Mandala drawing especially CMD has a positive effect on spirituality and SWB, which may provide individuals with a simple and easy method to improve their happiness.
... Art therapy may also be useful for the direct management of distress and physical symptoms resulting from traumatic events (e.g., Ballou, 1995;Cohen et al., 1995;Morgan and White, 2003;Rankin and Taucher, 2003;Lyshak-Stelzer et al., 2007). For example, Hass-Cohen et al. (2018) demonstrated among a group of trauma-exposed participants that drawing pictures of the self, the problem, and coping resources significantly reduced the rating of the effect of the traumatic event, negative affect, and increased endorsement of resiliency resources, whereas Henderson et al. (2007) showed that three 20-min mandala drawing sessions were associated with significantly reduced PTSD symptoms compared to a control condition. Further, among persons with combatassociated PTSD, eight sessions of art therapy combined with cognitive processing therapy (CPT) resulted in significantly reduced PTSD symptoms compared to an equal number of sessions of CPT when combined with supportive psychotherapy (Decker et al., 2018). ...
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Across three studies, we provide a proof-of-concept evaluation of an integrative psychotherapeutic application of virtual reality (VR) technology. Study 1 (n = 36) evaluated an unguided “safe-place” imagery task, where participants were instructed “to create a safe space… [such as] a scene, item, design, or any visual representation that makes you feel safe” using either the Google Tilt Brush application (VR condition), the standard Microsoft Paint application (2-D condition), or via eyes-closed mental imagery alone (IMG condition). Study 2 (n = 48) evaluated a narrative episodic recall task, where participants viewed their childhood and adult homes and places of schooling either using either the Google Earth VR application (VR condition) or the standard Google Earth application (2-D condition) or recalled these places with their eyes closed via mental imagery alone (IMG condition). Finally, Study 3 (n = 48) evaluated a guided wilderness imagery task, during which different scripts were narrated, specifically, a trail walk in autumn, a spring meadow, and a hillside walk in snowy winter, while either these same scenes were visually presented using the Nature Treks VR application (VR condition), the scenes were presented using the same software but shown on standard computer monitor (2-D condition), or participants’ eyes were closed (IMG condition). Order of intervention format was randomized across participants. Across all three studies, quantitative survey ratings showed that the VR format of intervention delivery produced greater positive affect and satisfaction and perceived credibility ratings as an intervention for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and psychological well-being as rated by university students who varied in traumatic and stressful life event history and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, whereas qualitative findings revealed additional themes of experiential response including increased experience of presence and vividness in the VR condition. Future research directions and clinical applications are discussed.
... Jung was the first to use the mandala as a therapeutic tool (Duong et al., 2018). The word mandala is now typically associated with circular, geometric designs (see Figure 1), and often occurs in adult coloring books that promote mindfulness and stress relief (Henderson et al., 2007). However, the Jungian methodology and theory on mandalas are based on the activity of creating mandalas, not merely coloring pre-drawn templates (Mantzios & Giannou, 2018). ...
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This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of mandala coloring, compared with free drawing, on state anxiety in adults. A systematic search for studies yielded eight studies, which constituted a total of 578 participants, with 289 in the mandala coloring group and 289 in the free drawing group. The results indicated that coloring mandala designs was not found to reduce state anxiety significantly more than free drawing. Larger effect sizes were found in the studies with lower precision, indicating some evidence of bias toward finding an effect. The findings suggest that mandala coloring and free drawing are equally effective coloring techniques to achieve anxiety reduction. More high-quality studies are warranted before any recommendations can be made with confidence.
... Recent literature describes how art making can be relaxing and reduce cortisol levels (Henderson & Rosen, 2007;Kaimal, Ray, & Muniz, 2016). Stressors that build throughout the day can be released through physical motions of cutting, gluing, moving furniture, etc. (Levine, 1997). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore the de/construction of our imaginative selves. We suggest that imaginative processes of identity construction create the pathways for the possibilities of future selves while, at the same time, they re-constitute our past selves. These imaginative selves are important for our outward identities as teacher educators because they allow us to speak from different positions: imaginatively, creatively, and artistically. Through narratives, images, and a post-structural research lens (Koro-Ljungberg, 2016), we explore our hidden art hobbies – home as art and making paper art dolls – and trouble their position on hierarchies of arts and crafts. We suggest that the de/construction of our artistic selves is imperative for our epistemological expansion and, inevitably, for our engagement with teaching. URL: https://brill.com/abstract/book/edcoll/9789004388901/BP000005.xml
... Jungian theory posits that the mandala has both a calming and centering outcome (Jung 1973), while some criticism in methodologies has been evident at early stages of utilisation of such colouring methods (Slegelis 1987). Nevertheless, the use of mandalas has widely been used for treatment of psychological symptoms (Kim et al. 2009), and several studies have reported significant findings in decreasing various symptoms of psychological distress (Henderson et al. 2007;Kuchta 2008). ...
