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The effect of a pratfall on increasing personal attractiveness

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The effect of a pratfall on increasing personal attractiveness

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Abstract

An experiment was performed which demonstrated that the attractiveness of a superior person is enhanced if he commits a clumsy blunder; the same blunder tends to decrease the attractiveness of a mediocre person. These results were predicted by conjecturing that a superior person may be viewed as superhuman and, therefore, distant; a blunder tends to humanize him and, consequently, increases his attractiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Our goal in this work is to expressively show a robot's incapability, beyond simply failing. In general, even just acknowledging an incapability (e.g., via language or motion) mitigates the damage to human perception of the robot [4,18,30]; in some situations, demonstrating an incapability may actually increase the likeability of the robot [20,24], due to the Pratfall Effect [1]. If we can further ensure better understanding, we hope that people will not only evaluate the robot more favorably, but they will also be able to make more accurate generalizations of the robot's capability across different tasks. ...
... Overall Attempt. The robot starts at q s , and moves along the normal task execution trajectory to the point of failure x f ; at this point its configuration is ξ * 0 , where ξ * is the optimum from Eqn. (1). From there, it executes ξ * . ...
... We use grid search to select the hyperparameter λ and a bias α separately for each cost function and distance metric pair. 1 For c b , B = {el, sh} and for c ee , B = {ba, el, sh}. 2 We chose k = 9 for d proj . Figure 4: Attempt trajectories ξ * that optimize cost function c b or c q , with distance metric d proj . ...
Conference Paper
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Our goal is to enable robots to express their incapability, and to do so in a way that communicates both what they are trying to accomplish and why they are unable to accomplish it. We frame this as a trajectory optimization problem: maximize the similarity between the motion expressing incapability and what would amount to successful task execution, while obeying the physical limits of the robot. We introduce and evaluate candidate similarity measures, and show that one in particular generalizes to a range of tasks, while producing expressive motions that are tailored to each task. Our user study supports that our approach automatically generates motions expressing incapability that communicate both what and why to end-users, and improve their overall perception of the robot and willingness to collaborate with it in the future.
... In the opposite kind of system failure, there are likely instances in which nurturant love is elicited inappropriately or even maladaptively, and future research should examine this more closely. For instance, nurturant love might help explain the "pratfall effect," in which a highly competent person is liked more if she or he commits a clumsy blunder (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966). Clumsiness is characteristic of children, still learning to control their motor actions, and seeing a high status person do something clumsy-like accidentally spilling coffee onto himself (as in Aronson et al., 1966)-might momentarily trigger a desire to nurture and bond with that individual. ...
... For instance, nurturant love might help explain the "pratfall effect," in which a highly competent person is liked more if she or he commits a clumsy blunder (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966). Clumsiness is characteristic of children, still learning to control their motor actions, and seeing a high status person do something clumsy-like accidentally spilling coffee onto himself (as in Aronson et al., 1966)-might momentarily trigger a desire to nurture and bond with that individual. Additionally, people tend to feel warmth toward baby-faced adults (Berry & McArthur, 1986;Keating et al., 2003;Zebrowitz & Montepare, 2008). ...
Chapter
Caregiving for one’s offspring and young kin facilitates the evolutionary goal of successful reproduction. In this chapter we define an emotional state of nurturant love, elicited by cues of cuteness and helplessness, which activates a suite of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changes facilitating caregiving toward the eliciting target. We review the literature pertaining to the elicitors and function of nurturant love, compare and contrast this emotion to other affective states that may promote caregiving, discuss empirical evidence regarding the properties and behavioral consequences of nurturant love, and conclude with potential future directions for research in this area.
... These findings also cannot be accounted for by a pratfall effect (clumsy actions that enhance the attractiveness of superior others; Aronson, Willerman, and Floyd 1966). For one thing, this alternative possibility is theoretically implausible: pratfalls only affect assessments of superior, and thus potentially threatening, others (Aronson et al. 1966), and it seems unlikely that participants in the current studies perceived their fellow consumers to have a superiority needed for the pratfall effect to emerge. ...
... These findings also cannot be accounted for by a pratfall effect (clumsy actions that enhance the attractiveness of superior others; Aronson, Willerman, and Floyd 1966). For one thing, this alternative possibility is theoretically implausible: pratfalls only affect assessments of superior, and thus potentially threatening, others (Aronson et al. 1966), and it seems unlikely that participants in the current studies perceived their fellow consumers to have a superiority needed for the pratfall effect to emerge. Moreover, Study 3 finds that the mere presence of a mistake is insufficient to increase a reviewer's persuasive impact, as would be predicted by the pratfall effect; thus, the current results are inconsistent with this potential alternative explanation. ...
