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The Frustration–Aggression Hypothesis

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Abstract

Aprevious statement in the book Frustration and aggression, that "the occurrence of aggression always presupposes the existence of frustration, and, contrariwise, frustration always leads to some form of aggression" is misleading in the latter half. A suggested reformulation is that "frustration produces instigations to a number of different types of response, one of which is an instigation to some form of aggression." The determination of the presence of such an instigation, when the overt behavior is prevented, can be made by observing indirect or less overt acts. 4 chief lines of investigation suggested by the hypothesis are outlined. This and 6 further articles are revisions of papers read at a symposium on effects of frustation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... In contrast to the public sector, there exists a trend of long working hours usually without weekends in private sector. Long work hours and often unhealthy competition in the private firms may interfere with employees' ability to achieve desired personal goals and, hence, lead to frustration (Miller, 1941). As per frustration-aggression hypothesis (Miller, 1941), employees may express this frustration by engaging in aggressive behaviors in the workplace. ...
... Long work hours and often unhealthy competition in the private firms may interfere with employees' ability to achieve desired personal goals and, hence, lead to frustration (Miller, 1941). As per frustration-aggression hypothesis (Miller, 1941), employees may express this frustration by engaging in aggressive behaviors in the workplace. Also, the level of job security is quite different in public (high job security) and private organizations (low job security) which affects employees' emotional state. ...
... And as a number of work-family studies have established that work and family domains are not independent, rather there is a spillover of emotions from one domain to another (Staines, 1980), employees may carry pressure or stress from home life to work increasing the possibility of them engaging in misbehaviors in the workplace (Etodike and Ezeh, 2017). According to frustration-aggression hypothesis (Miller, 1941), the frustration caused because of conflict between family and work life may induce individuals to behave aggressively. On the other hand, there exists a possibility that single individuals may not be able to satisfy their relationship needs, resulting in frustration making them more disposed to experience and engage in uncivil acts in the workplace. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to present an empirical account of the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of workplace incivility (experienced and instigated) in the Indian workplace. Design/methodology/approach The study sample consisted of 1,133 employees working in service organizations mainly banks, hotels, academic institutions and information technology firms. The authors tested the proposed model on the same set of respondents in two different studies. The phenomenon of instigated incivility and its determinants were examined in Study 1, while Study 2 looked at experienced incivility and its antecedents. The data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical operations in SPSS 24. Findings The results of both studies revealed that employees’ age, gender, educational qualification, position, nature of the organization, type of the organization and duration of working hours significantly predict the onset of workplace incivility. Nevertheless, marital status and tenure failed to predict the manifestation of uncivil behaviors in the organization. Research limitations/implications The scope of this study was restricted to the Indian service sector with a focus on only two types of workplace incivility (instigated and experienced). Practical implications The managers are advised to be mindful of employees’ socio-demographic differences while devising interventions to tackle the issues of uncivil acts at work. Originality/value This study is one of the pioneer attempts to explore the impact of socio-demographic factors on employees’ tendency to instigate and experience incivility at work in India. In doing so, the study enriches the scant literature on workplace incivility by establishing the role of individual differences in determining the occurrence of incivility in the workplace.
... Após a monografia avançada por Dollard e colegas, em 1939, Neal Miller (1941 altera a segunda proposição da Hipótese -"a existência de frustração leva sempre a alguma forma de agressão" (Dolllar et al., 1944, p.1). De acordo com o autor (Miller, 1941), a incapacidade para atingir um objetivo desejado pode ter consequências agressivas e não agressivas e, desta forma, apresenta uma reformulação da proposição, nomeadamente: "a frustração produz instigações para diferentes tipos de resposta, uma das quais é uma instigação para alguma forma de agressão" (Miller, 1941, p.338). Miller (1941) afirma que a instigação para a agressão pode ocupar qualquer posição na hierarquia de instigações, despoletadas por uma situação frustrante. ...
... Após a monografia avançada por Dollard e colegas, em 1939, Neal Miller (1941 altera a segunda proposição da Hipótese -"a existência de frustração leva sempre a alguma forma de agressão" (Dolllar et al., 1944, p.1). De acordo com o autor (Miller, 1941), a incapacidade para atingir um objetivo desejado pode ter consequências agressivas e não agressivas e, desta forma, apresenta uma reformulação da proposição, nomeadamente: "a frustração produz instigações para diferentes tipos de resposta, uma das quais é uma instigação para alguma forma de agressão" (Miller, 1941, p.338). Miller (1941) afirma que a instigação para a agressão pode ocupar qualquer posição na hierarquia de instigações, despoletadas por uma situação frustrante. Se a instigação para a agressão é a mais forte, os atos agressivos serão os primeiros a ocorrer. ...
... Se a instigação para a agressão é a mais forte, os atos agressivos serão os primeiros a ocorrer. Ao invés, se existirem respostas incompatíveis com a agressão, altamente instigadas e mais fortes do que a instigação para a agressão, estas poderão ocorrer em primeiro lugar e prevenir, pelo menos temporariamente, a ocorrência de atos agressivos (Miller, 1941). Se as respostas não agressivas levarem a uma redução da instigação para a resposta originalmente frustrada, a força da instigação para a agressão também será reduzida, de modo que os atos agressivos não ocorrerão na situação em questão (Miller, 1941). ...
Thesis
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This research aimed to analyze the relationship between the different steps of social information processing and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior, and adapt, in an exploratory way, a measurement of Social Information Processing. This study was conducted with primary school children aged 7-10. At first, the Social Information Processing Interview– Preschool (Ziv & Sorognon, 2011) was translated to the Portuguese language and then adapted to the Portuguese context, and some of its psychometric proprieties was analyze. Secondly, an investigation to conclude which steps of the social information processing were related to the reactive and proactive aggressive behavior, in children, was conducted. To reach these goals with was conducted a quantitative study, where ninety-five children were interview and ninety-seven parents and eight teachers respond to measures of aggressive behavior about the children. In general, the results suggest a good inter-rater validity of the instrument. The results also show the existence of positive correlations between hostile attribution and construction of aggressive response and the existence of negative correlations between hostile attribution and construction of competent response. Regarding the relations between the social information processing variables and the behavior variables, the results suggest the existence of a positive correlation between construction of aggressive response and proactive and reactive aggressive behavior, reported by teachers. The results also indicated the existence of negative correlations between construction of competent response and reactive aggressive behavior, reported by teachers. To conclude, it is also important to highline that the results have shown that all behavior variables are significantly related within each group of informants and between them. Also, the variables socioeconomic class and age of the children are predictors of reactive aggressive behavior, reported by teachers. The age of the children, the hostile attribution and the construction of aggressive response are variables that predict the reactive aggressive behavior, reported by parents. Finally, the construction of aggressive response it is the only predictive variable of the proactive aggressive behavior, reported by teachers.
