Article

"Psychic blindness" and other symptoms following bilateral temporal lobectomy in Rhesus monkeys.

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Abstract

"In connection with a study of hallucination-producing drugs the temporal lobes of an adult Rhesus monkey were removed in two stages. Up to the present (4 weeks after removal of the second lobe) the following symptoms can be observed: The animal does not exhibit the reactions generally associated with anger and fear. It approaches humans and animals, animate as well as inanimate objects without hesitation, and although there are no motor defects, tends to examine them by mouth rather than by the use of the hands. There is a general slowing down of movements; the quick, jerky movements characteristic of the normal Rhesus monkey have almost entirely disappeared. Various tests do not show any impairment in visual acuity or in the ability to localize visually the position of objects in space. However, the monkey seems to be unable to recognize objects by the sense of sight… . These symptoms of what appears to be 'psychic blindness' are not present in four other monkeys which are being studied at present and in which only one temporal lobe has been removed. However, these cases seem to respond less easily and less strongly to a variety of stimuli which in monkeys with one or both frontal, parietal or occipital lobes extirpated or in normal monkeys call forth extreme excitement as evidenced by motor or vocal behavior." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The third structure reported to be crucial in managing both avoidance and freezing defensive behaviors is the amygdala. The first most convincing evidence of amygdala's role in emotional coping particularly fear coping, came from the work by Kluver and Bucy (Kluver and Bucy, 1937). They found that the bilateral removal of the medial temporal lobes in rhesus monkeys resulted in abnormal emotional behavior (Kluver and Bucy, 1937). ...
... The first most convincing evidence of amygdala's role in emotional coping particularly fear coping, came from the work by Kluver and Bucy (Kluver and Bucy, 1937). They found that the bilateral removal of the medial temporal lobes in rhesus monkeys resulted in abnormal emotional behavior (Kluver and Bucy, 1937). Before the temporal lobectomy, the monkeys were fearful and withdrew from their human handlers. ...
... After the surgical procedure, however, the monkeys no longer feared human beings and did not display aggression. Importantly, they also showed interest in exploring objects in the environment (Kluver and Bucy, 1937). Because Kluver and Bucy's lesions included many brain structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal neocortex, Weiskrantz (Weiskrantz, 1956) reexamined lesions restricted to the amygdala and observed the same pattern of behavior, especially the loss of fear. ...
Thesis
Mammals, including rodents show a broad range of defensive behaviors as a mean of coping with threatful stimuli including freezing and avoidance behaviors. Several studies emphasized the role of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in encoding the acquisition as well as the expression of freezing behavior. However the role of this structure in processing avoidance behavior and the contribution of distinct prefrontal circuits to both freezing and avoidance responses are largely unknown. To further investigate the role of dmPFC circuits in encoding passive and active fear-coping strategies, we developed in the laboratory a novel behavioral paradigm in which a mouse has the possibility to either passively freeze to an aversive stimulus or to actively avoid it as a function of contextual contingencies. Using this behavioral paradigm we investigated whether the same circuits mediate freezing and avoidance behaviors or if distinct neuronal circuits are involved. To address this question, we used a combination of behavioral, neuronal tracing, immunochemistry, single unit and patch clamp recordings and optogenetic approaches. Our results indicate that (i) dmPFC and dorsolateral and lateral periaqueductal grey (dl/lPAG) sub-regions are activated during avoidance behavior, (ii) a subpopulation of dmPFC neurons encode avoidance but not freezing behavior, (iii) this neuronal population project to the dl/lPAG, (iv) the optogenetic activation or inhibition of this pathway promoted and blocked the acquisition of conditioned avoidance and (v) avoidance learning was associated with the development of plasticity at dmPFC to dl/lPAG synapses. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that activity-dependent plasticity in a subpopulation of dmPFC cells projecting to the dl/lPAG pathway controls avoidance learning.
... The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a crucial role in support of social cognition (Binney & Ramsey, 2020;Olson et al., 2013). Damage to the ATL results in profound and wideranging socio-affective deficits in both primates and humans (Binney, Henry, et al., 2016;Edwards-Lee et al., 1997;Irish et al., 2014;Klüver & Bucy, 1937;Kumfor et al., 2013;Kumfor, Honan, et al., 2017;Kumfor & Piguet, 2012;Terzian & Dalle Ore, 1955). Amongst neurotypical samples, the findings of functional neuroimaging studies suggest an almost ubiquitous involvement in the high-level processing of faces and emotions (Avidan et al., 2014;Collins et al., 2016;Collins & Olson, 2014;Ramot et al., 2019;Wong & Gallate, 2012), as well as in more abstracted forms of social processing, such as moral cognition and mental state attribution (also known as theory of mind [ToM]) (Diveica et al., 2021;Molenberghs et al., 2016;Moll et al., 2005;Schurz et al., 2014). ...
... A link between certain parts of the ATL (e.g., temporopolar cortex; for a review, see Olson et al., 2013) and social cognition has been recognised for well over a century, owed in part to the acclaimed work of Sharpey-Schafer, 1888 and, later, Klüver andBucy (1937) who performed bilateral ATL resection in non-human primates. ...
... This includes the findings of ATL-optimised fMRI studies and the data from SD which reveals that the ventrolateral ATL is, alongside the temporopolar regions, the most atrophied ATL subregion in this disorder (Binney et al., 2010;Galton et al., 2001;Mion et al., 2010). Moreover, it is noteworthy that Klüver and Bucy (1937) also remarked that the symptoms they observed in non-human primate's failed to appear after resections limited to the dorsolateral convolutions of the temporal lobe. Nor did they present after severing connections of the temporal lobe to the frontal or to the occipital lobes. ...
Article
Full-text available
A key challenge for neurobiological models of social cognition is to elucidate whether brain regions are specialised for that domain. In recent years, discussion surrounding the role of anterior temporal regions epitomises such debates; some argue the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is part of a domain‐specific network for social processing, while others claim it comprises a domain‐general hub for semantic representation. In the present study, we used ATL‐optimised fMRI to map the contribution of different ATL structures to a variety of paradigms frequently used to probe a crucial social ability, namely ‘theory of mind’ (ToM). Using multiple tasks enables a clearer attribution of activation to ToM as opposed to idiosyncratic features of stimuli. Further, we directly explored whether these same structures are also activated by a non‐social task probing semantic representations. We revealed that common to all of the tasks was activation of a key ventrolateral ATL region that is often invisible to standard fMRI. This constitutes novel evidence in support of the view that the ventrolateral ATL contributes to social cognition via a domain‐general role in semantic processing and against claims of a specialised social function. A key challenge for neurobiological models of social cognition is to elucidate whether brain regions are specialised for that domain. We used ATL‐optimised fMRI to map the contribution of different ATL structures to a variety of paradigms frequently used to probe ‘theory of mind’, as well as a non‐social task probing semantic representations. We provide novel evidence in support of the view that the ventrolateral ATL contributes to social cognition via a domain‐general role in semantic processing and against claims of a specialised social function.
... In the hopes of developing more targeted approaches to treat anxiety disorders, recent studies have attempted to identify key brain regions involved in anxiety using a multitude of approaches, including resting state functional connectivity ( Fig. 1) (Xu et al., 2019), imaging, postmortem approaches, and animal models. Some of the earliest studies included lesioning of brain regions such as amygdala as well as parts of the medial temporal lobe (Klüver and Bucy, 1937;LeDoux, 1992;Maren and Fanselow, 1996;Prather et al., 2001), which resulted in what was later termed Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Loss of the amygdala led to a near complete loss of aggression, docility, lack of social anxiety, and inability to identify the emotional importance of events (Hayman et al., 1998;Klüver and Bucy, 1937). ...
... Some of the earliest studies included lesioning of brain regions such as amygdala as well as parts of the medial temporal lobe (Klüver and Bucy, 1937;LeDoux, 1992;Maren and Fanselow, 1996;Prather et al., 2001), which resulted in what was later termed Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Loss of the amygdala led to a near complete loss of aggression, docility, lack of social anxiety, and inability to identify the emotional importance of events (Hayman et al., 1998;Klüver and Bucy, 1937). Although many early studies have clearly linked the amygdala with emotional regulation, signal detection of threat, and gating social approach, this may be in part due to its role as a principal modulator of engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis for gating the fight or flight response. ...
Article
Anxiety disorders represent 1 of the most common classes of psychiatric disorders. In the aging population and for patients with age-related pathology, the percentage of people suffering of anxiety is significantly elevated. Furthermore, anxiety carries with it an increased risk for a variety of age-related medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, cognitive decline, and increased severity of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A variety of anxiolytic compounds are available but often carry with them disturbing side effects that impact quality of life. Among nonmedicinal approaches to reducing anxiety, odor diffusion and aromatherapy are the most popular. In this review, we highlight the emerging perspective that the use of odorants may reduce anxiety symptoms or at least potentiate the effect of other anxiolytic approaches and may serve as an alternative form of therapy to deal with anxiety symptoms. Such approaches may be particularly beneficial in aging populations with elevated risk for these disorders. We also discuss potential neural mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic effects of odorants based on work in animal models.
... The combination of multimodal semantic impairment with bilateral ATL atrophy is consistent with the hypothesis that semantic memory is underpinned by a bilaterally distributed representational system 20,25 . This notion is also supported by (i) patients with unilateral ATL damage (who have mild semantic impairment after left or right resection) 15 ; (ii) bilateral ATL resection in non-human primates 45,46 and a single-case human study 47 -in which initial unilateral resection generated a mild multimodal semantic impairment and then subsequent contralateral ATL resection led to a profound deficit; (iii) results from ATL repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in healthy participants (which generates a transient, selective multimodal semantic deficit after left or right ATL stimulation) 48 and, (iv) fMRI investigations of semantic processing in healthy participants using methods that correct or minimise ATL-related distortion artefacts and other methodological limitations (which show bilateral ATL engagement by semantic tasks particularly in ventral and lateral regions) 8,24,49 . ...