Article
Companies often feature positive consumer reviews on their websites and in their promotional materials in an attempt to increase sales. However, little is known about which particular positive reviews companies should leverage to optimize sales. Across four lab studies involving both hypothetical and real choices as well as field data from a retailer’s website (Sephora), the authors find that consumers are more likely to purchase a product if it is recommended by a reviewer who has (vs. has not) made a prior purchase mistake. The authors define a purchase mistake as a self-identified suboptimal decision whereby people purchase a product that subsequently fails to meet a threshold level of expected performance. This persuasive advantage emerges because consumers perceive reviewers who admit a purchase mistake as having more expertise than even reviewers whose purchase experience has not been marred by mistakes. As a result, in marketers’ attempts to increase the persuasive influence of reviews featured in their promotional materials, they may inadvertently decrease it by omitting the very information that would lead consumers to be more likely to purchase recommended products.
... Testing it in naturalistic environments with blind human participants, passers-by were able to physically and emotionally connect with the robot in part due to its perceived helplessness; it would fall, be unable to right itself, and cry for help. This is an example of the Pratfall Effect at work; a studied social tendency for the attractiveness of a communicative partners appeal to increase after they make visible mistakes and errors (Aronson, Willerman & Floyd, 1966). Further to this, a more recent paper concludes that robots that make social errors in interactions with humans (in this case, a block-building exercise) were significantly more preferable to interact with (Mirnig et al., 2017). ...
... Figure 5. The error in modal classification across all three tested k values (1,3,5). Yellow dots display the most commonly chosen classification for that map by the algorithm, whereas blue dots display the true best strategy for that map as described by highest average strategy performance over 3 trials. ...
Thesis
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Metacognition and meta-management are cognitive science terms adopted in recent years by the computational sciences for gains in system reliability and security (M'Bale & Josyula, 2013). Together, they cover the human processes of monitoring one's internal states, thoughts and feelings and making internal and external changes in order to effect differences in these dimensions. However, truly humanlike metacognition is not represented in this capacity. There are a wide array of elements unexplored in this field with relation to philosophical work by Sloman and Chrisley (2005). The seemingly impractical consequences of possessing such a system in humans (where interruptions can lead to intense negative emotions and behaviour) are not thus investigated in artificial intelligence implementation work. This paper seeks to correct this; we argue that existing models of metacognition, whilst advantageous in their own right, are thus insubstantial in reflecting the human processes they mimic. In this paper, first we delineate the structural framework of a single-agent in a simple grid-based environment, with the simple task designed to test the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off (Standage, Wang, Heitz & Simen, 2015) as observed in humans. It possesses a number of strategies to achieve this goal, and methods of strategy selection based on its environment. Then, we investigate the practical applications of metacognition and how, in a simple single-agent domain, we might map ontological features of design onto human psychological phenomenon. Results depict both functional metacognition in its own right, and how certain implementations (based on stress levels) can significantly decrease performance compared to a baseline. Finally, discussion centers on evaluation and suggestion of improvement within domain-based implementations of perturbation-like systems for the outlined model.
... For example, a person who makes a blunder (e.g. spilling a cup of coffee over oneself) might be regarded as more human and approachable: the phenomenon is known as the pratfall effect [24,25]. This is a key indicator of social projection (similarity between oneself and others) [26]. ...
... Absence of the effects of blunder might be caused by a difference of stimuli characteristics from those of earlier studies. Actually, earlier studies used audio stimuli to which the target reacted with an anguished emotion to a blunder [24,30]. However, our experiment only presented the blunder behavior, with no emotional reaction to the incident. ...
Article
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Emotion plays important and diverse roles across various social relations. Although the social functions of emotion have attracted increased attention, the effects of positive emotions such as pride on impression formation remain poorly understood. Drawing on social projection theory, this study examined how incidental experiences of pride influenced the impressions of those who made a blunder, along with two other characteristics: the person’s warmth and competence. Participants were designated randomly to receive inductions of pride, awe, or a neutral emotion. Subsequently, they were asked to indicate their own impression of a person who had made a blunder and to rate their overall sense of that individual’s warmth and competence. A laboratory experiment recruiting university students (Study 1, N = 79) demonstrated that pride, a positive emotion elicited by a self-relevant achievement, led to higher competency evaluations of others. However, a pre-registered online experiment in middle-aged adults (Study 2, N = 108) failed to replicate the effects of pride on competency evaluations of others. Furthermore, another pre-registered online experiment in younger adults (Study 3, N = 290) did not show successful manipulation of incidental emotions. These results suggest that strictly controlled experimental settings that induce robust incidental emotions might be better for demonstrating a strong pride effect on the evaluation of others.