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The number of teachers leaving the profession continues to increase at a worrying rate. Factors contributing to this include burnout, heightened levels of stress, anxiety and depression. The current study tested whether the use of mindful colouring would translate to improvements in wellbeing. Teachers from the UK (n = 35) were randomly assigned to a colouring mindfulness-based intervention or waitlist group. Participants completed four scales (burnout, wellbeing, resilience and mindfulness) and participated in a 5-day intervention of daily mindfulness colouring or continued their working week as usual. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA showed statistically significant lower levels of burnout, stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in the mindfulness colouring condition, as well as increased levels of resilience and mindfulness. Findings from the current study support the use of mindfulness colouring to significantly enhance levels of wellbeing in teachers. The study also presents an inexpensive, highly accessible and effective self-help tool for this targeted non-clinical population.
... Studien von C. G. Jung aus der psychologischen Therapieforschung belegen eine positive Auswirkung künstlerischer Betätigung auf den seelischen Gesundheitszustand (Carl, 2001). Im Rahmen kontrollierter Studien ließ sich eine positive Wirkung künstlerischer Betätigung im Sinne einer Reduktion von Spannungszuständen bei posttraumatischer Belastungsstörung durch das Malen von Mandalas feststellen (Henderson et al., 2007). Eine Studie der Universität Tor Vergata in Rom konnte bei Patienten eine positive Assoziation von künstlerischem Interesse (Kunst, Malerei und Theater) und höherer Lebensqualität nach Schlaganfall nachweisen (Vellone et al., 2012). ...
Thesis
Hintergrund und Ziele Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit den Auswirkungen von Kunsttherapie, in diesem Fall dem Ausmalen von Bildern, auf die psychische Genesung von Patienten nach Schlaganfall. Ein Schlaganfall ist eine Durchblutungsstörung des Gehirns mit Sauerstoffminderversorgung und Untergang von Nervenzellen in der betroffenen Region. Abhängig von den jeweils betroffenen Gehirnarealen können unterschiedlichste sensomotorische und kognitive Defizite die Folge sein. Der Schlaganfall ist ein sehr häufiges neurologisches Problem und seine sozioökonomische Bedeutung ist enorm. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, nachzuweisen, ob, inwiefern und wie stark sich das Ausmalen von Bildern auf die Erholung psychischer Funktionsstörungen bei Schlaganfallpatienten auswirkt. Eine positive Wirkung kann aufgrund der Datenlage angenommen werden, was auch therapeutische Implikationen hätte. Methoden (Patienten, Material und Untersuchungsmethoden) Zur Überprüfung der Hypothese wurden, dem Studiendesign einer randomisierten kontrollierten prospektiven Studie entsprechend, insgesamt 143 Schlaganfallpatienten nach bestimmten Ein- und Ausschlusskriterien rekrutiert und randomisiert in eine Test- und eine Kontrollgruppe eingeteilt. Die 76 Patienten der Testgruppe erhielten zusätzlich zur standardisierten Schlaganfalltherapie auf der Stroke Unit ein Malheft, das sie nach ihren Vorstellungen gestalten konnten; die 67 Patienten der Kontroll-gruppe erhielten nur die standardisierte Schlaganfalltherapie, ohne Kunstintervention. Zu drei definierten Zeitpunkten (d.h., zu Beginn der Kunsttherapie, am Ende der Kunsttherapie und acht Wochen nach Beendigung der Kunsttherapie bzw. zu korrespondierenden Zeitpunkten in der Kontrollgruppe) wurden bei sämtlichen Patienten mithilfe von Fragebögen folgende Scores erhoben: die Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) zur Erfassung von Angst- und depressiven Störungen, die Resilienzskala 25 (RS-25) zur Quantifizierung der Resilienz und das Big Five Inventory (BFI) zur Erhebung der Persönlichkeitsstruktur. Es wurden die Veränderungen der Scores über die Zeit beobachtet und zwischen Test- und Kontrollgruppe verglichen. Ergebnisse und Beobachtungen Nach Ablauf von acht Wochen konnten bei der HADS und der RS-25 und zu einem geringeren Ausmaß auch beim BFI signifikante Unterschiede (p < 0,05) zwischen Test- und Kontrollgruppe nachgewiesen werden. Die meisten der erzielten Effektstärken lagen in einem Bereich (0,3 ≥ r ≤ 0,5), in dem man von mittelstarken bis starken Unterschieden zwischen Test- und Kontrollgruppe sprechen kann. (Praktische) Schlussfolgerungen und Diskussion Aus der vorliegenden Studie ließ sich schlussfolgern, dass Patienten, die die Kunstintervention hatten, sich besser und schneller von den mit dem Schlaganfallereignis verbundenen psychischen Defiziten erholten als Kontrollpatienten. Die nur zu einem geringeren Ausmaß feststellbaren Unterschiede bei der Entwicklung der Persönlichkeitsstruktur (BFI) der Patienten sind vermutlich einem vergleichsweise kurzen Beobachtungszeitraum geschuldet. Ausgehend von den Ergebnissen und deren Interpretation konnte demonstriert werden, dass das Einsetzen von Kunst sich positiv auf den Genesungsprozess von Patienten nach Schlaganfall auswirkt. Die psychische Konstitution von Patienten, die während ihres stationären Aufenthalts gemalt hatten, entwickelte sich deutlich stärker positiv, als dies bei Patienten ohne Kunstintervention der Fall gewesen war. Die Hypothese der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte somit bestätigt werden. Zuletzt kann diese Arbeit als Grundlage für zukünftige Arbeiten dienen, die etwa die Auswirkungen einer Variation der Länge der künstlerischen Intervention zum Thema haben, Patienten über einen längeren Zeitraum beobachten oder sich mit der Implementierung von Kunsttherapie in den klinischen Alltag oder den Auswirkungen von Kunsttherapie auf die körperlichen Defizite von Schlaganfallpatienten beschäftigen.