... For example, distortion-corrected/avoiding fMRI identifies bilateral ATL activations when healthy participants complete various semantic tasks 8,66 , rTMS to left or right ATL generates a transient, selective semantic impairment 7,48,86 , and patients with unilateral ATL resection for temporal lobe epilepsy have a mild semantic impairment albeit much less pronounced than that observed in SD 15,87 . The difference between unilateral and bilateral damage was first demonstrated in non-human primates 45,46 and one human case 47 ; initial unilateral resection generating a transient multimodal semantic impairment leading to a considerable, chronic deficit after bilateral removal. Thus, the two ATL work in concert to generate a robust semantic system which is only significantly compromised in bilateral diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
The anterior temporal lobes (ATL) have become a key brain region of interest in cognitive neuroscience founded upon neuropsychological investigations of semantic dementia (SD). The purposes of this investigation are to generate a single unified model that captures the known cognitive-behavioural variations in SD and map these to the patients’ distribution of frontotemporal atrophy. Here we show that the degree of generalised semantic impairment is related to the patients’ total, bilateral ATL atrophy. Verbal production ability is related to total ATL atrophy as well as to the balance of left > right ATL atrophy. Apathy is found to relate positively to the degree of orbitofrontal atrophy. Disinhibition is related to right ATL and orbitofrontal atrophy, and face recognition to right ATL volumes. Rather than positing mutually-exclusive sub-categories, the data-driven model repositions semantics, language, social behaviour and face recognition into a continuous frontotemporal neurocognitive space.
... The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a crucial role in support of social cognition 2 Frith 2003, 2010;Olson et al. 2013;Binney and Ramsey 2020). Damage to this 3 region results in profound and wide-ranging socio-affective deficits in both primates and 4 humans (Klüver and Bucy 1937;Terzian and Dalle Ore 1955;Edwards-Lee et al. 1997;Kumfor 5 and Piguet 2012; Kumfor et al. 2013Irish et al. 2014;. Amongst 6 neurotypical samples, the findings of functional neuroimaging studies suggest an almost 7 ubiquitous involvement in the high-level processing of faces and emotions (Wong and Gallate 8 2012;Collins and Olson 2014;Collins et al. 2016), as well as in more abstracted forms of social 9 processing, such as moral cognition and mental state attribution (also known as theory of mind) 10 (Moll et al. 2005;Schurz et al. 2014;Molenberghs et al. 2016;Diveica et al. 2021). ...
... Animal ablation studies (Brown and Schafer 1888;Klüver and Bucy 1937) and case 633 descriptions of the profound consequences for humans of focal ATL lesions (Terzian and Dalle 634 Ore 1955) and degeneration (e.g. Edwards-Lee et al. 1997) provided some relatively early clues 635 as to the importance of the anterior temporal cortex for socio-affective competences. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key challenge for neurobiological models of social cognition is to elucidate whether brain regions are specialised for that domain. In recent years, discussion surrounding the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) epitomises such debates; some argue it is part of a domain-specific network for social processing, while others claim it is a domain-general hub for semantic representation. In the present study, we used ATL-optimised fMRI to map the contribution of different ATL structures to a variety of paradigms frequently used to probe a crucial social ability, namely theory of mind (ToM). Using multiple tasks enables a clearer attribution of activation to ToM as opposed to idiosyncratic features of stimuli. Further, we directly explored whether these same structures are also activated by a non-social task probing semantic representations. We revealed that common to all of the tasks was activation of a key ventrolateral ATL region that is typically invisible to standard fMRI. This constitutes novel evidence in support of the view that the ventrolateral ATL contributes to social cognition via a domain-general role in the retrieval of conceptual knowledge, and against claims of a specialised social function.
... Findings from clinical and preclinical literature implicate the hippocampus (HPC) in arbitrating conflicting stimuli (Pennartz et al., 2011;Ito and Lee, 2016). Based on data showing qualitatively similar effects of anxiolytic drugs and HPC lesions on approach-avoidance conflict (Klüver and Bucy, 1937;Gray, 1977;Rickels, 1978), it was postulated by Gray in the 1980s that the HPC acts as a comparator by comparing conflicting stimuli and, further, that as a central component of a septo-hippocampal behavioral inhibition system that the HPC disproportionately weights negatively valenced stimuli (Gray, 1982;McNaughton and Gray, 2000). Thus, the HPC is postulated to block ongoing behavior when there is a mismatch between stimuli and predicted outcomes, allowing for increased attention to the environment. ...
... From lesion work it is clear that animals in which vHPC has been ablated seem to disregard fear-associated cues whether they are new or previously learned (Klüver and Bucy, 1937;Koh et al., 2009). The vHPC has robust bidirectional glutamatergic communication with the amygdala. ...
Article
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When environmental cues or stimuli that represent both rewarding and aversive outcomes are presented, complex computations must be made in order to determine whether approach or avoidance is the better behavioral strategy. In many neuropsychiatric illnesses these computations can be skewed. In some instances, circumstances that may normally warrant avoidance instead promote approach, thus producing compulsive-like behavioral strategies that are inflexible in response to new or conflicting information. Alternatively, high sensitivity to aversion or low sensitivity to reward can result in the failure to achieve goals and loss of resilience that characterizes depressive disorders. Increases in compulsive-like behavior have been found to be associated with disrupted signaling in regions that regulate response to conflicting stimuli, including the hippocampus. Classic behavioral inhibition theories of hippocampus function in anxiety suggest that the hippocampus blocks aberrant behavior in response to anxiety related cues or stimuli. The hippocampus may act to block approach in the face of conflicting stimuli. Dysregulations of hippocampal function, as may be present in neuropsychiatric disorders, may therefore promote aberrant approach behavior. The ventral hippocampus (vHPC) subregion is key for coordinating this approach/avoidance conflict resolution, likely through its participation with cortico-striatal and mesolimbic circuits. We revisit Gray's behavioral inhibition theory of HPC function, first posited in the 1980s, and interpret in the context of new knowledge on vHPC function gained through modern technology. Taken together with the extant, classical literature on hippocampal function, we propose that these new findings suggest that vHPC circuits balance behavioral response to conflicting stimuli in a manner that is both state- and context-dependent and, further, that disruption of specific vHPC circuits tips the balance in favor of biased approach or avoidance behavioral strategies.
... Furthermore, the authors described a patient with bilateral amygdala damage who exhibited an abnormally small IPS compared to a group of neurologically healthy participants. Given the pivotal role played by the amygdala in social approach and avoidance behaviours, both in primates and humans [17][18][19][20][21] , it is possible to argue that this brain region is necessary for eliciting emotional responses to proximal social stimuli, and thus regulating a safety IPS boundary between self and others. ...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal space (IPS) is the area around the body that individuals maintain between themselves and others during social interactions. When others violate our IPS, feeling of discomfort rise up, urging us to move farther away and reinstate an appropriate interpersonal distance. Previous studies showed that when individuals are exposed to closeness of an unknown person (a confederate), the skin conductance response (SCR) increases. However, if the SCR is modulated according to participant's preferred IPS is still an open question. To test this hypothesis, we recorded the SCR in healthy participants when a confederate stood in front of them at various distances simulating either an approach or withdrawal movement (Experiment 1). Then, the comfort-distance task was adopted to measure IPS: participants stop the confederate, who moved either toward or away from them, when they felt comfortable with other's proximity (Experiment 2). We found higher SCR when the confederate stood closer to participants simulating an IPS intrusion, compared to when the confederate moved farther away. Crucially, we provide the first evidence that SCR, acting as a warning signal, contributes to interpersonal distance preference suggesting a functional link between behavioral components of IPS regulation and the underlying physiological processes.
... However, intracranial recordings from these subcortical areas have also been linked to orgasms and sexual arousal in patients (Bancaud et al., 1970;Nager et al., 2011). Sexual hyperactivity has also been observed in the Klüver-Bucy syndrome (Klüver & Bucy, 1937). This hypersexuality was one among many symptoms (e.g., visual agnosia and changes of dietary habits) first observed in rhesus monkeys after medial and anterior temporal regions including the amygdala were resected (bilaterally). ...
Article
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Many reviews on sexual arousal in humans focus on different brain imaging methods and behavioral observations. Although neurotransmission in the brain is mainly performed through electrochemical signals, there are no systematic reviews of the electrophysiological correlates of sexual arousal. We performed a systematic search on this subject and reviewed 255 studies including various electrophysiological methods. Our results show how neuroelectric signals have been used to investigate genital somatotopy as well as basic genital physiology during sexual arousal and how cortical electric signals have been recorded during orgasm. Moreover, experiments on the interactions of cognition and sexual arousal in healthy subjects and in individuals with abnormal sexual preferences were analyzed as well as case studies on sexual disturbances associated with diseases of the nervous system. In addition, 25 studies focusing on brain potentials during the interaction of cognition and sexual arousal were eligible for meta-analysis. The results showed significant effect sizes for specific brain potentials during sexual stimulation (P3: Cohen's d = 1.82, N = 300, LPP: Cohen's d = 2.30, N = 510) with high heterogeneity between the combined studies. Taken together, our review shows how neuroelectric methods can consistently differentiate sexual arousal from other emotional states.