... Carrasco Ortiz y González Calderón (2006) analizaron esta argumentación y sostuvieron que la agresividad solo se haría efectiva cuando se impidiera la satisfacción de un logro esperado. Posteriormente, Miller (1941) planteó que no siempre una frustración genera agresión, puesto que los sujetos reaccionan de modo alternativo a aquella (escapar a la situación, metas alternativas, superar obstáculos), gracias al proceso de socialización. ...
... Se han generado diversas teorías que tratan de explicar los comportamientos agresivos. La teoría de la frustración-agresión de Dollar (1939) y su posterior revisión (Miller, 1941) brindan elementos para comprender que si el adolescente percibe bloqueadas las posibilidades de acceder a una meta deseada, la respuesta puede ser el comportamiento agresivo. Los aportes contemporáneos de Miller (1941) son esenciales para no caer en el error de hacer una atribución de causalidad entre pobreza/agresividad. ...
... La teoría de la frustración-agresión de Dollar (1939) y su posterior revisión (Miller, 1941) brindan elementos para comprender que si el adolescente percibe bloqueadas las posibilidades de acceder a una meta deseada, la respuesta puede ser el comportamiento agresivo. Los aportes contemporáneos de Miller (1941) son esenciales para no caer en el error de hacer una atribución de causalidad entre pobreza/agresividad. Miller (1941) afirma, con acierto, que no siempre una frustración genera agresividad; los sujetos pueden tener otros recursos para afrontar una situación aversiva, tales como metas alternativas o la superación de obstáculos que se aprenden en el proceso de socialización. ...
Article
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La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo comprender el comportamiento agresivo de adolescentes en contextos de privación cultural, explorar el uso que hacen de las redes sociales virtuales e indagar si las manifestaciones agresivas ahí expresadas se modificaron en la pandemia de COVID-19. Para ello se utilizó el método de teoría fundamentada a partir de la interpretación del discurso de una informante clave obtenido por entrevistas. Se definieron categorías inductivas de análisis: comportamiento agresivo, pobreza, escuela y mass media. Se destacó la incidencia del contexto de pobreza en la organización de la subjetividad y la función social de la escuela desde la perspectiva de la inclusión. A partir de lo anterior, se concluye que los adolescentes en contextos de carencia han perdido la libertad (Sen, 2000) para emplear sus capacidades en obtener una vida de calidad y que la profundización de su vulnerabilidad social se sostiene desde múltiples factores, como los medios de comunicación, TIC, políticas educativas y estigma social.
... Even though the two sentences are extremely broad, they imply that frustration is a necessary and sufficient condition for aggression. The proposal's final portion was promptly rescinded by Miller [30]. Obviously, frustrations do not have to be expressed in an unpleasant or aggressive manner. ...
... The restrictions triggered frustration and unhappiness, which resulted in aggression. This affirms the frustration-aggression theory that circumstances that prevent or restrict one's access to reinforcers trigger unhappiness, which is the hallmark of aggression and conflict [27][28][29][30]. As the pandemic lockdown created crisis and uncertainty at the individual and family levels, perpetrators of violence may have tried to reassert their power and vent their dissatisfaction with the lockdown via greater acts of aggression. ...
Article
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Governments are taking precautions to limit the spread of the COVID-19 virus, including instituting social isolation policies that cover all aspects of life, such as closing public places such as worship centers, recreational facilities, work, schools, and shopping malls. The restrictions have a variety of sociological and psychological consequences on daily lifestyle of people, including marital conflict. Thus, this study investigates couples’ lifestyles and conflicts during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Nigeria based on the frustration–aggression hypothesis. The study used a sample of 373 adults obtained from a combined offline and online cross-sectional survey that was conducted via face-to-face contact, email questionnaire, and Google form (distributed via social media groups and emails). We used descriptive statistics to analyze the data. The findings reveal that the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions (lockdown) led to reduced or lost income, financial uncertainty, job insecurity, and social isolation. Consequently, the COVID-19-pandemic exacerbated poverty and insecurity, as well as insufficient judicial processes. These resulted in misery and violence against spouses, which aggravated marital strife in the country.
... Frustration-Aggression theory is based on the works of psychologists Dollard (1939) and further developed by Miller (1941) and Berkowitz (1969). Frustration clarifies the feeling of tension that occurs when the efforts of someone to reach a goal are blocked or truncated. ...
... In essence, without trespassing against the farmers by the herdsmen, there won't be any reverse aggression; therefore the farmers are the victims, having suffered ab initio from the aggravating factor of trespassing on their lands, resulting in reverse-aggression. It is not fair on the farmers that we call it a conflict, since the farmers have not moved from where they are farming legally, rather it is the herdsmen who came to meet them where they are and hence it is correct to refer and deal with this problem as trespassing rather than as a conflict (Dollar, 1939, Miller, 1941, Onyia, 2018, Rose, 2018, Junaid, 2018. ...
Article
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Quintessential for understanding Nigeria's prime malady, insecurity, is yet presumed to be a generalized misperception among pollsters and intelligentsia in the Society. The sustained pattern of insecurity, rampaging Northern Nigeria, vastly heading towards the south in content and context, has defiled purported proclivities for ending it. We can see this in the extension of herder-farmer crises in Nigeria. It's a known fact that herders and farmers, hitherto, have always lived and co-existed together, occupying an essential part of the Nigerian National Economy i.e. the Agricultural Sector. What remains a puzzle is an unexplained, stumbling coexistence , fueling the crises in the region, with heightened conflict of interest resulting from competition for the scarce resources and the legal deprivation of herdsmen's traditional nomadic cattle circulation. In understanding the incessant clashes between farmers and herders, this study scrutinizes the precursor of herder-farmer crises in North-Central Nigeria, the current reality of the inherent challenges the region face and empirically examines the unexplained two problematic factors, i.e. resource scarcity and unregulated cattle circulation in the region, despoiling peaceful coexistence for National Integration and development. Adopting a cross-sectional research design and using a structured questionnaire, the study surveyed 400 respondents from three (3) randomly selected states from the region. Data analyzed reveals, amongst others, that the quest for grazing land by herders to rear their cattle is responsible for the growing frustration-aggression crises among farmer/herders in North Central Nigeria and in minimizing these crises, particularly during the dry season, the herders now look towards the southern region of Nigeria for green fields to rear their cattle thereby, facilitating speedy southern encroachment. Policy recommendations were provided.
... La frustration est un terme fort qui fait écho à la violence de certains verbatims entendus en entretien, à l'idée de « sens » (voir p.314), à la question du sacrifice (voir p.317) et à la théorie de la frustration/agression (Dollard et al. 1939;Miller 1941;Berkowitz 1989). Il est ainsi possible de suggérer que la culture de la critique et la virulence du débat chez MSF est à la hauteur des frustrations que l'organisation génère. ...