... Similar to the sand mandalas created by Tibetan monks, dreams are intangible and recollections easily slip away the next morning. Mandalas have been linked to wellness and relaxation in various studies (Curry & Kasser, 2005;Henderson & Rosen, 2007, Potash, Chen, & Tsang, 2016. I have often included mandalas in my art therapy work, and linked the symbolism of each mandala ring to meaningful self-reflective and resilience-building concepts, such as supportive elements in one's life. ...
Article
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In this reflexive self-study, I interweave the heuristic analysis of dreams with reflections on research and data collection processes, as a first-year PhD student, to discover and contemplate my personal ontologies and epistemologies. The dream content was documented in a journal, and then categorized and symbolically presented in a visual mandala format that is inspired by Lupi and Posavec’s (2016) Dear Data analogue drawing project. The data is then triangulated with journal excerpts, personal paintings, and analyzed within literature and research about the continuity hypothesis of dreaming (Domhoff, 2003; 2011; 2017; Hall & Nordby, 1972; Hall & Van de Castle, 1966). Research processes, such as data collection, visually representing complex information, and collaborative research processes, are also discussed to generate larger conclusions about research. This project is a part of a doctoral methodological course assignment. Published in The Morning Watch: Educational and Social Analysis (Open-access journal) https://journals.library.mun.ca/ojs/index.php/mwatch/article/view/1986
Article
Mass shootings have increased in the United States in recent decades and are associated with adverse psychological outcomes. This pilot study used a pre-post design to evaluate the effectiveness of a two-week creative arts therapy camp at improving the mental health of adolescents exposed to the horrific February 14th shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. Participants (n = 34) were rising high school students and participated in visual art, drama, or music therapy. At baseline, a third of participants indicated clinically significant moderate-to-severe depression, a third indicated clinically significant moderate-to-severe anxiety, and nearly two thirds indicated high levels of posttraumatic stress. There were statistically significant reductions in posttraumatic stress (d = .54), depression (d = .34), and anxiety symptoms (d = .52), significant decreases in negative affect (d = .42), and significant increases in positive affect (d = .81) between pre- and post-treatment time points. When drama, music, and visual arts treatments were examined separately, drama therapy significantly improved mental health and positive affect. The vast majority of participants reported that they had fun, gained a deeper understanding of themselves, and felt safe during the treatment. Group-delivered arts therapy may be an effective treatment to improve mental health and affect in adolescents exposed to a school shooting.
Conference Paper
Mandala coloring has been receiving increasing attention in the literature and throughout popular culture. Previous research also indicated that high level of mindfulness may increase flow experience. The literature also suggests that teamwork may moderate the relationship between challenge and flow state, help subjects to overcome challenges and improve their flow state. Therefore based on the previous studies, our study wants to explore: (1) whether mandala coloring can improve mindfulness and flow; (2) what is the relationship between mindfulness and flow during the process of mandala coloring; and (3) whether teamwork can improve the state of flow in mandala coloring activity? Participants were 76 university students, divided into two groups: High-skill (n = 38) and low-skill (n = 38). The two groups performed three mandala coloring experiments in sequence: Structured mandala, Free mandala, and Cooperative mandala. Measurements of state mindfulness and state flow were taken for one pre-assessment of the whole experiment and three pre-assessments of each the three mandala activities. Results indicated that short-term mandala coloring exercises can’t improve mindfulness but can significantly improve the flow state. There is a significant positive relationship between mindfulness and some dimensions of flow (e.g., Concentration on task, Unambiguous feedback, Sense of control, Challenge-skill balance, and Autotelic experience). But a negative correlation was found between mindfulness and loss of self-consciousness dimension. Free mandala is challenging for participants in the low-skilled group, but teamwork in cooperative mandala can help them to overcome this challenge. The contribution of this research is to provide a reference for further understanding of the mechanisms that how mandala coloring can help improve subjects’ mental state and enhance positive psychology.