... This bilateral, yet graded account of vOTC organisation, may also reflect a broader set of organisational principles extending along the length of the temporal lobes [38,43]. Mirroring the results here in the domain of visual perception, there is consistent evidence in the domain of semantic (and episodic) processing that verbal and nonverbal impairments can occur after unilateral damage to either hemisphere (although verbal deficits are more likely following unilateral left damage), and that bilateral damage produces more severe and pervasive impairments compared to either unilateral left or right damage/resection [44][45][46][47][48][49][50]. ...
Preprint
Full text of this preprint here: https://psyarxiv.com/8h32m Abstract: The organisational principles of the visual ventral stream are still highly debated, specifically the relative association/dissociation between word and face recognition. Reports of dissociations between word and face recognition stem from reports of category-selective impairments in single case-studies, and more recently neuroimaging investigations of healthy participants. Despite the historical reliance on single case-studies, more recent group studies have highlighted a greater commonality between word and face recognition. Studying individual patients with rare selective deficits misses (a) important variability between patients, (b) associations between task performance, and (c) patients with mild, severe and/or non-selective impairments; meaning that the full spectrum of deficits is unknown. The Back of the Brain project assessed the range and specificity of visual perceptual impairment in 64 patients with posterior cerebral artery stroke. Patients were recruited based on lesion localization and not behavioral performance. Group-level data-driven and single-subject case-series analyses revealed the full range of visual perceptual deficits. In both analyses, the general organisational principle was of associations between words and faces. Category-selective deficits were the exception and not the rule. This large-scale investigation of posterior cerebral artery stroke patients highlights the bilateral representation of visual perceptual function.
... Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy published a seminal paper in 1937 (57,58). Kluver was interested in brain mechanisms underlying hallucinations induced by mescaline. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consciousness is currently a thriving area of research in psychology and neuroscience. While this is often attributed to events that took place in the early 1990s, consciousness studies today are a continuation of research that started in the late 19th century and that continued throughout the 20th century. From the beginning, the effort built on studies of animals to reveal basic principles of brain organization and function, and of human patients to gain clues about consciousness itself. Particularly important and our focus here is research in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s involving three groups of patients—amnesia, split brain, and blindsight. Across all three groups, a similar pattern of results was found—the patients could respond appropriately to stimuli that they denied seeing (or in the case of amnesiacs, having seen before). These studies paved the way for the current wave of research on consciousness. The field is, in fact, still grappling with the implications of the findings showing that the ability to consciously know and report the identity of a visual stimulus can be dissociated in the brain from the mechanisms that underlie the ability to behave in a meaningful way to the same stimulus.
... Larry's work on the amygdala, which formed the basis of his PhD thesis at Harvard, was conducted at Karl Pribram's lab at Hartford, Connecticut. The starting point for the work was the Klüver-Bucy syndrome, an interesting collection of symptoms that was observed by Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy after they carried out bilateral lesions of the temporal lobe in macaque monkeys in the 1930s (Klüver & Bucy 1937, 1939. The monkeys, who had been quite fearful and aggressive before the surgery (some extremely so), became quite tame and docile afterwards. ...
... Bilateral removal of the temporal lobes including the uncus and hippocampus produces a striking behavioural change in rhesus monkeys. This syndrome includes visual agnosia (psychic blindness), altered and increased sexual behaviour, distractibility and enhanced orality (Kluver & Bucy, 1937). However, also of note was a placidity and loss of emotional responses such as fear. ...
Thesis
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Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are often described as failing to show a normal range of goal directed behaviours. Among explanations that have been proposed for this apathy are effects of personality, depression and disability. This thesis investigated the phenomena from a neuropsychological perspective. It was found that PD patients are significantly more apathetic than equally disabled osteoarthritis patients, indicating that their apathy is a primary symptom of the disease. No evidence was found relating apathy in PD to personality, depression, anxiety or anhedonia. It was found that the PD patients with high levels of apathy were impaired on cognitive tests, but only those that required executive control. Using visual-search tasks it was shown that this association could not be accounted for by a reduction in effort applied. It was also shown that attention to novelty or curiosity arousing stimuli were not reduced in PD patients with apathy. However, it was shown that they persevered on task for longer than patients with low apathy in conditions in which there was no prompt to stop. This may be due to a willed action deficit that retards actions in situations that lack formal guidance. To test this hypothesis further, a task was developed to record response times for stimuli and will driven actions and was validated in a single case study of an akinetic patient. Although PD patients with high apathy appeared to show a willed action deficit, it was also found that other executive impairments might confound interpretation. It is concluded that apathy in PD may be an expression of executive impairment, but further research is needed to assess the relative contributions of cognitive and motivational dysfunction. There are significant implications to the findings, including the conceptualisation of apathy as a symptom and the potential for therapeutic interventions with apathetic patients.
... The structures of the temporal lobe have received the greatest amount of attention in attempts to understand the neurological basis of hostility through the lesioning process. The surgical taming resulting from temporal lobe lesions has been known since Kluver and Bucy reported that vicious rhesus monkeys were converted to friendly playful animals by a radical, bilateral ablation of the temporal lobes (Kluver and Bucy 1937. A number of studies have now shown that lesions in the amygdala tend to eliminate or at least raise the threshold for several different kinds of aggressive responses. ...
... In early 1950s Paul MacLean devised his theory of "triune brain" and coined the term "limbic brain". He elaborated on the Papez and Bard theories by integrating data from more recent works by Klüver and Bucy on monkeys with lesions of the temporal lobe (Klüver & Bucy, 1937). Maclean's triune brain consisted of an ancient reptilian brain, executing actions comprising the basal ganglia and striatum, the youngest brain part -the neocortex -providing cognition and exerting top down control on emotions, and the last part of the triune -the limbic brain that included structures described by Papez and Bard with the addition of the amygdala and PFC (Maclean, 1949). ...
Thesis
Fear and aggression are evolutionary conserved emotional responses that can be evoked by different stimuli. One of these stimuli is exposure to a threatening conspecific that depending on the context and history of previous encounters can elicit either defence and avoidance or approach and aggression. The ventrolateral division of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) has been recently identified as a structure involved in both behaviours. Neural activity in the ventromedial hypothalamus has been shown to be necessary for defensive and aggressive behavioural responses to conspecific threats. In male mice, inhibition of neural activity in VMHvl reduces avoidance behaviour following exposure to an aggressive male, as well as attack behaviour following exposure to a subordinate male. However, whether the same or different neurons in VMHvl are responsible for defence and aggression toward social threat, how experience affects these responses and the identity of defence neurons in VMHvl remains unknown. Here we performed serial cFos labelling experiments and found that defence and aggression recruited partially overlapping populations in VMHvl. Using in vivo calcium endoscopy of VMHvl neuron activity during social defence and aggression we found that strong calcium responses were elicited upon exposure to the social stimulus and these were further modulated as the animal exhibited defensive or aggressive behaviours. Notably, specific neuronal calcium responses were identified that were correlated with defensive behaviours, some of these neurons were reacted to more than one behaviour, showing complex patterns of activity during aggression and defence. Moreover, calcium recordings over several days of either defence or aggression revealed a change in the ensemble activity between defence and aggression and this effect was dependent on the previous experience of an animal. At the same time we performed a series of functional manipulation experiments blocking or activating neuronal activity in different cell types of the VMHvl. We found separate populations of VMHvl Esr1+ and Nos1+ neurons that were able to modulate defensive responses to social threat. Together, these results demonstrate that the VMHvl encodes and controls both specific and overlapping features of defensive and aggressive behavioural responses to social threat.
... It is classically conceived to be critical to emotional processing and memory and plays an important role in anxiety, fear responses, and reward (Cahill et al., 1995;Gothard, 2020;Janak & Tye, 2015). Early lesion studies showed that damage centered on the amygdala produces a characteristic constellation of symptoms, including the inability to associate sensory aspects of stimuli with their emotional valence and disruption of social cognition (Klüver & Bucy, 1937). Later studies using MRI techniques have validated these findings and have further shown that the amygdala plays an important role in social learning and behaviors, including responses to facial expression, autonomic responses to social stimuli, and eye contact (Guyer et al., 2008;Gamer & Büchel, 2009;Bickart et al., 2011Bickart et al., , 2014Mosher et al., 2014;Rutishauser et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal brain overgrowth in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the development of specific brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampal subfields in infants, is incompletely documented. To address this issue, we performed the first MRI study of amygdala and hippocampal subfields in infants from 6 to 24 months of age using a longitudinal dataset. A novel deep learning approach, Dilated-Dense U-Net, was proposed to address the challenge of low tissue contrast and small structural size of these subfields. We performed a volume-based analysis on the segmentation results. Our results show that infants who were later diagnosed with ASD had larger left and right volumes of amygdala and hippocampal subfields than typically developing controls.