... Les générations suivantes de psychologues conserveront cette définition liée à la non-satisfaction d'une pulsion (Laplanche et Pontalis 1967, 172), mais certains lui associeront une réponse « violente » (P. E. Spector 1997a; S. Fox et Spector 1999), voire agressive, ouvrant la voie d'une « hypothèse frustration-agression » (Dollard et al. 1939;Miller 1941;Berkowitz 1989). Le psychologue du travail Paul Spector élargit la définition de la frustration en considérant que « tout but ou état final souhaité qui est bloqué […] implique un cas de frustration » (P. ...
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À une époque où l’épanouissement personnel constitue un enjeu central dans nos différentes sphères de vie, le travail est pourtant régulièrement présenté comme source de stress, de risques psychosociaux voire de burn-out. En prenant appui sur le personnel international humanitaire, aussi appelé « expatrié », de l’organisation « Médecins Sans Frontières » (MSF), cette thèse étudie l’insatisfaction, entendue ici comme l’ensemble des expériences ou des émotions jugées négativement par l’individu. Sur la base d’une cinquantaine d’entretiens réalisés sur le terrain et d’une observation participante en tant qu’« expatrié » lors de dix missions humanitaires sur quatre continents, cette recherche ouvre plusieurs perspectives. Elle offre non seulement une vision, de l’intérieur, d’un secteur en mutation (croissance de la proportion d’expatriés issus du Sud, multiplication des critiques internes et externes, étiolement de l’engagement au profit de la professionnalisation), mais elle interroge en même temps les ressorts sociaux du processus émotionnel. L’insatisfaction, en l’occurrence la « frustration » du personnel international humanitaire, est communément décrite comme un écart entre des attentes et la survenue d’événements. Grâce à l’étude successive des tensions inhérentes au fonctionnement de MSF, des parcours de vie des « expatriés », puis de l’interaction entre ces individus et l’organisation, cette recherche défend la thèse suivante : quel que soit l’écart entre attentes et survenue d’événements, l’insatisfaction ou non d’un individu est d’abord le reflet de sa confiance dans l’entité jugée responsable, c’est-à-dire de sa reconnaissance des légitimités et des rapports de domination en jeu.
... The theory of displaced aggression suggests that aggression is not always directed towards the original instigator of negative behavior but can also be directed toward innocent third parties (Dollard et al., 1939). This process of displaced aggression is especially prominent when the provoking person is unavailable (e.g., this person is not present anymore), the instigating factor is intangible (e.g., work environment) and/or when retaliating against the original instigator is risky (e.g., the instigator is your supervisor) (Miller, 1941). In such situations, individuals are inclined to control their anger and redirect it towards a more available and less powerful target. ...
... However, as this crossed-over anger is a result of contagion and empathetic processes, the person experiencing crossed-over anger will not have an obvious culprit. This unavailability of a culprit will therefore increase the likelihood of them engaging in displaced aggression (Miller, 1941), while the disinhibition and deindividuation processes will make the online environment a suitable context for the expression of such aggression. ...
Article
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Modern technologies can aid working processes as well as provide individuals with an opportunity to connect and form interpersonal relationships. However, they can also create a context for displaced aggression. In this study, we examine whether people experiencing work stressors may engage in online antisocial behavioral as a means of venting their negative emotions. Specifically, we investigate whether experiencing stressors at work fuels anger in the private context and whether this anger triggers subsequent displaced aggression in the form of antisocial online behavior (AOB) throughout the evening. Additionally, we examine the crossover of anger to AOB in couples in their private context. We conducted a diary study amongst 95 dual‐earner couples, twice a day, during five consecutive working days. Results confirmed that men’s daily work stressors spilled over to their private context in the form of anger after work and AOB throughout the evening. No crossover effects were found from their partner. For women, a crossover effect was found of their partner’s work stressors and anger on their own AOB. These results demonstrate gender differences in displaced online aggression. Data available at: https://doi.org/10.34894/X5JORL
... Sosyal psikolojideki bu erken dönem yaklaşıma göre, engellenme ve saldırganlık arasında bir bağıntı bulunmaktadır (Miller, 1941): Engellenme, saldırganlığın yeterli ve elzem koşuludur. Öykünün başlangıcında, Reşid ve Durmuş ile tanışma deneyiminde Veli'nin öfkeyi imleyen ifadeleri ve tasvirleri söz konusudur. ...
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Karlıdağ, S. (2019). Kimlik üzerine sosyal psikolojik açımlama ve kritikler: Bir Yaşar Kemal öyküsü örneğinde kimlik olgusuna ilişkin meta-teorik değerlendirmeler. Eğitim Bilim Toplum Dergisi, 17(65), 33-56. Kimlik, kavramsal ve kuramsal içerimleri zengin bir olgudur. Bu yazıda kimliği ele alan farklı sosyal psikolojik adresleri değerlendirmek amaçlanmaktadır. Bu amaçla, (i) Yaşar Kemal’in ‘Süpürge’ isimli öyküsündeki Veli karakterinin kimlik oluşumunu izleyerek sosyal psikolojide kimlik okumaları için açıklamalar üretilmiş; (ii) karşılaştırmalı bir kritik ile sosyal boyutu üzerinde durulmuş ve (iii) genel ölçekte bir edebi eseri inceleme nesnesi yaparak sosyal psikoloji ile edebiyat arasında bağ kurmaya çalışılmıştır. Açıklama düzeyleri, epistemolojik temeller, akışkanlık/durağanlık, disiplinlerarasılık, keşfedicilik/inşa edicilik ve tarafsızlığa karşı sosyo-politik angajman konuları kimliğin sosyal psikolojik açılımlarında ‘sosyal’i anlamlandırmak üzere ‘muğlak standartlar’ olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Kimliğe ilişkin sosyal psikolojik yaklaşımlar, bu sabit addedilemeyecek kıstaslara göre sosyal veya asosyal açıklama düzeyinde olabilmektedir. Yazının son kısımda, kimliği ele alan sosyal psikolojik adreslerdeki ortaklık fikri üzerine ve öykü karakteri Veli’nin ötesinde toplumsal bağlama yönelik tartışmalar yer almaktadır. Anahtar Sözcükler: kimlik, sosyallik boyutu, açıklama düzeyleri, Yaşar Kemal öyküsü
... It was soon recognized, however, that frustrations do not by necessity produce aggression. As a result, N. Miller (1941) retracted the contention that frustration always causes aggression and modified the hypothesis to state that frustration instigates a variety of aggressive or nonaggressive responses. But the revised frustration-aggression hypothesis continued to maintain that any aggressive behavior that occurs is caused by frustration. ...