... The pratfall effect, which asserts that people who are perceived to be infallible are more likable if they make minor mistakes [7], will be tested in the HRI context for the current study. Previous research has indicated that participants liked a robot that included faulty behavior in its routine significantly better than a robot that interacted flawlessly [8]. ...
... To test for the pratfall effect [7] with relation to the humanto-human interaction script [3] for interpersonal impressions of a robot that forgets and apologizes, a multivariate analysis of co-variance (MANCOVA) was conducted between the independent variable (does not forget, forgets, forgets and apologizes) and the interpersonal impression dependent variables of credibility, social and task attractiveness, and social presence. Table I. ...
Conference Paper
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This study examines the pratfall effect and interpersonal impressions of how humans perceive robots that appear forgetful and apologetic regarding information given to them by a human. Results demonstrated that the non-forgetful robot was perceived higher for interpersonal impressions when compared to the forgetful and forgetful apologizing robots.
... The other critical predictor is perceived defects. However, the direction of prediction is contrary to that of Hypothesis 2. In studies of interpersonal relationships, the pratfall effect states that a person who commits a mistake is perceived as more attractive [41]. Similarly, in the area of humancomputer interactions, [42] found that participants liked the faulty robot significantly better than they did the flawless robot. ...
... Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 78(Supplement C), [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] ...
... The effect of involuntary humor in the leadership context is yet completely unclear and might deserve some attention. Classical experiments on the pratfall effect (Aronson et al., 1966) might guide such research. ...
Article
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Research has recently established the notion that humor in leadership contributes to the development of a positive professional relationship between leaders and followers. This relationship has been supposed to be the core mechanism via which humor in leadership unfolds its effects on work attitudes and behaviors. However, research has neglected the option that humor used by leaders might fail to amuse their followers. In this study, we investigate the role of failed humor for the relationship between leader and follower. More concretely, we develop a new scale for measuring failed humor in leadership and demonstrate its factorial and criterion-related validity. Using an automated item selection algorithm, we optimized the newly developed scale and derived a well-fitting six-item scale out of a pool of 12 items. In a study based on a sample of 385 employees, we were able to show that our newly developed scale is factorially valid. Moreover, we showed a negative correlation between failed humor and leader-member exchange. Furthermore, we showed incremental validity of failed humor in that failed humor predicted variance in leader-member exchange beyond well-established humor constructs such as affiliative and aggressive humor. Our study contributes to the development of the field of humor in leadership and opens up new options for further inquiry. Moreover, our study demonstrates the use of automated item selection algorithms in the applied field.
... A possible explanation for this result might be the positive assessments associated with incompetent agents. Previous studies have, to some extent, suggested that incompetent-like behaviour (e.g: cheating [63] or making mistakes [64]) by robotic agents can have a positive effect on robot evaluation as they increase likability (see Pratfall Effect [65]). ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we sought to understand how the display of different levels of warmth and competence, as well as, different roles (opponent versus partner) portrayed by a robot, affect the display of emotional responses towards robots and how they can be used to predict future intention to work. For this purpose, we devised an entertainment card-game group scenario involving two humans and two robots (n=54). The results suggest that different levels of warmth and competence are associated with distinct emotional responses from users and that these variables are useful in predicting future intention to work, thus hinting at the importance of considering warmth and competence stereotypes in Human-Robot Interaction.
... Марстин (Murstein, 1986) изнесува мислење дека луѓето сакаат да стапуваат во односи со пријатели или партнери кои што им одговараат по интелигенција и изглед, заменувајќи ги притоа високопожелните со помалку пожелните партнери. Дури и повеќе, лицата што изгледаат перфектни, може да бидат помалку сакани од лицата што покажуваат човечки мани (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966). Исто така, Федер (Feather, 1989) наведува дека постои тенденција лицата со високи постигнувања да се обезвредат. ...