Article
Creative art therapy (CAT) for severe mental illness (SMI) represents an extremely heterogenous body of literature that encompasses the use of a large variety of creative mediums (i.e. visual art, music, dance, drama, writing) in the treatment of mental disorders. The present review provides a narrative summary of the findings on the use of CAT for the selected SMI, being: schizophrenia, trauma-related disorders, major depression, and bipolar disorder. A database search of PubMed and the Cochrane Library was conducted related to the use of CAT in the treatment of mental disorders published between January 2008 and March 2019. A total of 4257 citations were identified to match the search criteria and 86 full-texts were reviewed. Although literature suggests CAT to be a potentially low-risk and high benefit intervention to minimize symptoms and maximize functioning in individuals living with SMI, the lack of methodological rigor, and inconsistency in study methods and outcome measures have prevented the advancement of CAT for use in SMI. Although creation of a single CAT regimen for all psychiatric disorders stands neither practical nor advisable, greater standardization of methods would improve evaluation of CAT interventions. Future research should elucidate biological mechanisms underlying CAT methods.
Article
Adult colouring books have become vastly popular in recent years, and have been successfully rebranded as a therapeutic tool for improving health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to construct an authentic insider representation of the women’s lived experiences of ‘doing colouring’. This exploratory study adopted a qualitative interview strategy and reported on the narratives of 15 women’s experiences of mindfulness colouring books. Doing colouring can achieve a distinctive form of mindfulness with therapeutic qualities. This process increased the capacity for concentration, awareness and regulation for the enhancement of spirituality and self-care practice. Spiritual meanings were attached to doing colouring, specifically spirituality as connectedness to oneself with perceived inner peace and calmness derived from the mindful meditative experience. Doing mindful colouring was identified as ‘taking time’ to practice self-reflection, self-awareness and self-care to promote physical, emotional and social wellbeing. The meanings and practices of mindfulness were examined to provide an explanatory framework for understanding doing colouring to achieve health benefits. This research contributes to the emerging literature on mindfulness colouring books, thus advancing our understanding of the diverse benefits contributing to the practitioners’ sense of wellbeing.
Article
This study compared the effects of 2 art activities (structured and nonstructured) and a focused breathing exercise on outcome measures of mindfulness, anxiety, and affect. Seventy-seven participants, recruited from university students and the general public, were randomly assigned to either 15 min of coloring a mandala (structured), free drawing (nonstructured), or a focused breathing exercise. Results demonstrated that all 3 interventions produced significant improvements in the outcome measures at posttest compared with pretest. However, no significant differences were found across the 3 intervention conditions. These findings inform the design of brief interventions aimed at achieving short-term positive psychological benefits in nonclinical populations.
Article
This article describes a randomized, controlled trial (N = 38) that compared art therapy in conjunction with cognitive processing therapy (CPT) to CPT alone for veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants were randomized to either the experimental condition of 8 sessions of CPT and 8 sessions of individual art therapy or to the control condition of 8 sessions of CPT and 8 individual sessions of supportive psychotherapy. Outcome measures included the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI–II), PTSD Checklist–Military (PCL–M), and self-ratings of perceived treatment benefits. Experimental group participants had statistically significantly greater reduction in PCL–M and BDI–II scores compared to the control group and the perceived benefit of treatment was greater for art therapy as compared to CPT.
Thesis
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BESERRA. Fernando Rocha. Experienciando a Arte Visionária: uma compreensão junguiana da interação de estudantes com a obra de Alex Grey. 2014. Dissertação (Mestrado em Psicologia Clínica) – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2014. A presente dissertação teve como objetivo compreender as respostas subjetivas de estudantes, catalisadas por um conjunto de obras do artista visionário Alex Grey. Foi realizada a exposição de algumas obras selecionadas do artista, em aparelho Data Show, a quinze estudantes, entre 18 e 29 anos, da PUC-SP. Após a exposição das obras, foi solicitado aos participantes da pesquisa que contassem uma estória sobre as obras apresentadas e foi realizada uma entrevista semiestruturada. Os dados foram sistematizados por meio do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC) e interpretados com a utilização das abordagens da psicologia complexa junguiana e da estética da recepção. Observou-se que as obras têm o potencial de estimular profundamente o inconsciente. As respostas subjetivas foram marcadas por experiências emocionais intensas, seja de bem ou mal-estar, mobilizando projeções e conteúdos psicodinâmicos dos participantes. Alguns temas tornaram-se marcantes na experiência dos participantes que interagiram com as obras, como as dualidades, a morte, a finitude, o estranho, a religião e a espiritualidade, o corpo e a relação entre a vida cotidiana e experiências não convencionais. A dissertação possibilitou uma compreensão das respostas subjetivas de estudantes, estimuladas pelo conjunto escolhido de obras do artista Alex Grey. BESERRA. Fernando Rocha. Experiencing the Visionary Art: A Jungian understanding of the interaction of students to the work of Alex Grey. 2014. Dissertation (MSc in Clinical Psychology) – Universidade Católica de São Paulo, 2014. The present dissertation aimed to understand the subjective responses of students, catalyzed by a set of works by visionary artist Alex Grey. Was realized the exposure of some selected works of the artist in a Data Show device to fifteen students, between 18 and 29 years of PUC-SP. After exposure of the works, was asked to research participants to tell a story about the works presented and a semi-structured interview was conducted. The data were organized by the Collective Subject Speech (DSC) and interpreted using the approaches of Jung's complex psychology and aesthetics of reception. It was observed that the works have the potential to profoundly stimulate the unconscious. Subjective responses were marked by intense emotional experiences, whether welfare or malaise, mobilizing projections and psychodynamic contents of the participants. Some themes became salient in the experience of the participants who interacted with the works, such as dualities, death, finitude, the strange, religion and spirituality, the body and the relationship between everyday life and unconventional experiences. The dissertation has enabled an understanding of the subjective responses of students, encouraged by selected works of artist Alex Grey.