... However, in other cases, angry employees shift their anger towards less powerful or more available targets, through private actions in their social environment, such that they retaliate against the organization in general through organizational deviance (e.g. intentionally working slowly, damaging company property, sharing confidential company information; Berry et al., 2007;Miller, 1941). For example, if a victim is unable to locate the perpetrator or fears that retaliation against specific co-workers might jeopardize her or his social position or promotion opportunities, the sense of anger might encompass the organization in general (Vigoda-Gadot, 2006;Yang, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose With a basis in affective events theory, this study aims to investigate the mediating role of anger in the relationship between employees’ exposure to workplace bullying and their engagement in deviant behaviours, as well as the invigorating role of their neuroticism in this process. Design/methodology/approach Three-wave, time-lagged data were collected from employees and their peers in a sample of Pakistani organizations. Findings Workplace bullying spurs interpersonal and organizational deviance because it prompts feelings of anger in employees. This mechanism is more prominent among employees with high levels of neuroticism. Originality/value This study reveals that the experience of anger is a key feature by which bullying behaviours steer employees towards counterproductive work behaviours, and this harmful process is more likely to escalate when employees’ personality makes them more vulnerable to emotional distress.
... The Enderun School (special school in the ottoman palace), which takes the task of training soldiers, artists, and administrators in the Ottoman Empire, and follows the education process of the gifted and talented people, is one of the institutions where the education of the gifted and talented ones is best organized. Gifted and talented students who were educated at various levels of the Enderun School were fulfilling the duties given by the government according to their abilities (Miller, 1941). ...
... Serce i umysł, Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka, Poznań 1997. 72 N.E.Miller, (1941).The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological review, 48, 337-342. ...
Book
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The item presented to readers is a continuation of the study Psychology of threats and security, Volume 1. The content complements selected problems in this field. It should be noted that no study is able to cover all the problems in a given field, so the choice made is the author's choice. From the enormous amount of facts and theories, the author chose issues that are important due to the profile of security sciences, and looking through the prism of general security, they are essential for the harmonious social development of the country. This part of the monograph deals with the issues of psychosocial and environmental risks, problems of stress, as well as the analysis of pathological behaviors and their determinants, the theory of aggression and the psychology of conflict and terrorism. The monograph was structured, dividing the content into seven chapters. Chapter one Psychosocial and environmental hazards - stress, the definition of stress is devoted to the selected psychological concepts stress, there are also important information on how to deal with stress. The second chapter Pathological behaviors and their background, in which the discussed issues were problems of pathological behaviors and antisocial, it is shown in the psychological aspect. The attention was paid to the theory of stigmatization and the theory of deviant behavior. Selected social pathologies are characterized. In chapter three titled: Civilization threats - threats resulting from addictions addiction to, among others, alcohol, drugs and drugs was discussed, attention was drawn to the increasingly observed computer addiction and the Internet, and also analyzed work addiction - workaholism. The theory of aggression is the title of the next, fourth chapter devoted to the analysis of the phenomenon of aggression, the possibility of its control and the prevention of aggressive behavior. The chapter devoted to aggression is continued with the fifth chapter, entitled Terrorist threats, presenting the phenomenon of terrorism in a wide spectrum of conflict theories and enriched with a synthetic analysis of the impact of mass media and propaganda on its shaping. Chapter six describes Behaviors that are helpful in crisis situations. The study ends with the seventh chapter devoted to the phenomenon of social influence and manipulation. Readers who have the second part of the monograph in front of them, I encourage you to read the first part, which presents psychology as a field of science and its place in security sciences, an analysis of the conditions determining human behavior both in a threatening situation and in the well-being of a person in the social and social dimension. family, and then the problems of perception of threats were presented with heuristics. It contains content on mental and personality disorders and their impact on the functioning of a person in a group, deals with the problems of collective behavior and dysfunction of social groups, and antisocial behavior.
... The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis The frustration-aggression hypothesis (Miller, 1941) posits that frustration actuates aggressive drive and subsequently motivates a person to engage in aggressive acts. "Frustration" is defined as events or acts that interfere with one's attainment of a desirable goal. ...
Article
Previous research has identified individual characteristics that affect experiences of coworker incivility. However, much less is known about environmental characteristics that affect these experiences. Drawing on the social learning theory and the frustration–aggression hypothesis, this study examined the effects of supervisor incivility and work hours on coworker incivility. Data collected from 692 full‐time employees showed that changes in the frequency of supervisor incivility positively predicted changes in the frequency of coworker incivility over the next 6‐month period. This relationship tended to be stronger for employees who had a supervisor lower rather than higher in the levels of autocratic leadership style. Furthermore, changes in work hours positively predicted changes in coworker incivility. The workplace sex ratio was not an important factor that differentiated experiences of coworker incivility for either men or women. The results of this study highlight the importance of attending to the environmental characteristics of the workplace to understand the occurrence of coworker incivility.
... Aggression also depends upon several factors, such as the relevance of the interference to goal-attainment and the individual's motivation for achieving those goals. Miller (1941) also postulated that frustration could decrease if the individual committed an aggressive act. This last assumption was related to the catharsis hypothesis, which maintains that by committing or observing violent actions, an individual will release negative emotions therefore lessening the likelihood that they will subsequently need to act aggressively. ...
Chapter
There has been considerable debate about media effects, especially concerning the effect of exposure to violence on cognition, emotions, and aggressive behavior. Leonard Berkowitz systematically researched aggression and was an influential author who investigated the effects of this exposure in the 1960s. Berkowitz's contribution to the field of media exposure and the empirical evidence of his work are summarized and discussed in this entry. One of his early contributions was the “weapons‐effect” hypothesis suggesting that aggression could be influenced by the presence of aggressive cues. He then developed the cognitive neoassociative model of affective aggression, which made important contributions to the discussion about the effects of exposure to violent movies, television, and video games. Several authors have replicated his studies and his theoretical model is still being used in research to address important societal problems.
... 2. Frustration always leads to some form of aggression. Miller (1941) revised the theory and explained that frustration stimulates number of other aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors like escaping etc. and not only aggression. Research evidence has supported that aggression can be learned through conditioning processes (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, stimulus generalization) (Patterson, Littman, & Bricker, 1967). ...
Article
The study investigated the relationship between aggression and wellbeing among adolescents. A sample of 250 adolescents equally divided among males and females aged 16-18 years were taken. Various self-report measures were administered, for example, aggression questionnaire by Buss and Perry (1992), satisfaction with life scale by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin (1985), positive affect and negative affect acale by Watson, Clark, and Tellegen (1988), and psychological wellbeing scale by Ryff and Keyes (1995). Means and Standard deviations, t-ratios and Correlation Analysis were carried out. Findings indicated significant and inverse relationship between aggression and wellbeing. Significant gender differences emerged in physical aggression where males scored higher as compared to females.
... As stated in the frustration-aggression-hypothesis, frustration is the emotion that often precedes anger and aggression (cf. [3,5,21]). Previous research clearly shows the impact that frustration has on driver behaviour and attention. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study systematically has investigated frustrating events during driving and their relative amount of occurrence yet. ...