... In fact, even robots that make errors are more attractive to people compared to flawless machines; a phenomenon known as the Pratfall effect. 5,6 However, the tacit acceptance of error isn't acceptable, particularly in a healthcare team-based setting. There is certainly no inequity in the distribution of error among heart team members. ...
... Interactions with humans will inevitably be imperfect and since conversation is the main interface, failures differ in nature from conventional interfaces; visual feedback may not always be available. In human communication, mistakes and imperfections can make humans more likeable and attractive [3]. However, little is known on how robot embodiment affects users' intentions to interact frequently when system failures occur. ...
Conference Paper
The increasing use of robots in real-world applications will inevitably cause users to encounter more failures in interactions. While there is a longstanding effort in bringing human-likeness to robots, how robot embodiment affects users' perception of failures remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we extend prior work on robot failures by assessing the impact that embodiment and failure severity have on people's behaviours and their perception of robots. Our findings show that when using a smart-speaker embodiment, failures negatively affect users' intention to frequently interact with the device, however not when using a human-like robot embodiment. Additionally, users significantly rate the human-like robot higher in terms of perceived intelligence and social presence. Our results further suggest that in higher severity situations, human-likeness is distracting and detrimental to the interaction. Drawing on quantitative findings, we discuss benefits and drawbacks of embodiment in robot failures that occur in guided tasks.
... Research on the 'pratfall effect' (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966) can support this proposition to help explain moderate charismatic effects. A pratfall effect is discussed to explain that when superior individuals make mistakes, it provides the possibility of being perceived as vulnerable. ...
... Думая о ГМ, вспомнился старинный эксперимент Э. Аронсона с коллегами (Aronson et al., 1966) по формированию впечатления, в котором проверялась гипотеза о том, повысится ли привлекательность высококомпетентного человека, если он совершит неуклюжую ошибку. Варьированию подвергались две переменные: 1) способности (высокие: правильные ответы на сложные вопросы викторины в 92 % случаев в сочетании с коротким интервью, в котором персонаж сообщал, что он был отличником в университете, членом легкоатлетической команды, а также редактором ежегодника, и средние: правильные ответы в 30 % случаев в сочетании с информацией о себе -был хорошистом в университете, корректором в ежегоднике, а попасть в легкоатлетическую команду не получилось); 2) неуклюжая ошибка -опрокинутая чашка кофе (наличие или отсутствие ошибки). ...
Article
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Статья посвящена 95-му дню рождения выдающегося ученого, замечательного, яркого человека, Галины Михайловны Андреевой (1924—2014). Воспоминания о научном руководителе возвращают автора в 90-е гг. прошлого века, когда студентам посчастливилось слушать курсы лекций Г.М. Андреевой по социальной психологии, истории зарубежной социальной психологии (именуемой «курсом на троих», поскольку читался совместно с Н.Н. Богомоловой и Л.А. Петровской) и психологии социального познания. Перед читателями возникает образ основателя кафедры социальной психологии факультета психологии Московского государственного университета имени М.В. Ломоносова. Человека, судьба которого едва ли могла сложиться иначе: добровольный уход на фронт в 17 лет, обучение на философском факультете, пребывание у истоков второго рождения социологии в России, создание кафедры социальной психологии и школы отечественной социальной психологии, подготовка многих поколений социальных психологов...
... One aspect we know from HHI is that imperfections make humans more likable and more believable. The psychological phenomenon, the Pratfall Effect [11], states that people's attractiveness increases when they commit a mistake. Superior people may be viewed as superhuman and distant, while a mistake would make them seem more human. ...
... For example, Chapter 7 explored the 'terrorist principle' (Bluhm, 1987) in terms of technological actants, through the lack of organisational Research into human error and trust find that vulnerability, through human flaws, can facilitate trust through the perceived trustworthiness of imperfection. This 'Pratfall Effect' of human error is perceived as an equaliser by reducing power dynamics through vulnerability to facilitate trust has been observed significantly in organisational and governmental leadership (Aronson, et al., 1966). This can additionally impact organisational behaviour within the team unit and cohesion when developing relational bonds and social contracts of trust between members. ...