Conference Paper
This study investigated the effects of Mandala coloring on subjective well-being, mindfulness, and spirituality, and the relationship between mindfulness, spirituality and subjective well-being. Methods: Recruited 80 students from Chang gung university in Taiwan, measures of the three main variables were administered at pre–test and post-test. Results: Subjective well-being significantly increased (mean score of 3.96 and 4.67 at pre- and post-test, respectively), there is a positive correlation between mindfulness, spirituality and SWB. Spirituality would mediate the relationship between mindfulness and SWB. Conclusion: These results suggest that Mandala coloring can have a positive effect on the subjective well-being. However, further research concerning its effects on mindfulness, spirituality and SWB, as well as other psychological constructs, is warranted to better understand the effects of Mandala coloring.
Chapter
Design is an activity with creativeness that can be deemed as a life-philosophy for exploring from flow of individuals to group interflow. This Study aims to combine Western psychology and Oriental dynamic meditation activities on basis of Flow Theory by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Carl Gustav Jung’s in depth psychological analysis and concept of Mandala, to develop an extended cooperative mandala coloring (CMC) and to attempt on proposing the design principle of CMC. Through researching the collective unconscious for specific groups at specific ages, the Bildung education for newbie designers. The subjects of this study are 14 students from Taiwanese junior high and senior high schools who jointly participated the APDEC 2017 held in Japan in August 2017 with the researcher. The three approaches of action research are taken on basis of study objectives. First, “Pre-action Research”, which involves redesign of the individual mandala coloring activity by Jung to Cooperative Mandala Coloring; then, “In-action Research”, which involves interpretation of Jung phenomena by Mandala works by the adolescents; lastly, “Post-action Research” for introspection on overall effects for facilitation of flow and interflow. Through CMC activities, this study discovers that adolescents can not only satisfy their own expressed needs but also situate themselves in spiritual safe space in order to facilitate themselves to obtain self-organization at the transient moment of conversion to complexity when at the status of being empathized, while opening up to reveal the self for broadening the experiences in interflow with others.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mandala therapy on reducing anxiety in adolescents. The research was experimental with a pre-test post-test design developed with a experimental group and two groups of comparison. The statistical population of the study consisted of all high school students in the city of Germi aged 15 to 18 years old, among whom 45 were randomly selected and divided into three groups: one experimental group (15 people) and two groups Each group of 15 people was randomly assigned. The subjects completed the Spielberger positional anxiety questionnaire (1983) in two stages (pre-test and post-test). The experimental group was asked to paint the mandala for 20 minutes. Also, the first group was asked to engage in staining for 20 minutes and the second group was asked to compare for 20 minutes to Draw free painting. The results of covariance analysis showed that the difference between the groups in the post-test of anxiety was statistically significant, meaning that all three methods of mandala coloring, stained chess coloring, and free painting were effective in reducing anxiety. The results of the Bonferroni post hoc test showed that the mandala staining method had more effect than the other two methods. This difference can be interpreted by calling on its actions to integrate activities in the course of the engagement of subjects in the drawing of the mandala.
Article
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of individual mandala drawing methods on psychological symptoms, anxiety and depression in hospitalised adolescents with cancer. Methods A randomised controlled trial design with repeated measures was conducted. The study was carried out in a paediatric haematology and oncology clinic in Turkey. The study protocol is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04297982. The study sample consisted of 60 hospitalised adolescents aged between 12 and 17. Participants were randomly assigned to receive two 1- to 2-h mandala drawing sessions (intervention group, n = 30) or routine care only (control group, n = 30). Each adolescent was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (Psychological subscale) questionnaires and was evaluated at baseline and after 5 days. Results The anxiety and depression scores significantly decreased in the intervention group, compared with the control group, after 5 days of intervention, F(1, 57) = 28.9, p < 0.01, η² = 0.337. Similarly, the psychological symptoms scores significantly decreased in the intervention group, compared with the control group, F(1, 57) = 69.7, p < 0.001, η² = 0.550). Conclusion The individual mandala activity intervention was effective in reducing on psychological symptoms, anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents with cancer.
Chapter
This chapter begins by defining mental illness and provides criteria to understand when symptoms reach a significant level to be considered a mental health condition illness. Readers will learn about the history of diagnosing mental health conditions and how therapists diagnose patients today. Historical connections are presented between art and mental illness and how these helped to shape the current field of art therapy. The chapter provides different ways art therapy supports mental health and mental health recovery and concludes with information about art therapy for specific disorders and in different settings.