... Earliest evidence for its function stems from experiments, in which monkeys with bilateral temporal lobectomy showed a drastic decrease in fear and in emotions in general (Kluver and Bucy, 1937;Kluver and Bucy, 1939). Consistently, a pattern of "flattened affect" is commonly described in clinical case reports of human patients with amygdala damage (Aggleton, 1992). ...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Amygdala spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei negativen Emotionen wie Angst und den damit verbundenen Gedächtnisvorgängen. Wesentlich für den korrekten Ablauf dieser Prozesse ist das GABAerge inhibitorische System, dessen Schlüsselkomponenten Interneurone und GABAA-Rezeptoren sind. Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wurden die Verteilung verschiedener alpha-Untereinheiten von GABAA-Rezeptoren und ihr relativer Anteil an inhibitorischen Strömen immunohistochemisch und elektrophysiologisch in der Maus-Amygdala untersucht. Der Grossteil inhibitorischer Ströme im basolateralen und im zentralen Kern wird von alpha2- GABAA-Rezeptoren getragen. Alpha1-vermittelte Ströme fehlen gänzlich im zentralen Kern, während die alpha3-Untereinheit nur minimal in beiden Kernen zur Inhibition beiträgt. Im Hippocampus formen Interneurone, die den Cannabinoid Rezeptor 1 (CB1) tragen, bevorzugt Synapsen mit alpha2-GABAA-Rezeptoren. Anders in der Amygdala: Zumindest im basolateralen Kern trägt der grössere Teil der CB1-Synapsen alpha1-GABAA-Rezeptoren. Der zweite Teil fokussiert auf die Charakterisierung eines Subtyps von Interneuronen, den sogenannten parakapsulären Zellen. Diese GABAergen Zellen ummanteln in grossen Clustern den basolateralen Kern und werden cortical aktiviert. Sie hemmen basolaterale Pyramidenzellen und Zellen des zentralen Kerns. Moduliert werden diese Interneurone über Dopamin. Aktivierung von D1-Rezeptoren öffnet G-Protein-abhängige Kalium-Kanäle und führt zur Hyperpolarisierung. Pyramidenzellen und andere Interneuronen hingegen werden D1-Rezeptor-vermittelt depolarisiert. Das etwa in Stress-Situationen ausgeschüttete Dopamin vermindert also die über die parakapsulären Zellen vermittelte corticale Kontrolle über die Amygdala und führt zu einer weniger gehemmten affektiven Reaktion. Summary The amygdala plays a crucial role in emotions, particular negative ones such as anxiety, and in related memory processes. To ensure appropriate emotional responses, an intact inhibitory system is essential, yet little is known about inhibitory GABAergic neurons and GABAA receptors in the amygdala. We therefore investigated electrophysiologically the contribution of different alpha-subunits of the GABAA receptor to inhibitory currents and mapped these subunits also immunohistochemically in mouse amygdala. We found that alpha2-GABAA receptors carry the bulk of inhibitory currents in the basolateral and in the central nucleus. While the alpha1-subunit was completely absent from the central nucleus, the alpha3-subunit contributes only modestly to inhibition in both nuclei. In addition, we detected that inhibitory terminals carrying cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) targeted predominantly alpha1-subunit containing GABAA receptors, which is in contrast to the situation in the hippocampus. The second part focussed on a specific type of amygdala interneurons, the so-called paracapsular cells. These small cells form distinct clusters around the basolateral complex. They are cortically activated and inhibit projection cells of the basolateral and the central nucleus. Dopamine modulates this inhibitory gate: Activation of D1 receptors opens a G- protein-dependent potassium conductance and thus hyperpolarizes these interneurons. In contrast, projection cells and other interneurons within the basolateral nucleus depolarize in response to dopamine and D1 receptor agonists. These findings complement recent in vivo studies, in which dopamine (via D1 receptor activation) was shown to attenuate cortical suppression of the amygdala, thereby facilitating sensory-driven affective responses.
... The publications by Kluver and Bucy [102,103], describing psychic blindness, hyperorality and hypoemotionality in monkeys after bilateral anterior temporal removals, initiated extensive research into the underlying neuroanatomy of both memory and emotions [74]. Subsequent research in monkeys established that bilateral lesions of the anteriorinferior temporal neocortex (area TE) caused severe deficits in the acquisition of new visual discriminations [104,105] without the other behavioral components of the Kluver-Bucy syndrome or deficits in the acquisition of new tactile [106] or auditory discriminations [107]. ...
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There are two well-known hypotheses regarding hemispheric lateralization of emotions. The Right Hemisphere Hypothesis (RHH) postulates that emotions and associated display behaviors are a dominant and lateralized function of the right hemisphere. The Valence Hypothesis (VH) posits that negative emotions and related display behaviors are modulated by the right hemisphere and positive emotions and related display behaviors are modulated by the left hemisphere. Although both the RHH and VH are supported by extensive research data, they are mutually exclusive, suggesting that there may be a missing factor in play that may provide a more accurate description of how emotions are lateralization in the brain. Evidence will be presented that provides a much broader perspective of emotions by embracing the concept that emotions can be classified into primary and social types and that hemispheric lateralization is better explained by the Emotion-type Hypothesis (ETH). The ETH posits that primary emotions and related display behaviors are modulated by the right hemisphere and social emotions and related display behaviors are modulated by the left hemisphere.
... Duygu yüklü uyaranların bellekte daha kalıcı olmasına yönelik olarak amigdalanın oldukça önemli bir role sahip olduğu savunulmaktadır. Amigdalanın duyguyla ilişkili beyin alanı olduğu ilk olarak Klüver ve Bucy (1937) tarafından korku koşullaması çalışmalarıyla ortaya konmuştur. Sonradan ele alınan birçok çalışmayla da amigdalanın duygu yüklü uyaranların işlenmesi ve bellekte kalıcı hale gelmesindeki rolü desteklenmiştir (örn. ...
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Anahtar kelimeler Duygu yüklü uyaran, nötr uyaran, epizodik bellek, uyaran belleği, bağlantısal bellek Keywords Emotional stimuli, neutral stimuli, episodic memory, item memory, associative memory Öz Duygu yüklü uyaranlar bellekte, hem daha ayırıcı ve belirgin olmaları hem de evrimsel ve biyolojik öneme sahip olmaları nedeniyle nötr uyaranlardan farklı şekilde işlenmektedir. Epizodik bellek, olayların birbirleriyle ilişkili şekilde hatırlanması sürecine dayanmaktadır. Günlük hayatta da epizodik anıların yapısı gereği, duygu yüklü ve nötr uyaranlara ayrı ayrı değil birlikte maruz kalınmaktadır. Dolayısıyla duygu yüklü uyaranlar etraftaki nötr uyaranlarla ilişkili hale gelmekte ve bu uyaranların işlenme süreçlerini etkilemektedir. Duygu yüklü uyaranların nötr uyaranlara ilişkin epizodik bellek süreçlerini nasıl etkilediği duygusal epizodik bellek alanyazınında yaygın şekilde araştırılan bir konudur. Mevcut alanyazında söz konusu bu etkinin her durumda güçlendirici veya her durumda zayıflatıcı olduğunu savunan yaklaşımların yanı sıra seçici olduğunu ileri süren yaklaşımlar da bulunmaktadır. Bu seçici etki duygunun nötr uyarana ilişkin belleği bazı durumlarda güçlendirirken bazı durumlarda zayıflattığını vurgulamaktadır. Ek olarak, duygu yüklü uyaranların etraftaki nötr uyaranlara ilişkin uyaran (item) belleğinin yanı sıra bu uyaranlarla kurulan bağlantısal (associative) bellek süreçleri üzerinde de etkileri bulunmaktadır. Mevcut çalışmalar duygu yüklü uyaranların uyaran belleğini ve bağlantısal belleği farklı şekilde etkilediğini göstermektedir. Özetle, bu derleme çalışmasında duygusal epizodik bellek alanyazınına nötr uyaranlar ekseninde bakılmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla duygu yüklü uyaranların etraftaki nötr uyaranlara ilişkin epizodik bellek süreçlerini ne şekilde etkilediği kapsamlı şekilde incelenmiştir. Abstract Emotional stimuli are processed differently in memory with respect to neutral stimuli; because they are more distinct, salient, and biologically significant. Episodic memory is about remembering the events as related to each other. In everyday life, because of the nature of episodic memories, emotional and neutral stimuli are exposed together, not separately. Thus, emotional stimuli become related to nearby neutral stimuli and affect their processing. In the emotional episodic memory literature, how emotional stimuli affect episodic memory processes about neutral stimuli has been widely studied. In addition to the approaches arguing this effect is either enhancing or weakening, there are also other approaches suggesting that it is selective. This selective effect emphasizes that emotion might enhance or weaken the memory for neutral stimuli with respect to different occasions. In addition to the item memory for nearby neutral stimuli, emotional stimuli have effects on the associative memory established with these stimuli. Research has shown that emotional stimuli affect item and associative memory in different ways. In summary, this review tries to analyze emotional episodic memory literature in the scope of neutral stimuli. For this aim, how emotional stimuli affect episodic memory for nearby neutral stimuli is evaluated extensively. Makale Bilgisi Geliş
... Importantly, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) underlies the complex control of behaviors that are related to both aversive (stress) and rewarding (acute alcohol intake) stimuli (Baxter and Murray 2002;Janak and Tye 2015;Crouse et al. 2020). Early investigations into the BLA suggested that the amygdala can rapidly detect negative emotional states and external stimuli to produce behavior that is adaptive to potential threats (Brown and Sharpey-Schafer 1888;Klüver and Bucy 1937;Weiskrantz 1956). ...
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Clinical studies suggest that women are more likely than men to relapse to alcohol drinking in response to stress; however, the mechanisms underlying this sex difference are not well understood. A number of preclinical behavioral models have been used to study stress-induced alcohol intake. Here, we review paradigms used to study effects of stress on alcohol intake in rodents, focusing on findings relevant to sex differences. To date, studies of sex differences in stress-induced alcohol drinking have been somewhat limited; however, there is evidence that amygdala-centered circuits contribute to effects of stress on alcohol seeking. In addition, we present an overview of inflammatory pathways leading to microglial activation that may contribute to alcohol-dependent behaviors. We propose that sex differences in neuronal function and inflammatory signaling in circuits centered on the amygdala are involved in sex-dependent effects on stress-induced alcohol seeking and suggest that this is an important area for future studies.