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Introduction Designing emotion-aware systems has become a manageable aim through recent developments in computer vision and machine learning. In the context of driver behaviour, especially negative emotions like frustration have shifted into the focus of major car manufacturers. Recognition and mitigation of the same could lead to safer roads in manual and more comfort in automated driving. While frustration recognition and also general mitigation methods have been previously researched, the knowledge of reasons for frustration is necessary to offer targeted solutions for frustration mitigation. However, up to the present day, systematic investigations about reasons for frustration behind the wheel are lacking. Methods Therefore, in this work a combination of diary study and user focus groups was employed to shed light on reasons why humans become frustrated during driving. In addition, participants of the focus groups were asked for their usual coping methods with frustrating situations. Results It was revealed that the main reasons for frustration in driving are related to traffic, in-car reasons, self-inflicted causes, and weather. Coping strategies that drivers use in everyday life include cursing, distraction by media and thinking about something else, amongst others. This knowledge will help to design a frustration-aware system that monitors the driver’s environment according to the spectrum of frustration causes found in the research presented here.
... Thus, society has devised various ways for release of this aggression, such as through violent sports, and other legitimate channels such as criminal punishment. Crime, therefore, is necessary for society's mental health (Dollard et al. 1939: 28-35;Berkowitz 1969: 595;Miller 1941). As Nietzsche (1960:199) said: "The object of punishment is to improve him who punishes." ...
Chapter
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Why and how people punish
... Besides, organizations generally lack policies to help the ostracized (O'Reilly et al., 2014). Thus, based on the above findings and the displaced aggression theory (Dollard, Miller, Doob, Mowrer, & Sears, 1939;Miller, 1941), we believe that as target employees find it challenging to settle the mistreatment received at work with the perpetrators. They might vent off their aggression on easier targets like their children. ...
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Workplace ostracism is mistreatment in disguise that has spread its roots deep into organizations. This research has a threefold purpose. Firstly, to shed light on its seriousness by highlighting its personal, relational, and organizational impacts. Secondly, to identify buffering mechanisms that nullify its damaging impacts. Finally, to offer novel avenues for future research. The systematic review of 89 articles reveals workplace ostracism causes significant damages to employees, their personal and professional relationships, and organizations. It also reveals that employees' traits, abilities, skills, psychological states, job-related factors, support, culture, and religiousness cushion against ostracism's adverse impacts. Perhaps this is the first review that highlights workplace ostracism's relational impacts and systematically and comprehensively summarizes its buffering mechanisms as the cure to its curse. This review identifies literature gaps and proposes a future research framework and other future research directions for scholars to address them. It concludes with a discussion of practical implications.
... Thus, Miller (1941) noted that it was too general to assume that frustration must always lead to aggression or that aggression is always propelled by frustration. His intervention led to the second lap of the hypothesis which reflected a more acceptable reality that frustration produces instigations to a number of different types of response, one of which is instigation to some form of aggression. ...
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Banditry is fast becoming alarming in Nigeria's Fourth Republic to the extent that it poses a serious security threat not only to the Northwest region but to Nigeria at large. The level at which bandits operate within the landscape of Nigeria's northwest has led to spree of kidnapping, maiming of people, loss of lives, population displacements, loss of cattle, disruption of socioeconomic activities in general, and equally brought about an atmosphere of uncertainty, a situation that has become worrisome to the government and the citizenry. This paper therefore examined the impact of banditry on Nigeria's security focusing on the northwest region. The paper adopted descriptive method, made use of secondary sources of data while the Queer Ladder Theory (QLT) and Frustration-Aggression Theory were employed as the explicatory framework. The paper posited that the presence of scarcely governed spaces, the high level of unemployment with the attendant poverty, weak security system, porosity of Nigeria's borders and arms proliferations, among others, are the driving factors accelerating banditry in the Northwest region of Nigeria. The paper further contends that the banditry pervading Nigeria's northwest undermines the security; peace and development of the region and that the efforts made by stakeholders to combat the scourge have not yielded the desired result. The paper thus recommended, among others, that government strategies and tactics should be more proactive in prosecuting the war against banditry; create meaningful employment opportunities for the youths with a view to addressing the endemic poverty that pervades the region. Also, government should effectively monitor and secure our borders with the neighbouring countries to checkmate illegal migration of people and arms proliferation while engaging in reorientation of the individuals to inculcate in them ethical values and reverence for life and human rights.
... Frustration is a critical condition in which an individual is challenged by socio-political, and economic forces making him to develop negative character as much as his personality is concerned 25 . As most Psychologists argue, frustration is one of the effective emotional response to opposition 26 . Therefore, the bulk of the Mambilla population is uneducated and unemployed youth. ...
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This paper examined the causative agents and the aftermath of the 2002 Mambilla riot, which led to the killing of many people, destruction of properties and cracks into the Fulbe/Mambilla relations, which raised the question of identity and origin. Both written and oral sources are used to analyze the phenomena of social strife and violence. Fulbe/Mambilla relations had been smooth and cordial since the 19 th century which was beatified with the ethos of religious tolerance as their relationship was defined by their differences. Through this process, other ethnic groups inhabiting the Mambilla Plateau like Kaka, Fanso and Kambo knew the vitality of maintaining peaceful coexistence in the area which carries with it sobriety, intermarriage, trading, and interdependence. However, this type of peaceful relations between them began to take a new dimension prelude to the 1999 democratic transition in Nigeria the peak of which is the riot of 2002. The paper found out that Fulbe/Mambilla relations began to degenerate after the 2002 riot from friendliness to enmity immersed in the ocean of suspicion and slander.
... An attempt to both address the limitations of previous approaches as well as to bridge the gap between psychoanalysis and behaviorism was presented in the frustration-aggression hypothesis (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer & Sears, 1939;Miller, 1941). This perspective aimed at reinterpreting psychoanalytic theory in terms of stimulus-response, which could generate more empirically testable behavioral propositions. ...
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This paper aimed to provide a short exposition of the main theories of aggression. The choice of the theories reflected, in part, the historical progression and rising complexity of the theories over time. A brief overview of the following theoretical perspectives on aggression was presented: Freud’s psychoanalytic theory; Lorenz’s ethological theory; Behaviorist theory; Frustration-aggression hypothesis; Cognitive neo-association theory; and Social learning theory. These theories are representatives of the traditional perspective, which posits that by piecing together fragments of data gained through research, we arrive at the truth about aggression. A radically different perspective was offered through the constructivist perspective, which argues that any theory is just one way of organizing the data. Drawing from personal construct theory, a different psychological perspective on aggression was proposed.