Article
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Participatory research engages community stakeholders in the research process, from problem identification and developing the research question, to dissemination of results. There is increasing recognition in the field of health research that community-engaged methods can be used throughout the research process. The volume of guidance for engaging communities and conducting participatory research has grown steadily in the past 40+ years, in many countries and contexts. Further, some institutions now require stakeholder engagement in research as a condition of funding. Interest in collaborating in the research process is also growing among patients and the public. This article provides an overview for selecting participatory research methods based on project and partnerships goals.
Research
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The progressive escalation in military suicides, along with a substantial increase in post-traumatic stress diagnosis among active military personnel and veterans, has become a significant humanitarian, societal, and cultural concern. Such a defining moment illuminates the need for timely and innovative treatment approaches for combat-related post-traumatic stress. This research explored depth psychological practices within short-term, group-based treatment programs. Using a phenomenological research method, interviews were conducted with six former combat veteran alumni of these programs to gather new insights and understanding into their lived experience. Informants described meaningful reductions in post-traumatic stress, moral injury, and treatment-resistance, while treatment completion rates increased significantly. Research findings suggest depth psychological practices do exhibit compelling potential as valuable, or formidable treatment approaches, alongside current evidence-based treatments. Based on the findings of this preliminary exploration future research is warranted on depth psychological treatments and group-based programs for combat-related post-traumatic stress.
Article
Background Depressive disorder is a disease with widespread incidence and has shown an annual increase, while depression relapse is also rising continually due to multiple causes. In Thailand, although many studies have been conducted to prevent depression incidence and relapse, there is little known about the meaning of depression relapse in adult Thai patients. An exploration of the direct experiences of adult Thai patients seems a suitable way to gather data for a care system development. Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the perceptions of adult Thai patients concerning their experience of depression relapse and its management among adult patients with depressive disorder in the Thai context. Methods This research is a qualitative study using the directed content analysis approach. In-depth interviews with 20 adult Thai patients with depressive disorders that had direct experience with depression relapse were the data collection method used in this study. The interviews allowed the participants to talk about their experiences with depression relapse and how to manage depressive symptoms; the interviews lasted approximately 60 minutes. Results Two themes emerged from the study. First, the experience of depression relapse is the feeling of something pulling away from happiness. Second, managing depression relapse. Conclusion Depression relapse among adult Thai patients with depressive disorder is an experience causing patients to feel that they are losing their happiness again. Care and management of depression relapse by each patient differ, despite being in the same social contexts. Therefore, depression relapse risk assessment is important in the care of each patient in order to design more effective care.
Article
This mixed methods study assessed the emotional impact of therapeutic art techniques in reducing subjective anxiety by comparing three options for drawing a self-portrait: literal self-portrait, mandala, and free drawing. Undergraduate college students (n = 60) were provided with a mood induction procedure and then randomly assigned to a drawing condition. State anxiety increased after mood was induced, and decreased after completing a drawing for all conditions. There were no statistical differences in state anxiety across drawing conditions at any time point. Qualitative analysis revealed both shared and unique themes among drawing conditions. This study concluded that the process of drawing a self-portrait, regardless of approach, generally reduced state anxiety.
Article
Background Post-traumatic stress disorder is a debilitating mental health condition that can occur when individuals are exposed to traumatic situations [American Psychiatric Association. (2013 American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Trauma- and stressor-related disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]). Trauma- and stressor-related disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub]. Art therapy has been growing in popularity and acceptance as a therapeutic intervention for trauma over the last 10 years [Nanda, U., Barbato Gaydos, H. L., Hathorn, K., & Watkins, N. (2010). Art and posttraumatic stress: A review of the empirical literature on the therapeutic implications of artwork for war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Environment and Behavior, 42(3), 376–390. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916510361874], however, there is a sparsity of rigorous, methodologically sound evidence supporting its use. One step towards developing rigorous effectiveness studies is to firstly consolidate an understanding of the elements of art therapy. Method A comprehensive systematic search of the literature was performed. Data was extracted to best understand the elements of art therapy using the elements articulated by Borrelli et al. (2005 Borrelli, B., Sepinwall, D., Ernst, D., Bellg, A. J., Czajkowski, S., Breger, R., & Ogedegbe, G. (2005). A new tool to assess treatment fidelity and evaluation of treatment fidelity across 10 years of health behavior research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 852. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.852[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]. A new tool to assess treatment fidelity and evaluation of treatment fidelity across 10 years of health behavior research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 852. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.5.852) which include: Design, Training, Delivery, Receipt, and Enactment. The elements were mapped and narratively described. Findings A total of 44 studies met eligibility criteria and were included for data extraction and coding. Publications reported study design, treatment enactment, and treatment receipt; however, gaps were seen in the reporting of provider training and the delivery of treatment, prominently the lack of reported treatment delivery guidelines. Conclusion This study demonstrated that there is a lack of consistency in the reporting and use of practice guidelines regarding art therapy for trauma, which severely impacts the ability to determine best practice. However, considering that art therapy is focused on consumer exploration with therapist support, it is possible that the lack of guidelines is intentional, rather than incidental. Exploring practitioners’ intent around selection and use of practice guidelines is needed to better understand this phenomenon. Plain-language summary Post-traumatic stress disorder is a debilitating mental health condition that can occur when individuals are exposed to traumatic situations. Art therapy has been growing in popularity and acceptance as a therapeutic intervention for trauma over the last 10 years, however, there is still hesitation when considering art therapy as a valid treatment for trauma. Given that funding bodies and medical advisory institutions around the world are increasing their focus on trauma treatments that can demonstrate effectiveness, we need to have a better understanding of what represents good practice for art therapy before we are able to investigate the effectiveness. Without benchmarks for what best practice art therapy looks like, we cannot perform the high-quality studies needed to investigate the effectiveness of art therapy as a trauma treatment. This study performed a systematic search of the academic literature to best understand the elements of art therapy practice for trauma with the aim of consolidating and understanding practice consistency and standardisations in five elements: Design, Training, Delivery, Receipt, and Enactment. A total of 44 studies were included. This study demonstrated that there is a lack of consistency in the reporting and use of practice guidelines regarding art therapy for trauma, which severely impacts the ability to determine best practice and, in turn, to perform studies of effectiveness. However, considering that art therapy is focused on individual exploration with therapist support, it is possible that the lack of practice guidelines is intentional, rather than incidental. By extension, having one singular treatment protocol may not be effective for this type of intervention, as it is impossible to create a treatment manual for such an individualised treatment. It is recommended that the intent behind art therapy practitioners’ reporting and use of practice guidelines is further explored to better understand this trend.