... The latter is a proposed network derived from functional neuroimaging research that appears to activate whenever an individual is not actively engaged in a task in their environment, and which has been linked to a wide range of cognitive [e.g., forming self-relevant mental constructs, planning for future (216)] and social functions in its own right [e.g., social understanding of others, morality (211,214)]. These findings relating socio-emotional functions to neural underpinnings were originally formulated from naturally occurring lesion studies in humans and ablation studies in non-human primates (217)(218)(219)(220)(221), and have been augmented over the years by data derived from functional neuroimaging studies and to a lesser extent electrophysiological investigation (222,223). Catani et al. (224) provide a thorough review of the contributors over the past century and a half to these developments, and offer an updated model for the neural substrates underlying emotion, memory, and behavior. ...
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Mapping of cortical functions is critical for the best clinical care of patients undergoing epilepsy and tumor surgery, but also to better understand human brain function and connectivity. The purpose of this review is to explore existing and potential means of mapping higher cortical functions, including stimulation mapping, passive mapping, and connectivity analyses. We examine the history of mapping, differences between subdural and stereoelectroencephalographic approaches, and some risks and safety aspects, before examining different types of functional mapping. Much of this review explores the prospects for new mapping approaches to better understand other components of language, memory, spatial skills, executive, and socio-emotional functions. We also touch on brain-machine interfaces, philosophical aspects of aligning tasks to brain circuits, and the study of consciousness. We end by discussing multi-modal testing and virtual reality approaches to mapping higher cortical functions.
... Nous savons cependant aujourd'hui que cette vision était erronée et que le cerveau joue un rôle primordial dans l'expérience émotionnelle. On connait depuis longtemps le rôle du système limbique (MacLean, 1952) dans le fonctionnement émotionnel.A titre d'exemple, l'amygdale(Klüver & Bucy, 1937) ou bien encore le lien unissant l'hypothalamus et le cortex cérébral(Papez, 1937) seraient impliqués dans le mécanisme physiologique de l'émotion. Mais contrairement à ce que les chercheurs ont pu penser durant plusieurs décennies, le fonctionnement émotionnel ne se limite pas seulement au système limbique et ses noyaux sous-corticaux. ...
Thesis
Dans cette thèse, nous nous sommes intéressés au raisonnement et à la capacité décisionnelle des experts. A l’exception d’une étude qui est composée de deux populations expertes différentes (Joueurs d’échecs et joueurs de Go), nous nous sommes concentrés sur la population d’expert du jeu d’échecs. Notre objectif initial était de montrer l’influence de certains processus émotionnels dans les décisions expertes. Dans ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés aux liens pouvant être établis entre la théorie des marqueurs somatiques et les théories en psychologie de l’expertise. Notre idée est que les marqueurs somatiques offrent un cadre intéressant afin d’étudier et de comprendre les performances expertes.Nous avons tout d’abord étudié les capacités de prise de décision générales des experts, en dehors de leur champ d’expertise, à l’aide d’un test spécialement créé pour étudier les marqueurs somatiques (Iowa Gambling Task ; IGT) et d’autres épreuves se focalisant sur les aspects de décision ambiguë (Balloon Analog Risk Task ; BART) et en connaissance des risques (Game of Dice Task ; GDT). L’objectif était de voir si les joueurs d’échecs sont meilleurs que les novices dans ces tâches et de mieux comprendre le type de contexte décisionnel pouvant amener les joueurs experts à dépasser les capacités de la population générale. Nous observons que la prise de décision des experts est meilleure principalement dans le cadre de l’IGT. Ainsi, contrairement à ce qui apparait parfois dans la littérature, les performances des joueurs d’échecs ne semblent pas se limiter exclusivement à leur domaine d’expertise.Nous avons ensuite étudié les décisions des experts au sein de leur domaine de compétence. Nous avons ainsi réalisé deux études utilisant des positions d’échecs. Il s’agit d’une tâche d’amorçage et d’une adaptation de l’effet d’Einstellung (ou effet d’attitude). L’objectif de ces études était d’observer l’influence du traitement automatique des positions sur la performance des joueurs d’échecs. Nos résultats semblent indiquer que les experts procèdent à un traitement automatique des positions pouvant amener à l’activation de schémas et procédures de résolution spécifiques à la situation. Cet activation automatique peut entraîner une amélioration des performances pouvant aller jusqu’à la mise en place d’une décision intuitive pour les joueurs experts. Mais celle-ci peut également venir perturber la décision des joueurs en focalisant leur attention sur des aspects moins pertinents de la situation.Pour ce qui concerne les compétences générales des experts, en dehors de leur champ d’expertise, les résultats obtenus semblent indiquer une utilisation efficace de la voie émotionnelle de la décision responsable de l’activation des marqueurs somatiques. Dans les études menées dans le domaine d’expertise, la théorie des marqueurs somatiques permettrait également, selon nous, d’expliquer les différents modes de décision des experts. Nous proposerons donc dans cette thèse un modèle des décisions expertes incluant la modalité somatique.En résumé, nos résultats semblent indiquer que la théorie des marqueurs somatiques est un cadre interprétatif intéressant pour les décisions expertes. Ces marqueurs sont reliés à de précédentes situations ayant provoqué une réaction émotionnelle et pourraient venir assister les décisions experts dans et hors de leur domaine d’expertise. Néanmoins, de plus amples recherches, incluant des mesures physiologiques, doivent être menées afin de confirmer l’intérêt des marqueurs somatiques dans la décision experte.
... Les fonctions attribuées à l'amygdale ont considérablement évolué depuis les études princeps de Klüver et Bucy, et de Pavlov dans les années 1930. Les premiers ont mis en évidence le rôle de cette structure cérébrale dans les comportements sociaux (Klüver & Bucy, 1937), alors que le second a montré qu'elle était impliquée dans l'apprentissage émotionnel, la mémoire ou encore le conditionnement de la peur (Pavlov, 1927). ...
Thesis
La cognition sociale regroupe plusieurs capacités, comme la reconnaissance des émotions faciales (REF), la Théorie de l’Esprit (TDE) et l’empathie. Celles-ci sont sévèrement altérées dans la variante comportementale de la Dégénérescence Fronto-Temporale (DFT-c) et plus légèrement dans la Maladie d’Alzheimer (MA) et la Maladie de Parkinson (MP), avec pour conséquences des troubles du comportement (TDC), désinhibition et apathie en particulier, qui conduisent à l’épuisement de l’aidant familial. Dans ces trois maladies une diminution des capacités top-down et une modification des capacités bottom-up de guidage de l’attention lors de la recherche d’informations visuelles sont aussi observées. Or, la REF, la TDE et l’empathie s’appuient sur la détection visuelle d’indices sociaux, sur le visage en particulier. Enfin, de nombreux chevauchements existent entre les structures, les faisceaux et les réseaux cérébraux impliqués dans la cognition sociale et dans l’exploration visuelle. A travers trois études expérimentales, cette thèse a pour premier objectif de mettre en évidence que l’atteinte de la cognition sociale dans la DFT-c, la MA et la MP, et les TDC qui en découlent, sont liés à une modification des stratégies d’exploration visuelle. L’objectif secondaire est de montrer qu’une remédiation des stratégies d’observation des visages exprimant une émotion chez les personnes atteintes de maladie neurodégénératives permet une amélioration de la REF, entraine une diminution des TDC et un allègement du fardeau de leurs aidants familiaux. Nos résultats confirment le triple lien entre stratégies de regard, cognition sociale et TDC. Les difficultés de REF sont associées à une perturbation des mécanismes d’orientation de l’attention sur les régions saillantes du visage liées à chaque émotion. Dans la DFT-c l’altération de ces mécanismes est sévère, le pattern d’exploration des visages exprimant une émotion étant similaire à celui d’un visage neutre. Pour la MA et la MP, cela concerne une perte d’attractivité de la région des yeux et une capture attentionnelle accrue de la région de la bouche. La TDE quant à elle est principalement impactée par une altération des stratégies top-down de recherche d’indices visuels permettant de prendre la perspective d’autrui et d’inférer ses états mentaux. Là aussi c’est dans la DFT-c que le pattern d’observation est le plus perturbé, avec une perte de stratégies d’observations et une insensibilité aux informations données qui conduisent à une prise de perspective d’autrui décalée dans le temps. Ces types d’observations de scènes sociales sont corrélés à la production de TDC. Enfin, la remédiation de la REF menée auprès d’un groupe MA montre que l’amélioration des performances est conjointe à une modification des stratégies d’observation des visages, avec une observation plus importante de la région des yeux, et entraîne une diminution des TDC et du fardeau de l’aidant. Nos résultats suggèrent donc une forte participation des mécanismes attentionnels dans le déficit de cognition sociale dans les maladies neurodégénératives. Par conséquent une prise en charge des TDC axée sur une remédiation des stratégies de recherche d’indices visuels sociaux semble être une piste intéressante afin de prévenir l’épuisement de l’aidant familial et de retarder l’institutionnalisation.
... Amygdala, a part of the limbic system, plays an important role in regulating emotional responses, especially negative emotions (LeDoux 1992). Initial studies conducted by Kluver-Bucy (1937), Weiskrantz (1956) and other scientists proved amygdala as one of the most important brain region for emotions and the processing of social signs of emotions including fear (Dalgleis 2004). Even in modulating the storage and strength of emotions, amygdala plays an important role which was convincingly shown by James L. McGaugh and his colleagues at the University of California (LeDoux 2002). ...
