Extended Rorschach Aggression ScoresCarl B. Gacono et al.
The Rorschach Extended Aggression Scores
Carl B. Gacono1, Lynne Bannatyne-Gacono2,
J. Reid Meloy3, and Matthew R. Baity4
1Private Practice, Austin, TX, 2Austin State Hospital, Austin, TX,
3University of California, San Diego, CA, 4University of Arkansas, all USA
The Extended Aggression Scores
The Extended Aggression Scores were developed to quantify the ag-
gressive Rorschach imagery produced by violent Antisocial Personality
Disordered (ASPD; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) offenders.
Despite their histories of real world violence, these subjects produced
few Aggressive Movement (AG; Exner, 1993) responses. Why didn’t vi-
olent children, adolescents, and adults produce more AG responses?
Considering their expression of uncensored pleasurable affect when
relating their aggressive acts during their interviews, conscious censor-
ing (Exner, 1993; Meloy, 1988) did not adequately explain the paucity
of AG responses among sentenced adults. Why would they describe their
violent acts with pride and bravado during an interview and subse-
quently censor AG on the Rorschach? Conscious censoring among the
Conduct Disorder (CD) children and adolescents, who frequently pro-
duced sexual content, seemed an equally unlikely explanation (Gacono,
Earlier Rorschach research (Holt & Havel, 1960; Rapaport, Gill, &
Schafer, 1946, 1968; Schafer, 1954) provided clues to understanding the
discrepancies between Rorschach production and the interview/histor-
ical data. Direct or implicit aggressive content was thought to imply ten-
sions of aggressive impulse (Rapaport et al., 1946/1968). Initial findings
(Gacono, 1988, 1990; Heaven, 1988) suggested that the paucity of sym-
bolized aggression, represented by AG movement, might be due, in part,
to the ego-syntonic nature of aggression in ASPD and psychopathic sub-
Rorschachiana 27, 164–190
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