Chapter
Since the nineteenth century, many authors debated the role of art to understand psychopathology and psychopathology to understand artistic works, although a specific role of art as a therapeutic approach in psychiatry is recognized with scientific evidence only by the end of the twentieth century. Art therapies are currently defined as various forms of psychological therapy employing different artistic media (painting, graphics, sculpture, dance, theatre, music, etc.), using both expressive and receptive communication modalities. Visual art therapy currently qualifies as a well-established rehabilitation technique, grounded on solid and precise principles, in which the attention to the production of patients is not related to diagnostic classifications, but rather focus on the creative process considered and used within an individualized therapeutic project. The available scientific evidence on visual art therapy tend to show that this form of art therapy is indicated for patients with major psychiatric disorders only as a part of integrated treatment. However, to date, many studies have provided evidence in favor of the idea that visual art rehabilitation programs may be beneficial in inducing a reduction of negative and affective symptoms, in particular for patients with schizophrenia and major mood disorders. The aim of this chapter is to provide, without leaving aside an historical perspective, a vivid picture of what recent research in the field of mental health care is highlighting as more relevant in the field of visual art therapy and to point out the limitations of the current implementation of visual art therapeutic programs, in order to finally shed some light on the directions to be taken by the discipline in the future.
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Background The regular practice of mindfulness has been shown to provide benefits for mental well-being and prevent depression relapse. Technology-mediated interventions can facilitate the uptake and sustained practice of mindfulness, yet the evaluation of interactive systems, such as brain-computer interfaces, has been little explored. Objective The objective of this paper is to present an interactive mindfulness-based technology to improve mental well-being in people who have experienced depression. The system, Anima, is a brain-computer interface that augments mandala coloring by providing a generative color palette based on the unfolding mindfulness states during the practice. In addition, this paper outlines a multiple-baseline, single-case experimental design methodology to evaluate training effectiveness. Methods Adult participants who have experienced depression in the past, have finished treatment within the last year, and can provide informed consent will be able to be recruited. The Anima system, consisting of 2 tablets and a nonintrusive mental activity headband, will be delivered to participants to use during the study. Measures include state and trait mindfulness, depression symptoms, mental well-being, and user experience, and these measures will be taken throughout the baseline, intervention, and monitoring phases. The data collection will take place in the form of a questionnaire before and after each mandala-coloring session and a semistructured interview every 2 weeks. Trial results will be analyzed using structured visual analysis, supplemented with statistical analysis appropriate to single-case methodology. Results Study results will offer new insights into the deployment and evaluation of novel interactive brain-computer interfaces for mindfulness training in the context of mental health. Moreover, findings will validate the effectiveness of this training protocol to improve the mental well-being of people who have had depression. Participants will be recruited locally through the National Health Service. Conclusions Evidence will assist in the design and evaluation of brain-computer interfaces and mindfulness technologies for mental well-being and the necessary services to support people who have experienced depression. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/20819
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The decision-making process of bilingual individuals differ based on the language used, this phenomenon is called “Foreign Language Effect”, and in this paper, the authors will demonstrate just how pervasive and ubiquitous this effect is. To extend the current understanding of this phenomenon, three different games were designed in order to measure risk propensity, preference towards foreign products and empathy. Eight different first languages were tested against two main second languages, English and Chinese, resulting in the collection of 650 data samples. The research was conducted through questionnaires and the results obtained showed that different first languages reacted in different ways to foreign language effects, people are less inclined towards risky behaviour when using a second language, and they generally prefer to buy products when those are presented in their native language. Age and proficiency level do not significantly affect the effect discovered, and there is a reduction in the empathy level when individuals need to take delicate decisions within second language contexts. Some cultural causes have been identified and provide explanations for some of the anomalous behaviour observed in certain first languages, opening future research questions on the role that culture plays in bilingual decision making.