Thesis
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High speciality and criticality domains categorise the most researched areas in the field of Trust in Automation. Minimal studies have explored the nuances of the psycho-social environment and organisational culture in the development of appropriate mental models on dispositional trust. To aid integration of human operators with emergent specialised systems, there is ambition to introduce Human-Human/Human-System analogies with AI Avatars and 3D representations of environments (Ministry of Defence, 2018). Due to the criticisms in the literature of Human-Human and Human-System teaming analogues this research has explored personal narratives of civilians and military personnel about technology, adaptability and how to facilitate beneficial attitudes and behaviours in appropriate trust, reliance and misuse. A subdivision of the research explores the socio-cultural idiosyncrasies within the different echelons of the military as variances in authority and kinship provide insight on informing training targeted to unique domains. The thesis proposes that there are core hindrances to tacit trust facilitation with automation as cognitive rigidity towards individual and group identities impact socially constructed social responses and internal mental models. Furthermore, as automation broaches category boundaries there may be resistance and discomfort as a result of unpredictable social contracts whereby transactional and relational trust-related power dynamics are unknown or unpredictable.
... Accordingly, they would push through anxiety when it is situationally appropriate and disposes them to value themselves, appreciate their life, prudently manage risk and connect with others. This apprehension could also further humanize them and release qualities like empathy and competencies such as selfunderstanding [16,17]. ...
Article
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Purpose: Rehabilitation is commonly portrayed as care that seeks to enable persons who are disabled to recover as normal a state of well-being as their personal and social circumstances allow. In contrast, this article frames psychological preconditions for persons living with disabilities to flourish toward, around or even beyond recovery through health care provision before, during or after injury. Method: This conceptual article uses reasoning and creative word play, informed by experience and literature from disciplines including psychology and philosophy. Results: Ultrabilitation promotes seven psychological preconditions of flourishing by persons with disabilities. These interconnected conditions are: apprehension; appetite; “attitude”; ambiguity; autonomy; accountability and ambiopia. Conclusions: Clinicians could partner with persons living with disabilities to promote these mental preconditions for flourishing, and use ultrabilitation to resist potentially destabilizing forces such as social imperatives to recovery and normalcy. • Implications for rehabilitation • Clinicians can support persons with disabilities to optimize mental states that enable them to flourish in everyday life. • Apprehension, including awareness of and anxiety about disability and its management, can motivate persons to assent to capabilities to flourish. • Apprehension and ambiguity can feed an appetite for personal growth and an attitude that trusts in genuine possibilities for growth through autonomy and accountability. • Autonomy frees persons to accept what they cannot change; set and implement challenging but achievable goals in creative ways; and learn to lose control without viewing disability as something that they need to get beyond in order to flourish.
... perception of incompetence) and they tend to complain to reinforce their high status (Conway & Vartanian, 2000;Gerber, 2009). Even when high-status individuals reveal their misfortunes through complaints, they become more likable (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966;Brooks et al., 2019;Helmreich, Aronson, & LeFan, 1970). Therefore, we propose that reviewer expertise should moderate the impact of language style on consumer responses to online bragging. ...
Article
Tourists often brag about their exclusive vacations, preferential treatments, and extraordinary adventures on social media. However, the existing digital marketing literature offers little guidance on whether bragging is an effective communication strategy. The current research investigates the joint effect of bragging type (bragging vs. humblebragging) and reviewer expertise (low vs. high) on brand evaluation in the online review setting. The results show that when reviewer expertise is high, humblebragging leads to more favorable brand evaluation compared to bragging. However, the opposite is true when the review is posted by a non-expert. We further reveal that the impact of bragging type on brand evaluation is serially mediated through reviewer likability and benign envy. Implications for managing travel platforms are discussed.
... Black faculty participation in academic spaces can entail accepting, embracing and being amiable to racially microaggressive institutional perceptions, rationalizations and policy decisions. Aronson (1966) first described the Pratfall Effect (PE), conceptualized as an illusory psychological phenomenon that causes people to perceive someone who is already considered competent as even more attractive if that person commits a gaffe. Therefore, a person tries extra hard to not commit gaffes (e.g. ...
Article
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While there are many definitions of leadership, one implicit theme across all is the importance of psychological phenomena and processes in leading and following (Bell, 2003). Considerable research has been devoted to explicating the traits and characteristics of individual leaders; however, less has been devoted to leadership in context and as existing in an ecology of its own (Witherspoon Arnold, forthcoming). For example, this leadership ecology is influenced by how leaders make meaning of their leadership and the effectiveness of their leadership in and across contexts (Beard, 2015; 2016). The complex and demanding role of leadership requires examination of the employment of psychological levers, buffers, and mediators that impact leadership understandings, behaviors, and practices. Personality models represent a standardization of leadership and have largely failed (Haslam, Reicher, & Platow, 2011) to inform or predict leadership effectiveness. Stodgill’s (1948) predictive indicators of leadership were found to be unpredictable when testing could not control for context. Moreover, Strodbeck and Mann’s (1956) subsequent research revealed that the meanings associated with standardized leadership concepts was highly variable. While psychology has expanded beyond the “great man” ideas of leadership, field educational leadership has moved more slowly than other fields in exploring the psychology of leadership and practice in context. While educational leadership has explored leadership as a negotiation of epistemologies, ontologies, and axiologies, and not a static end result.