... Perspectiva de la teoría frustración-agresión. La agresión es entendida como una conducta producto de la interferencia o no consecución de un fin o meta deseada por el individuo (agresión instrumental), por tanto "cuanto mayor sea el grado de satisfacción frustrado y el grado de expectativa de logro, mayor será la inclinación a infringir un daño" (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer y Sears citados en Carrasco y González, 2006, p. 19). Por su parte, Miller (1941) añade que la frustración no siempre desencadena conductas agresivas o violentas, puesto que la persona puede generar otras formas de canalizar dichas conductas, tales como, escapar de la situación, plantear metas semejantes o diferentes, sortear los obstáculos o conseguir lo deseado. Sin embargo, si el individuo ha logrado inhibir las conductas agresivas, pero el fracaso continúa o los obstáculos aparecen de forma repetitiva, la probabilidad de que el comportamiento agresivo o violento aparezca se incrementa, al igual que la posibilidad de que este se manifieste con más fuerza. ...
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El Grupo de Investigación Convivencia y Entornos Psicológicos (CONEPSI), categoría A de Minciencias, adscrito al Departamento de Psicología de la Universidad de Nariño pretende contribuir a la comprensión de los ambientes escolares, a través de la teorización sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento y convivencia escolar, ejecutan�do proyectos investigativos que descansan sobre la noción de trabajo en equipo y posibilitan tanto el conocimiento como la identificación y la caracterización de contextos, actores y acciones mediadoras de la vida escolar.
... [26] stated that "the occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration and, contrariwise, that the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression" (p. 1). Miller [27] modified the earlier quote by reiterating that "frustration produces instigations to a number of different types of response, one of which is an instigation to some form of aggression" (p. 338). ...
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Background: Injury is one of the major causes of death and illness among children and adolescents worldwide. We sought to investigate the prevalence of serious injury and its associated factors among in-school adolescents in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A sample of 14,967 in-school adolescents was drawn from the Global School-based Student Health Surveys conducted from 2012 to 2017 in eight sub-Saharan African countries. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. The prevalence of serious injuries was calculated using proportions while multivari-able binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with serious injuries. Results: Approximately 45% of in-school adolescents had experienced serious injuries during the past 12 months to the survey in the eight sub-Saharan African countries, with variations from 32.3% in Mauritius to 68.2% in Liberia. Adolescents who experienced bullying [aOR = 2.37, CI = 2.10, 2.68], those who engaged in physical fight [aOR = 2.14, CI = [1.87, 2.44], those who experienced an attack [aOR = 1.96, CI = [1.73, 2.22], those who felt anxious [aOR = 1.47, CI = 1.22,1.77], those who attempted suicide [aOR = 1.38, CI = 1.14, 1.65], truants [aOR = 1.33, CI = [1.17,1.51], current tobacco users [aOR = 1.42, CI = [1.01, 2.01] and current marijuana users [aOR = 1.78, CI = 1.08, 2.93] had higher odds of experiencing serious injuries. However, those whose parents or guardians respected their privacy had lower odds of experiencing serious injuries [aOR =0.78, CI = [0.68, 0.88] compared to those whose parents or guardians did not respect their privacy. Conclusion: A relatively high prevalence of serious injuries among in-school adolescents was identified in the eight sub-Saharan African countries studied. Programs and interventions that target the reduction of injuries in educational institutions should take a keen interest in the factors identified in this study. To deal with injury victims, first aid services should be provided in school settings.
... On the other hand, the reprisal attacks on the herdsmen by communities were caused by frustration of attacks chronicled in the table 1 below. This theory has been expanded by scholars like Miller (1941), Berkowitz (1962) and Yates (1962). In addition, in Why Men Rebel by Ted Gurr (1970), the linkage between frustration and aggression were brought to the fore. ...
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The current spate of violence in the South East region of Nigeria has resulted in not only the imminent risk of mass exodus of people and loss of valuable resources but also in the worsening of an already bad economic situation for both the states in the region and those living in them. The herders and farmers' conflict is notably one of the significant causes of increased violence within this region with devastating consequences. Using both frustration-aggression theory as framework and the survey research design, the study sought to find out the perceived effects of the frequent conflict between cattle herders and farmers on the socioeconomic activities in Isi Uzo and Uzo Uwani Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria. A sample size of 385 respondents was obtained using the multi-stage sampling technique. The result of the research unveiled that herders and farmers conflict has perceived effects on the socioeconomic activities of the people in Isi Uzo and Uzo Uwani LGAs of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study recommended the establishment of strong conflict management/reconciliation body/committee to look into ways of resolving the herders-farmers' conflict that is bedeviling the communities.
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Objective The concept of belief in a just world (BJW) refers to human beings' belief that the world is a stable, orderly and just. In recent years, the role of BJW plays in individuals' daily life has been studied since it's an significant part of individuals' mental health. Previous research has linked the BJW with peer victimization, aggression and self-injury. And this study examined whether BJW can mediate the relationship between peer victimization and aggression and self-injury. We tested our hypotheses that, 1) peer victimization would have positive associations with aggression and self-injury; 2) BJW would mediate the relationship between peer victimization and both aggression and self-injury. The results supported our hypotheses. Mediation modeling analysis showed that BJW had a significantly mediation effect in the longitudinal association of peer victimization with aggression and self-injury. Meanwhile, the changes in the prevalence rate of self-injury among Chinese adolescents who were participants in the current study at baseline (54.9%) and six-month follow-up (42.7%) also further proved the function of BJW. These findings are consistent with recent work and meanwhile indicate the mediation mechanism which can be majorly applied to psychological education.
Chapter
Glucocorticoids are believed to be crucial for understanding human aggression, psychopathologies, and crime because they can bridge adverse environmental events and the brain mechanisms of aggressive behavior, both acutely – i.e., while events unfold – and on the long run, by contributing to the epigenetic signature of toxic stressors over the lifetime. Yet, the role of glucocorticoids in human aggression is debated. There is one association that raises relatively little doubts; this is the one that links acute elevations in glucocorticoid secretion to aggressive responses, which indirectly supports the frustration–aggression hypothesis, one of the most popular psychological theories. Beyond its utility in psychology, this theory might also explain certain psychopathologies and emotional crime. The association of aggression with low glucocorticoid production by contrast is more disputed. Although demonstrated by many studies, the question remains open because the opposite association – high glucocorticoids–high aggression – is a similarly recurrent finding. It was suggested that contradictions may be solved by an approach sensitive to both the type of aggression and the psychopathology underlying aggression on one side and the glucocorticoid measures employed to study the phenomenon on the other. This chapter – already armed with the biological information presented in the previous one – aims at disentangling the intricate web of connections along this concept. The ultimate aim is to understand the acute and long-term alterations in glucocorticoid secretion in response to various types of stressors and the impact of the resulting glucocorticoid state on normal and abnormal human aggression. The neural consequences of altered glucocorticoid productions will also be addressed but briefly, because this will be dealt with in subsequent chapters.