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At least since the recent worldwide financial crisis questions were raised if the rush for economic growth measured by the GDP is an appropriate tool. Fundamental issues like the quality of life and working life, social inequality, health, life expectancy, sustainability are neglected since then. In the 1960s these questions were raised e.g. Brundtland Commission “Our Common Future” leading to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. The Agenda 21 in 1987 was an important milestone in reconsidering the dominant economic policies and assessments. However, already in the 19th century the whole debate about the alternatives to the developing modern capitalism were discussed and practiced – the socialist, communist, anarchist, cooperative movement. “Another World is possible!” is the slogan of the World Social Forum since 2001, and may give the perspective for a world “Beyond GDP”.
... The hippocampus is a functionally diverse brain region, linked to an array of cognitive and emotional 40 behaviors (Klüver and Bucy, 1937;Scoville and Milner, 1957). In rodents for example, this diversity is 41 particularly pronounced along the dorsal-ventral axis of CA1, with dorsal CA1 implicated in episodic 42 memory and spatial navigation in contrast to ventral CA1, which has been linked to anxiety and social ...
Article
Molecular, anatomic, and behavioral studies show that the hippocampus is structurally and functionally heterogeneous, with dorsal hippocampus implicated in mnemonic processes and spatial navigation and ventral hippocampus involved in affective processes. By performing electrophysiological recordings of large neuronal populations in dorsal and ventral CA1 in head-fixed mice navigating a virtual environment, we found that this diversity resulted in different strategies for population coding of space. Populations of neurons in dorsal CA1 showed more complex patterns of activity, which resulted in a higher dimensionality of neural representations that translated to more information being encoded, as compared ensembles in vCA1. Furthermore, a pairwise maximum entropy model was better at predicting the structure of these global patterns of activity in ventral CA1 as compared to dorsal CA1. Taken together, the different coding strategies we uncovered likely emerge from anatomical and physiological differences along the longitudinal axis of hippocampus and that may, in turn, underpin the divergent ethological roles of dorsal and ventral CA1.Significance StatementRecent studies have shown that spatial encoding in the hippocampus is not a simple function of individual place cell activities, but is rather sculpted by the collective activity of neuronal populations. However, the hippocampus is an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous structure, and it is not known how the features of this population code vary across the different hippocampal subfields. By performing recordings of large neuronal populations in dorsal and ventral CA1 as mice navigated a virtual environment, we showed how the functional architecture of the hippocampus underpins a divergent representation of space along its longitudinal axis, with ventral CA1 generating coarser and less precise spatial maps than dorsal CA1.
Article
In this study, a brain network was created using graph theoretical analysis based on electroencephalography (EEG) data. The purpose of the study was to investigate the functional connectivity of the brain in different states of anxiety. Seventeen adults with anxiety (A‐G), and 13 adults without anxiety (AF‐G) were examined. They were given three different stimulations: resting, pleasant, and unpleasant. EEG was measured immediately after the stimulation. The EEG was analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coherence analysis, and graph theory. The results of FFT and coherence analysis showed that the anxiety group (A‐G) had higher power spectra and coherence values than those for the anxiety‐free group (AF‐G) in all sessions. The results of graph theory analysis showed that the clustering coefficient and small‐worldness in A‐G were lower than those in AF‐G, although the characteristic path length in A‐G was higher than that in AF‐G. This study shows that the brain of A‐G has smaller clusters and longer paths to compare with those of AF‐G. These events suggest that the brain of A‐G would have an inefficient network structure to transmit emotional information.
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The interactions of anterior temporal structures, and especially the amygdala, with the prefrontal cortex are pivotal to learning, decision-making, and socio-emotional regulation. A clear anatomical description of the organization and dissociation of fiber bundles linking anterior temporal cortex/amygdala and prefrontal cortex in humans is still lacking. Using diffusion imaging techniques, we reconstructed fiber bundles between these anatomical regions in human and macaque brains. First, by studying macaques, we assessed which aspects of connectivity known from tracer studies could be identified with diffusion imaging. Second, by comparing diffusion imaging results in humans and macaques, we estimated the patterns of fibers coursing between human amygdala and prefrontal cortex and compared them with those in the monkey. In posterior prefrontal cortex, we observed a prominent and well-preserved bifurcation of bundles into primarily two fiber systems—an amygdalofugal path and an uncinate path—in both species. This dissociation fades away in more rostral prefrontal regions.
Thesis
Le trouble de stress post-traumatique (TSPT) est un trouble de type anxieux se déclenchant généralement suite à une expérience traumatisante. Des structures cérébrales telles que le cortex préfrontal, l’hippocampe ou encore l’amygdale, appartenant au réseau impliqué dans l’apprentissage et les mémoires émotionnelles, sont particulièrement altérées. Ce réseau étant extrêmement bien conservé au cours de l’évolution, la mise en place et le maintien des mémoires aversives peut être étudiés chez le rongeur par un paradigme pavlovien de peur conditionnée. Notre équipe a identifié une forte expression du transporteur vésiculaire du glutamate, VGLUT3 dans l’amygdale basolatérale (BLA). VGLUT3, comme les autres transporteurs vésiculaires du glutamate (VGLUTs), permet l’internalisation du glutamate dans les vésicules synaptiques. Il se distingue des autres VGLUTs par sa distribution et ses fonctions atypiques. Mes travaux de recherche nous ont permis d’identifier les populations neuronales exprimant VGLUT3 dans la BLA, et de définir son rôle dans les processus de mémoires aversives. La caractérisation anatomique a révélé que : 1/ VGLUT3 est uniquement présent dans une sous-population d’interneurones GABAergiques de la BLA, et 2/ VGLUT3 est exprimé dans les terminaisons cholinergiques et sérotoninergiques de la BLA, permettant d’identifier deux populations de neurones de projections possédant VGLUT3. L’étude du rôle fonctionnel de VGLUT3 a été réalisé par l’utilisation d’une approche génétique couplée à une approche virale pour invalider VGLUT3 dans les terminaisons GABAergiques, sérotoninergiques ou bien cholinergiques. Les souris présentant une inactivation constitutive de VGLUT3 montrent une généralisation au contexte et une extinction rapide. L’inactivation spécifique de VGLUT3 dans la BLA ou dans le cerveau antérieur basal – site d’origine des neurones de projections cholinergiques vers la BLA perturbent également les mémoires aversives, soulignant le rôle spécifique de VGLUT3 dans les réponses modulant la peur à travers sa présence dans l’amygdale basolatérale. Ces nouvelles données permettront de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement et le rôle de VGLUT3 dans les mémoires émotionnelles, et d’explorer son éventuelle implication dans des troubles de l’anxiété tel le TSPT.
Article
The basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for emotional processing, is the limbic hub that is connected with various brain regions. BLA neurons are classified into different subtypes that exhibit differential projection patterns and mediate distinct emotional behaviors; however, little is known about their presynaptic input patterns. In this study, we employed projection‐specific monosynaptic rabies virus tracing to identify the direct monosynaptic inputs to BLA subtypes. We found that each neuronal subtype receives long‐range projection input from specific brain regions. In contrast to their specific axonal projection patterns, all BLA neuronal subtypes exhibited relatively similar input patterns. This anatomical organization supports the idea that the BLA is a central integrator that associates sensory information in different modalities with valence and sends associative information to behaviorally relevant brain regions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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In addition to bradykinesia and tremor, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are known to exhibit non-motor symptoms such as apathy and hypomimia but also impulsivity in response to dopaminergic replacement therapy. Moreover, a plethora of studies observe differences in electrocortical and autonomic responses to both visual and acoustic affective stimuli in PD subjects compared to healthy controls. This suggests that the basal ganglia (BG), as well as the hyperdirect pathway and BG thalamocortical circuits, are involved in affective processing. Recent studies have shown valence and dopamine-dependent changes in synchronization in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in PD patients during affective tasks. This thesis investigates the role of dopamine, valence, and laterality in STN electrophysiology by analyzing event-related potentials (ERP), synchronization, and inter-hemispheric STN connectivity. STN recordings were obtained from PD patients with chronically implanted electrodes for deep brain stimulation during a passive affective picture presentation task. The STN exhibited valence-dependent ERP latencies and lateralized ‘high beta’ (28–40 Hz) event-related desynchronization. This thesis also examines the role of dopamine, valence, and laterality on STN functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala. The activity of these limbic structures was reconstructed using simultaneously recorded electroencephalographic signals. While the STN was found to establish early coupling with both structures, STN-ACC coupling in the ‘alpha’ range (7–11 Hz) and uncoupling in the ‘low beta’ range (14–21 Hz) were lateralized. Lateralization was also observed at the level of synchrony in both reconstructed sources and for ACC ERP amplitude, whereas dopamine modulated ERP latency in the amygdala. These results may deepen our current understanding of the STN as a limbic node within larger emotional-motor networks in the brain.
Article
Trust is essential for establishing and maintaining cooperative behaviors between individuals and institutions in a wide variety of social, economic, and political contexts. This book explores trust through the lens of neurobiology, focusing on empirical, methodological, and theoretical aspects. Written by a distinguished group of researchers from economics, psychology, human factors, neuroscience, and psychiatry, the chapters shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of trust as applied in a variety of domains. Researchers and students will discover a refined understanding of trust by delving into the essential topics in this area of study outlined by leading experts.