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Nascimento, A. M., Virgolino, B. R. C., Savoldi, R. & Roazzi, A. (2020). Ayahuasca, Mandalas e Estrutura de Visualizações: Uma leitura cognitiva estrutural. Revista EDUCAmazônia - Educação Sociedade e Meio Ambiente, 24(1), 346-367. ISSN 2358-1468 https://bit.ly/3fhfYRy // Resumo: O estudo objetivou descrever a estrutura fenomenal da experiência consciente de visualização de Mandalas durante inebriação com o enteógeno Ayahuasca, numa perspectiva fenomenal e estrutural da mente. Apoiado na metodologia do estudo de caso, uma participante do sexo feminino produziu um relato fenomenal em caráter retrospectivo mediante o uso da Entrevista Fenomenológico-Cognitiva dos Estados Autoconscientes (EFEA), com foco na última tomada de Ayahuasca. A entrevista foi audiogravada, transcrita em sua totalidade, e submetida ao método fenomenológico padrão, com a técnica da Análise Temática. As análises permitiram a construção da definição estrutural fundamental em torno das categorias Formas Visuais (mandala), Fluxo Geracional de Visualizações, Colorido e luminescência, Fluxo transformacional e Complexidade estrutural das visualizações, Cinética das visualizações, e, Desconforto subjetivo e Saturação cognitiva do fluxo imagético, as quais resumem a essência da experiência consciente das visualizações durante inebriação com ayahuasca em tomada ritual. O estudo contribuiu para uma melhor compreensão da dimensão fenomenal e experiencial das visualizações associadas ao uso da ayahuasca, abrindo uma agenda de pesquisa com foco explícito em sua imageria. Palavras-chave: Ayahuasca; mandalas; visualizações; imageria. /// Ayahuasca, Mandalas and Structure of Visualizations: A structural cognitive perspective - Abstract: The study aimed to describe a phenomenal structure of the conscious experience of Mandala's visualization during inebriation with the entheogen Ayahuasca, in a phenomenal and structural perspective of the mind. Based on the methodology of the case study, a woman participant produced a retrospective phenomenological report through the use of the Phenomenological-Cognitive Interview of the Self-conscious States (PCISS), focusing on the last Ayahuasca. The interview was audio recorded, transcribed in its entirety, and submitted to the standard phenomenological method, using the Thematic Analysis technique. The analysis allowed the construction of the fundamental structural categories around the Visual Forms (Mandala), Generational Flux of Visualizations, Color and Luminescence, Transformational Flow and Structural Complexity of Visualizations, Kinetics of Visualizations, and, Subjective Discomfort and Cognitive Saturation of the Imagetic Flow, which sum up the essence of the conscious experience of visualizations during inebriation with Ayahuasca, in ritual taking. The study contributed to a better understanding of the phenomenal and experiential dimension of visualizations associated with the use of ayahuasca, opening a research agenda with an explicit focus on its imagery. Keywords: Ayahuasca; mandala; visualizations; imagery.
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For those new to meditation, the practice of sitting, focusing, and attempting to quiet your mind can be daunting. There is a long history of using art as a mindfulness practice in a number of spiritual traditions. Art making can be an effective vehicle into the present moment, with the added benefits of being able to actively practise quieting your inner critic. The teenagers in the original development series also reported that they found the practice of contemplative art more accessible and enjoyable than the traditional mindfulness program they had participated in previously. The chapter further describes the challenges of developing a new curriculum, change management concerns with administrators and colleagues, and some unexpected benefits for the authors as a result of developing the program.
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Although writing about traumatic events has been shown to produce a variety of health benefits, little is known about how writing produces benefits. The degree to which individuals form narrative structure when writing may predict health improvements. This study manipulated narrative formation during writing to test if narrative structure is necessary for writing to be beneficial. A total of 116 healthy students were randomly assigned to write about control topics or about their thoughts and feelings regarding the most traumatic event of their life in one of two ways: list in an fragmented format or construct a narrative. Individuals asked to form a narrative reported less restriction of activity because of illness and showed higher avoidant thinking than the other groups. The fragmented writing group did not differ from controls on any measure. These data (a) demonstrate that instructions to form a narrative produce a different response to writing than instructions to form fragmented and control writing and (b) suggest narrative formation may be required to achieve health benefits.
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Two longitudinal studies assessed whether disclosure of emotions facilitates recovery from bereavement. Study 1 tested prospectively over a 2-year period whether the extent to which bereaved persons talked about their loss to others and disclosed their emotions was associated with better adjustment to the loss of a marital partner. There was no evidence that disclosure facilitated adjustment. Study 2 randomly assigned recently bereaved individuals either to the Pennebaker writing task (J. W. Pennebaker & S. K. Beall, 1986) or to no-essay control conditions. The writing task did not result in a reduction of distress or of doctors visits either immediately after the bereavement or at a 6-month follow-up. Beneficial effects were not demonstrated for bereaved persons who had suffered an unexpected loss or who at the time of the study still expressed a high need for emotional disclosure.