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Russian schools have been characterized by its ethnic diversity over the past decade. Children from ethnic minorities in Russia face problems in accul- turation, including school bullying. The purpose of this article is to deter- mine the relationship between the acculturation strategies of ethnic minori- ty students, acculturation expectations of Russian students, and their roles in school bullying situations. We conducted a social psychological survey among a sample of 429 students, 200 of whom were Russian (Mage = 16.18, SDage = = 1.43) and 229 were members of ethnic minorities (Mage = 15.67, SDage = 1.65). It was used scales from the MIRIPS and the Revised Olweus Bully Victim Question- naire (Russian version). The results of the study showed significant differences in the level of victimization. It was also found that acculturation expectation of segre- gation was positively related to victimization (β = 0.24, p-value < 0.01), and aggres- sion (β = 0.18, p-value < 0.01) among Russian students, whereas acculturation strat- egy of segregation was positively related to victimization (β = 0.40, p-value < 0.01), assimilation strategy positively (β = 0.07, p-value < 0.01), and integration strategy negatively (β = –0.05, p-value < 0.05) related to aggression among ethnic minori- ties. The results of the study are discussed in terms of a sociocultural approach us- ing psychological theories and research.
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Previous research has shown North American Whites, when incidentally angered, become implicitly biased against racial outgroups they perceive as hostile. In our first study (Study 1: N=169), we observed negative affect induced by reward frustration similarly amplified implicit biases, albeit towards racial ingroup exemplars across White liberals. Two replications with Black (Study 2: N=117) and other minority (Study 3: N=72) participants demonstrated a similar (but non-significant) amplification in negative ingroup bias across frustrated Black conservatives. Explicit ingroup attitudes were not influenced by political identity or reward frustration. Explicit outgroup attitudes were influenced by political identity only. Specifically, conservatives from all races were explicitly pro-White compared to non-White liberals, and non-Black liberals were explicitly pro-Black compared to non-Black conservatives. The variance in evaluation patterns between liberals and conservatives can be explained by the former’s comparatively greater motivation to reduce inequality between advantaged and disadvantaged groups.
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Information technology is the fastest growing industry today impacting all walks of life. With hordes of young and talented people joining it, the sector provides abundant opportunities for employees to fulfil their dreams. But the fast-paced growth in the industry and the demanding work culture does extract its own price. Frustration at work, being normal daily routine, could turn into a vicious spiral for both the employer and employee leading to low productivity, disengagement, burnout, aggressive behavior, and high attrition rate. This study investigates the relationship between frustration and employee attitude at the job in the IT industry. The study has looked at the interaction of the variables for both male and female employees. Further, since frustration finds an outlet in anger which may lead to aggression, the influence of the same on employee attitude was also examined. For this ex-post facto research, a convenience sample of 390 respondents through the stratified sampling technique was chosen in 2019 from various IT firms in Hyderabad and Nagpur. Respondents were chosen from the age group 25-35 years. The data for analysis was collected through 2 test /scale viz. 1) Frustration Test by Prof N.S. Chauhan and Dr. Govind Tiwari 2) Attitude Scale for Measuring Employee Attitude Towards Management by Dr. K D Kapoor and a personal information sheet. The statistical tool of Pearson Correlation was applied to ascertain the strength and direction of the relationship. The results of the study confirmed that frustration significantly and negatively predicted attitude towards management of the employees. The attitude towards management of female employees was found to be slightly more and negatively related to frustration compared to their male counterparts but the difference is negligible. Hence no significant difference was found in the attitude of the two sexes due to frustration at the workplace. The study also looked at the influence of aggression on the employee attitude and the same was found to be significant.
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Based on the dual filial piety model and the integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing, this study examined the relationship between filial piety belief and cyberbullying perpetration and the role of anxiety and implicit emotion belief underlying this relationship. A total of 837 college students were tested with filial piety belief scale, GHQ-20 scale, implicit beliefs about emotion scale and cyberbullying perpetration scale. The correlation results showed that reciprocal filial piety was negatively correlated with anxiety and cyberbullying perpetration. Authoritative filial piety was positively correlated with anxiety and anxiety was positively correlated with cyberbullying perpetration. After controlling for socioeconomic status, age and gender, reciprocal filial piety negatively predicted cyberbullying perpetration and authoritative filial piety positively predicted cyberbullying perpetration. The mediation analysis indicated that anxiety played a mediating role on the relationship between filial piety belief and cyberbullying perpetration. Moreover, the mediating model was moderated by implicit emotion belief. Compared with entity theorists, incremental theorists who have anxiety issues are less likely to develop cyberbullying perpetration. The results suggest that educational and psychological practitioners can intervene in aggressive behaviors through regulating students’ negative emotions and promoting incremental belief of emotions.
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A time-series analysis of individual level, perceptual data disconfirms the J-curve theory of the black urban riots (i.e., that they arise because a period of progress was followed by a sharp decline) and suggests that ambiguities surrounding black people's perceptions of their economic situation probably led to the frustration that culminated in urban violence. The methodological component of the research deals with such problems of relative deprivation-based research as: (1) the substitution of aggregate, objective-level indicators for perceptual theoretical concepts; (2) the correspondences between objective and perceptual data on both a point-by-point basis and across time-series patterns; (3) the empirical implications of failing to look at important subgroup distinctions; and (4) the crucial assumption of all forms of relative deprivation theory that future expectations of need fulfillment, especially in the period of rising satisfactions, are a function of current levels of need fulfillment. The research calls for modifications in the structure and application of relative deprivation theory in light of the findings in these areas.
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An increasing number of countries are facing growing levels of acute food insecurity, reversing years of development gains. Even before COVID-19 reduced incomes and disrupted supply chains, chronic and acute hunger were on the rise due to various factors including conflict, socioeconomic conditions, natural hazards, climate change and pests. COVID-19 impacts have led to severe and widespread increases in global food insecurity, affecting vulnerable households in almost every country, with impacts expected to continue through 2021 and beyond. This research looks at rising food insecurity during and the possible ways Nigeria can response to the challenge. Using secondary sources of data collection and applying the technique of content analysis the study observed that before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already an existing gap in the Nigerian food system, which led to the importation of food items to augment local production in order to meet local demand. The pandemic has further disrupted each segment of the food supply chain, but the effects are different along the rural-urban continuum. Based on these findings, the paper concludes by positing that policy-makers need clear and reliable data and analyses to inform policies, strategies and actions.