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Первый фундаментальный обзор современных данных о нейрофизиологических и биохимических механизмах центрифугального контроля зрительной функции. Представлено обобщение экспериментальных данных и литературных сведений об амигдалярной регуляции зрительного восприятия. Доказано существование полифункционального эффекта амигдалярного комплекса на структуры зрительной системы. Подробно рассматривается и анализируется центрифугальное ретинопетальное влияние амигдалы, гипоталамуса и мезенцефалической ретикулярной формации на перцептивную функцию сетчатки, включая ее дистальный отдел. Обсуждается участие указанных структур мозга в механизме переработки информации отдельными нейронами либо нейрональными ансамблями центральных структур зрительной системы. Высказывается предположение, что механизм генерации осцилляторных потенциалов может базироваться на нейрональной активности, о чем свидетельствует выявленная корреляция их формирования. Впервые в хронических экспериментах на бодрствующих (необездвиженных, ненаркотизированных) животных на всех уровнях зрительной системы одновременно были параллельно зарегистрированы вызванные классические и осцилляторные потенциалы в широком диапазоне интенсивности (0.001 – 384 Дж), также осуществлена параллельная регистрация с одного и того же микроэлектрода вызванной фокальной и нейрональной электрической активности мозга на световую вспышку, амигдалярную и ретикулярную стимуляцию электрическим импульсом. Дается анализ новых коротколатентных ответов на сверхъяркие (экстремальные, временно ослепляющие) фотостимулы, впервые зарегистрированных во всех структурах зрительной системы. Также рассматривается впервые доказанное в электрофизиологических экспериментах реальное существование центрифугального контроля функции сетчатки, распространяющегося до дистальных отделов ретины- фоторецепторов (парадигма а- и b-компонентов электроретинограммы). Прослеживается эффект деструкции межсистемного зрительно - амигдалярного взаимодействия в сопоставлении с патогенезом нейродегенеративных заболеваний, сопровождающихся агностическим синдромом и нарушением перцептивно- когнитивных функций зрительного анализатора в реализации целенаправленного познавательного двигательного акта, контролируемого зрением. Деструкция генетически детерминированного физиологического тандема амигдала - зрение может приводить к нарушению идентификации и дискриминации зрительных образов и адекватного анализа их биологической значимости.
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https://www.amazon.it/Dare-corpo-mente-Emilia-Barile/dp/8861590020 Che cosa significa sentire, provare qualcosa? La dimensione soggettiva del "provare in prima persona", intrinseca ma non esclusiva dei fenomeni emozionali, è in grado, più di altri fenomeni mentali, di mettere in crisi il modello cognitivista dominante della mente. Non sembra possibile, infatti, provare alcunché senza un corpo, un corpo biologico comunque concepito: è questa la tesi di fondo degli approcci neuroscientifici alla mente. Quella proposta da Emilia Barile è una lettura critica del modello neurobiologico, e più in particolare dei risultati sperimentali di Antonio Damasio e delle sue indagini intorno al rapporto fra emozione, corpo e coscienza, e che oltre a evidenziarne le potenzialità esplicative ne mette chiaramente in luce i limiti teorici. CONTENTS (transl.) i) “EMBODYING MIND” 1.1 Defining a mystery? 1.2 The “epoché” of the body 1.3 Body recovered. Neuroscience and the theoretical central role of the body ii) “EMOTIONS: WINDOWS ON THE BODY” 2.1 Emotion and cognition: beyond the logocentric theories 2.2 Status quaestionis 2.3 Appraisal/evaluation: the essence of an emotion 2.4 From «motions» to «emotions». Objections to the neurobiological model 2.5 With “feeling”. N. Frijda and the limits of functionalism iii) “ WHAT DOES FEELING MEAN?” 3.1 “Feeling” emotions 3.2 “The Feeling of What Happens”. The origins of “feeling” 3.3 Emotion and motitvation. R. Buck and the hypothesis of «primes» iv) “THE PRIMACY OF THE BODY“ 4.1 Defining “feeling”: the case of “needs” 4.2 “Knowing without feeling”. The «somatic marker» hypothesis 4.3 “Minimal” representationalism. A. Clark’s position 4.4 Represented body v) “FROM BODY TO MIND: WHICH MODEL?” 5.1 From body to mind. M. Johnson and his «image schemata» 5.2 From “biologie”to “connaissance”. J. Piaget’s model 5.3 From schemata to representations: the development dynamics 5.4 The sensory-motor origin of concepts HARDWARE AND LIVING BODY: A CRITICAL POSTSCRIPT
Chapter
In previous chapters, I described the behavioral aspects of fear learning in humans and animals. Öhman et al. hypothesized (Öhman and Mineka 2001, 2003) that the neural mechanisms that process sources of fear (e.g., snakes and spiders), commonly shared among mammals, including humans, are independently maintained in the brain. The snake detection theory (SDT) proposes that the primate brain expanded to be able to detect snakes efficiently during the course of evolution (Isbell 2006, 2009); furthermore, it proposes the existence of an independent fear module in the brain and identifies its neural mechanism in more detail. This chapter will provide a review of the SDT. Before embarking on this review, we will first describe the neural mechanisms underlying general fear learning in relation to typical examples of Pavlovian conditioning through exposure to light and sound as conditioned stimuli (CS).
Chapter
The amygdaloid body is an extended group of telencephalic subnuclei of pallial and subpallial origin located in the ventral telencephalon. It gets input from all main sensory and motor structures. The amygdala is involved in the processing of emotional and cognitive behavior. The bilateral loss of the amygdala (Klüver-Bucy syndrome) in man results in marked behavioral changes including visual agnosia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, a tendency to react to every visual stimulus, and memory deficits resembling strongly the symptoms which occurred in monkeys after bilateral amygdalectomy.
Chapter
Trust is essential for establishing and maintaining cooperative behaviors between individuals and institutions in a wide variety of social, economic, and political contexts. This book explores trust through the lens of neurobiology, focusing on empirical, methodological, and theoretical aspects. Written by a distinguished group of researchers from economics, psychology, human factors, neuroscience, and psychiatry, the chapters shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of trust as applied in a variety of domains. Researchers and students will discover a refined understanding of trust by delving into the essential topics in this area of study outlined by leading experts.
Article
The amygdala complex is a diverse group of more than 13 nuclei, segregated in five major groups: the basolateral (BLA), central (CeA), medial (MeA), cortical (CoA), and basomedial (BMA) amygdala nuclei. These nuclei can be distinguished depending on their cytoarchitectonic properties, connectivity, genetic, and molecular identity, and most importantly, on their functional role in animal behavior. The extended amygdala includes the CeA and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Both CeA and the BNST share similar cellular organization, including common neuron types, reciprocal connectivity, and many overlapping downstream targets. In this section, we describe the advances of our knowledge on neuronal diversity in the amygdala complex and the BNST, based on recent functional studies, performed at genetic, molecular, physiological, and anatomical levels in rodent models, especially rats and mice. Molecular and connection property can be used separately, or in combinations, to define neuronal populations, leading to a multiplexed neuronal diversity-supporting different functional roles.
Presentation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8batIOB4S-M
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A agressividade humana é um comportamento complexo com alta prevalência na população psiquiátrica. O corpo amigdalóide é uma estrutura chave na neurocircuitaria da agressividade, e sua hiperatividade, associada à diminuição do controle do córtex pré-frontal são fundamentais para a manutenção deste comportamento. O tratamento preconizado consiste no uso de medicações antipsicóticas, entretanto, alguns indivíduos não respondem adequadamente, sendo classificados refratários e podendo ser indicados para a realização de procedimentos neurocirúrgicos funcionais para diminuir sua agressividade e aumentar a qualidade de vida. Todavia, os mecanismos neurobiológicos responsáveis por estas mudanças ainda precisam ser desvendados. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi elucidar estes mecanismos e aumentar o conhecimento acerca da neurobiologia do comportamento agressivo. Assim, quatro pacientes (três homens e uma mulher) agressivos refratários ao tratamento farmacológico realizaram a amigdalotomia conforme ordem judicial do CREMESP. Foram feitos exames de ressonância magnética, avaliados os níveis de TSH, T4 livre, T3, cortisol, LH, FSH, estradiol, prolactina, progesterona, SHBG, testosterona total e livre e aplicadas as escalas: Overt Aggression Scale (agressividade), Agitated Behavior Scale (agitação motora) e a escala SF-36 (qualidade de vida) antes e após 3, 12, 24 e 36 meses da cirurgia ou após a segunda operação, quando necessário. Nossos resultados indicam uma diminuição importante da agressividade após a segunda cirurgia e aos trinta e seis meses de seguimento do paciente que não foi novamente operado. Ainda, observamos correlações positivas entre a agressividade e a testosterona e agressividade e razão testosterona/cortisol, nos pacientes do sexo masculino, e entre agressividade e agitação motora de todos pacientes operados. A qualidade de vida destes aumentou ao final do seguimento em relação ao período pré-operatório. Não observamos alterações nos demais hormônios mensurados. Adicionalmente pacientes agressivos não refratários foram estudados, através das mesmas ferramentas aplicadas aos pacientes operados e, assim como no grupo operado, observamos correlações positivas entre agressividade e agitação em todos os pacientes e, entre agressividade e testosterona e agressividade e testosterona/cortisol nos pacientes do sexo masculino. As citocinas IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 e BDNF não se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos refratário e não refratário. Finalmente o estudo das imagens de ressonância magnética revelaram que o corpo amigdalóide de todos os pacientes se encontrava dentro da faixa de normalidade e, portanto, não há diferenças entre os grupos. Estes volumes não se correlacionaram aos níveis de agressividade destes pacientes. Ainda, não foram observadas diferenças na morfologia encefálica entre os grupos, quando comparados na linha de base. Após a cirurgia de amigdalotomia, regiões pertencentes ao neurocircuito de agressividade e dor apresentaram alterações volumétricas e na microestrutura da substância branca. Portanto, acreditamos que a amigdalotomia altera características físicas de áreas cerebrais, e assim é capaz de diminuir a agressividade e a agitação dos pacientes refratários aumentando sua qualidade de vida, sem alterar a função normal do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise. Também, indistintamente da refratariedade ao tratamento ou do sexo, a agressividade está correlacionada com a agitação motora do paciente, e com a testosterona e a razão testosterona/cortisol nos pacientes do sexo masculino. Human aggressiveness is a complex behavior with a high prevalence in the psychiatry population. The amygdala is a key structure in the neurocircuitry of aggressive behavior and its hyper-activation along with a deficiency in the prefrontal cortical control are fundamental for the maintenance of this behavior. The preconized treatment involves the use of antipsychotics however; a portion does not properly respond to conventional therapies and is considered medically refractory. For this population, functional neurosurgical procedures can be performed to improve symptomatology and quality of life, but the mechanisms responsible for the reduction in aggressive behavior after surgery need to be unraveled. In this sense, the aim of this project is to shed light on these mechanisms and improve knowledge about the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Four aggressive patients (three man and one woman) diagnosed with drug-refractory symptoms performed bilateral amygdalotomy, according to a judicial law set by CREMESP. Magnetic resonance imaging where acquired, the levels of TSH, Free T4, T3, Cortisol, LH, FSH Estradiol, Prolactin, Progesterone, Testosterone, and SHBG and the Overt Aggression Scale, Agitated Behavior Scale and the SF-36 (quality of life) where applied before, and after 3, 12, 24 and 36 months after surgery or after second operation, in cases where it was necessary. Our results indicate an important reduction in aggression after second surgery and at thirty-six months of follow up of the patient that did not re- operated. Moreover, aggressive behavior correlated positively to motor agitation in all patients and to testosterone and testosterone/cortisol ratio in males. Quality of life increased for all patients when comparing the last evaluation with the pre-operation period. No alterations in the remaining hormones was observed. Additionally, non- refractory aggressive patients were studied using the same tools applied to the operated group and, as observed for the operated group, aggression correlated with agitation (all patients), testosterone and testosterone/cortisol ratio (man only). The evaluations of IL- 1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and BDNF factors showed no differences between refractory and no refractory groups. Finally, the study of the resonance magnetic images revealed that all patients had amygdala volume in normal range and this does not correlates with aggression. Moreover, there were no differences in brain morphology between groups when compared at baseline, and after surgery areas related to the neurocircuitry of aggressive behavior presented volumetric and white matter microstructure alterations. Therefore, we believe that the amygdalotomy surgery is sufficient to reduce the aggressive behavior and agitation and increase quality of life without altering the hypothalamus-hypophyses axis. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is related to agitation in all patients and with testosterone and testosterone/cortisol ration in man.
Chapter
The topography of the visual pathways is of great importance in clinical neurology. Since the pathways extend from the orbit to the occipital pole, they are often involved in brain lesions as illustrated in several clinical cases. The visual pathways are highly organized, and lesions in different parts of the visual system produce characteristic visual field defects which usually provide clues about the location of the underlying pathological process (► Sects. 8.2 and 8.4). Up to the primary visual or striate cortex (V1), the visual pathway represents a serial relay with a clear retinotopic arrangement. Beyond the striate cortex, the projection to extrastriate visual cortex proliferates into a complex web of parallel projections, back-projections and interconnections among a large number of specialized cortical modules (► Sect. 8.3). More than 40 of these modules have been identified in monkeys. The existing cytoarchitectonic maps of the striate and extrastriate cortices were further developed. Early recognized visual areas such as V2, V3 and V3A form a peristriate zone surrounding the primary visual cortex and receive direct input from V1. These regions respond differently to form, colour, depth and motion. Beyond this peristriate zone, a dichotomy of the extrastriate visual areas into a ventral (“what”) and a dorsal (“where”) system has been proposed (► Sect. 8.5). The English terms of the Terminologia Neuroanatomica are used throughout.
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The term “limbic” was first used in 1664 by Thomas Willis to describe the cortical structures on the medial side of the cerebral hemisphere, surrounding the brain stem. Two centuries later, Paul Broca noticed that the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus form a border (limbus) around the corpus callosum and the brain stem. Broca subdivided his grand lobe limbique into inner (the hippocampus) and outer (the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri) rings. During the last decades of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century, it was generally believed that most if not all structures of Broca’s limbic lobe were dominated by olfactory input and therefore form part of the rhinencephalon. In 1937, James Papez proposed that these structures are involved in a closed circuit. The circuit of Papez includes projections from the hippocampus via the fornix to the mamillary body and then via the mamillothalamic tract of Vicq d’Azyr to the anterior thalamic nucleus, from here to the cingulate gyrus, and as last step from the cingulate gyrus back to the hippocampus. Papez suggested that his circuit formed the anatomical basis for emotions. In 1952, Paul MacLean included the circuit of Papez with the amygdala and the hypothalamus into his limbic system, supposed to be responsible for emotional behaviour (the “visceral” or “emotional” brain). Lennart Heimer promoted an expanded version of the classic limbic lobe of Broca, which contains all non-isocortical parts of the cerebral hemisphere together with the laterobasal-cortical amygdaloid complex, with several output channels in the basal forebrain. Thus defined, the limbic lobe contains all of the major cortical and amygdaloid structures known to be especially important for emotional and behavioural functions. Experimental studies in the early 1970s identified the output channels of the limbic lobe in the basal forebrain as the ventral striatopallidal system, the extended amygdala and the basal nucleus of Meynert.
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Inappropriate interpersonal aggression and disruptive violent outbursts are common problematic symptoms of multiple psychiatric disorders and represent a significant global health issue. Current therapeutic strategies are limited due to a lack of understanding about the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the “vicious” shift of normal adaptive aggression into violence. However, the advent of new neuroimaging tools for measuring human brain function, structure, chemistry, and connectivity together with the rapidly emerging preclinical tools for mapping, measuring, and manipulating discrete neuronal activity in the animal brain significantly advances our understanding of the precise neural microcircuitry and its dynamic neurochemical functioning underlying the initiation, execution, and termination of aggressive behavior. This chapter presents our current knowledge of the brain regions/circuits and neuromolecular signaling mechanisms underlying the regulation of aggressive behaviors, obtained from both animal research and clinical studies with special attention for the contribution of PET/SPECT neuroimaging tools. The highly detailed picture of the neural and molecular underpinnings of aggression obtained from preclinical animal studies is compared with the more global neuroimaging data from clinical studies, underscoring similarities, reconciling inconsistencies, and addressing putative gaps between the two fields of research.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel geben wir einen Überblick über ausgewählte Theorien und Befunde zur Interaktion von Emotionen mit kognitiven Prozessen, wobei wir auf Themen fokussieren, die von Relevanz für das Verständnis psychischer Störungen sind. Nach einer Einführung in grundlegende Merkmale von Emotionen und ausgewählte Emotionstheorien gehen wir auf folgende Fragen ein: Welche Rolle spielen körperliche Reaktionen und kognitive Bewertungsprozesse bei der Auslösung von Emotionen? Welche Gehirnsysteme liegen emotionalen Prozessen und speziell der Furcht zugrunde? Was sind neurobiologische Grundlagen von Belohnung, Anreizmotivation und wertbasierten Entscheidungen? Wie werden Gedächtnisprozesse und der Modus der Informationsverarbeitung durch Emotionen, Stimmungen und Stress beeinflusst? Welche neuronalen Mechanismen liegen der kognitiven Kontrolle von Emotionen zugrunde? Während das Kapitel auf die Darstellung grundlagenwissenschaftlicher Ergebnisse fokussiert ist, gehen wir bei allen Themen exemplarisch auch auf Implikationen für die Klinische Psychologie und die Frage ein, wie dysfunktionale Interaktionen emotionaler und kognitiver Prozesse zur Entstehung und Aufrechterhaltung psychischer Störungen beitragen.
Chapter
An essential component in animal behavior is the ability to process emotion and dissociate among positive and negative valence in response to a rewarding or aversive stimulus. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)—responsible for higher order executive functions that include cognition, learning, and working memory; and is also involved in sociability—plays a major role in emotional processing and control. Although the amygdala is widely regarded as the “emotional hub,” the mPFC encodes for context-specific salience and elicits top-down control over limbic circuitry. The mPFC can then conduct behavioral responses, via cortico-striatal and cortico-brainstem pathways, that correspond to emotional stimuli. Evidence shows that abnormalities within the mPFC lead to sociability deficits, working memory impairments, and drug-seeking behavior that include addiction and compulsive disorders; as well as conditions such as anhedonia. Recent studies investigate the effects of aberrant salience processing on cortical circuitry and neuronal populations associated with these behaviors. In this chapter, we discuss mPFC valence processing, neuroanatomical connections, and physiological substrates involved in mPFC-associated behavior. We review neurocomputational and theoretical models such as “mixed selectivity,” that describe cognitive control, attentiveness, and motivational drives. Using this knowledge, we describe the effects of valence imbalances and its influence on mPFC neural pathways that contribute to deficits in social cognition, while understanding the effects in addiction/compulsive behaviors and anhedonia.
Article
The amygdala—one of the primary structures of the limbic system—is comprised of interconnected nuclei situated within the temporal lobe. It has a well-established role in the modulation of negative affective states, as well as in fear processing. However, its vast projections with diverse brain regions—ranging from the cortex to the brainstem—are suggestive of its more complex involvement in affective or motivational aspects of cognitive processing. The amygdala can play an invaluable role in context-dependent associative learning, unsigned prediction error learning, influencing outcome selection, and multidimensional encoding. In this review, we delve into the amygdala’s role in associative learning and outcome selection, emphasizing its intrinsic involvement in the appropriate context-dependent modulation of motivated behavior.
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