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The paper explores the link between pre-colonial state culture and political violence in Nigeria. Relying on secondary sources, the paper demonstrates that pre-colonial Nigerian groups instituted state cultures that were not only divergent, but also hostile and violent to each other. Accordingly, the paper argues that the roots of political violence in Nigeria stems from the violent pre-colonial and colonial state cultures that have endured up to the present period. It also argues that the tendency by post-colonial state elite to promote the continuity of pre-colonial and colonial state cultures that promoted division and violence is an important factor behind Nigeria’s present predicament. Consequently, the paper concludes that curtailing and preventing political violence would require a cultural re-orientation that promotes peaceful co-existence and the implementation of political arrangements that guarantee fairness and inclusivity to all groups in the country.
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Background: Displaced aggression occurs when a person encounters a provoking situation, is unable or unwilling to retaliate against the original provocateur, and subsequently aggresses against a target that is not the source of the initial provocation. The displaced aggression questionnaire (DAQ) was developed to measure individual differences in the tendency to displace aggression. Aim: To develop a Dutch version of the DAQ and examine relationships between the DAQ and novel individual differences. Methods: The Dutch version of the DAQ was created using a back-translation procedure. Undergraduate students (n = 413) participated in the current study. The questionnaires were administered online. Results: The results confirmed the original three-factor structure and showed good reliability and validity. We also found differential relationships between trait displaced aggression, social anxiety and cognitive distortions. Conclusion: The results may indicate that distinct patterns exist in the development of the different dimensions of trait displaced aggression. This study adds to the growing cross-cultural literature showing the robustness of trait displaced aggression in several different cultures.
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To date, most research on emotion and leadership in organizations has emphasized only one dimension of emotion, valence; and, only some research has mentioned the emotion dimension of arousal. An organizing framework for making sense of the effects of leader emotions vis‐à‐vis the direction in which those emotions are targeted, however, has yet to be developed. To address this shortcoming in the literature, we present a new theoretical framework to explore the impact of the target of leader emotion within leader‐member dyads – when the emotion is targeting either the follower or the leader themselves. We theorize that leader emotions have disparate effects on followers in high‐ and low‐quality leader‐member relationships, depending on whether the emotions are directed externally toward followers or self‐directed toward the leader. Together, the valence, arousal, and target of the leaders’ emotional expressions are signals that shape followers’ emotions, and in turn, the subsequent quality of their leader‐member exchange relationships.
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This study builds on extant literature on autocratization by critically analyzing democratic setbacks, arising from widespread incidents of electoral and political violence in democratic processes in Africa. The study leverages on frustration-aggression propositions to analyze the politico-electoral dynamics in autocratization trends in climes where the incentives to use violence as power acquisition strategy have become a dominant norm either by the ruling elites who seek to remain in power (sometimes by all means – both legal and, mostly, illegal) or by the opposition groups seeking to dislodge the former. As a qualitative research, the study squarely relies on available documented textual materials and rich datasets developed by reputable international research institutes. The analysis of data reveals that autocratization is real, gradual and subtle in Africa, and it is fostered by weak electoral institutions that are helpless in checkmating the use of violent strategies to win an election, which is the most visible element of modern democracy. Based on these findings, deliberate efforts should be made to build and/or strengthen electoral institutions that will rise above group interests and group control and ensure equal playing ground for all political groups in the contestation for state power. This will guarantee stable democratic growth within the context of the democratic principle of equal political opportunity premised on one man, one vote in Africa.
Chapter
The effects of glucocorticoids on aggression can be conceptualized based on its mechanisms of action. These hormones can affect cell function non-genomically within minutes, primarily by affecting the cell membrane. Overall, such effects are activating and promote both metabolic preparations for the fight and aggressive behavior per se. Chronic increases in glucocorticoids activate genomic mechanisms and are depressing overall, including the inhibition of aggressive behavior. Finally, excessive stressors trigger epigenetic phenomena that have a large impact on brain programming and may also induce the reprogramming of neural functions. These induce qualitative changes in aggression that are deemed abnormal in animals, and psychopathological and criminal in humans. This review aims at deciphering the roles of glucocorticoids in aggression control by taking in view the three mechanisms of action often categorized as acute, chronic, and toxic stress based on the duration and the consequences of the stress response. It is argued that the tripartite way of influencing aggression can be recognized in all three animal, psychopathological, and criminal aggression and constitute a framework of mechanisms by which aggressive behavior adapts to short-term and log-term changes in the environment.
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Envy is a natural emotion that can occur to anyone. While envy can be beneficial in a way, it can also bring negative implications on self‐regulatory resources as well. A novel coping mechanism is proposed to help mitigate self‐regulatory failure elicited by envious feelings. The research demonstrates that envy loses its potency when such feelings are objectified by writing about them on a piece of paper, and then physically destroying them. Three laboratory studies (n = 110; n = 159; n = 174) are reported showing that participants who objectify their envious feelings and then destroy them (e.g., by shredding, cutting, tearing, or dissolving) rather than keeping them, exhibit enhanced self‐regulation, as evidenced by reduced acquisitiveness and less indulgent spending, as well as a greater willingness to volunteer. Theoretical and consumer welfare implications are discussed.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of management information systems (MISs) in sports and youth departments of Ardabil Province. The present research is descriptive-analytical due to the purpose of the applied type and in terms of the type of research data collection, which has been conducted by field method. The statistical population of this study was all managers, deputies and experts of sports and youth departments of Ardabil province, that 48 people were selected as the statistical sample of the study using Morgan table and random sampling. The measurement tool was Eidi et al.’s (2014) questionnaire with a reliability of 0.86. Univariate Chi-square test was used to analyze the data and Friedman test was used for ranking. The results show that the ranking of the group of obstacles to the implementation of MISs in sports and youth departments of Ardabil Province is as follows: (1) Cultural barriers, (2) environmental barriers, (3) educational barriers, (4) individual barriers, (5) barriers to change management, (6) technical barriers, (7) managerial barriers (8) economic barriers, and (9) structural barriers. Keywords: Barriers, Management Information System, Sports and Youth Organization, Technology.
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Prosociality improves with interpersonal synchronization—the temporal coordination of movement across individuals. We tested whether the benefits of interpersonal synchronization extend to temporary circumstances of induced frustration, where negative changes in prosociality are expected as a result. Participants performed two joint tasks—synchronization versus non-synchronization. Each task was performed twice, with high versus low induced frustration. After each joint task, prosociality was measured both with explicit tests, in which participants were aware of the test goal, and implicit ones, where they were less aware. Frustration levels per task were also reported. Results showed that increase in frustration led to decrease in implicit prosociality after the non-synchronization task, but not after synchronization, suggesting that interpersonal synchronization attenuates the antisocial outcomes of frustration. In addition, our study highlights the advantages of implicit measures of prosociality, among which the test we created (Interpersonal Trust Test) may stand as a useful resource in future experimental research.
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Chapter
This chapter describes the psychological processes relevant to an understanding of human aggression, as well as opportunities for the reduction and prevention of violence. Aggression and violence are consequences of frustration, learning processes and labelling. Intergroup violence is also driven by self-categorization and the resulting outgroup devaluation.
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