... Yagil argued further that, apart from being more approachable, a leader that is physically close to followers has the opportunity to role model effective behaviors. Furthermore, following Aronson, Willerman, and Floyd (1966), Yagil argued that proximity may make the leader appear more human and fallible, thus, undergirding the identification effect. In fact, as demonstrated by Aronson et al., individuals to whom status was ascribed were viewed more favorably when committing a clumsy blunder of sorts as compared to individuals who are ascribed less status. ...
... Alternatively, could a blemishing effect (i.e., negative information that enhances the perceived positivity of positive information; Ein-Gar, Shiv, & Tormala, 2012) or a pratfall effect (i.e., a minor clumsy blunder that enhances the attractiveness of superior others; Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1996) contribute to the results we have documented? We suspect that it is unlikely that these effects contribute to the (bounded) benefits of correction because neither of these effects involves the correction of a mistake (which is the element that initiates the chain of inferences that underlies our results). ...
... Not only because the character's vulnerability is essential for the articulation of narrative suspense (Carroll, 1996). But also because, as the 'Pratfall effect' shows, sympathy for an admirable character increases when he makes some occasional mistake or presents some minor defect in his personality (Aronson, Willerman and Floyd, 1966). Aristotle (2006: 1453a) already warned that tragedy should be starred by a "sort of man who is not pre-eminently virtous and just". ...
Article
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La simpatía es el principal vínculo afectivo que el espectador establece con los personajes de ficción, siendo un prerrequisito necesario para la elicitación de otras emociones. Dada su importancia, el objetivo del presente artículo es detallar los diferentes factores que participan en su constitución, en un intento de ahondar en su comprensión. Para ello se recurre a diferentes trabajos enmarcados en el ámbito de la psicología social y la teoría fílmica cognitiva, se detallan algunos recursos textuales con los que las narraciones audiovisuales explotan cada factor concreto, y se reflexiona sobre los efectos que cada uno de ellos tiene sobre la simpatía y el resto de factores que la fundamentan.
... Thus, to elicit devaluation, the target might have to be perceived as "too good" or "too perfect" (note that selfdevaluation tends to be elicited when the outstanding other is perceived as unreachable; Lockwood and Kunda, 1997). Evidence in this respect has been reported for the ability domain demonstrating that a superior target was liked more than an average person-if the superior target displayed some imperfections in other domains (Aronson et al., 1966). Further research is needed to address this issue systematically in the prosocial domain. ...
Article
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Outstandingly prosocial individuals may not always be valued and admired, but sometimes depreciated and rejected. While prior research has mainly focused on devaluation of highly competent or successful individuals, comparable research in the domain of prosociality is scarce. The present research suggests two mechanisms why devaluation of extreme prosocial individuals may occur: they may (a) constitute very high comparison standards for observers, and may (b) be perceived as communal narcissists. Two experiments test these assumptions. We confronted participants with an extreme prosocial or an ordinary control target and manipulated comparative aspects of the situation (salient vs. non-salient comparison, Experiment 1), and narcissistic aspects of the target (showing off vs. being modest, Experiment 2). Consistent with our assumptions, the extreme prosocial target was liked less than the control target, and even more so when the comparison situation was salient (Experiment 1), and when the target showed off with her good deeds (Experiment 2). Implications that prosociality does not always breed more liking are discussed.
... perceptions of incompetence) and their complaints will be regarded as a way to reinforce their high status (Conway and Vartanian 2000;Gerber 2009). Previous studies even reveal that high status individuals are more likeable when they disclose their misfortunes (Aronson, Willerman, and Floyd 1966;Brooks et al. 2019). As people generally value modesty and perceive bragging as conceited (Sezer, Gino, and Norton 2018), humblebragging performed by celebrities will create a more favorable attitude toward the celebrity and subsequently toward the brand being endorsed. ...
Article
While consumers seem to perceive humblebragging as an effective self-presentation strategy that allows them to subtly promote their positive aspects, some humblebragging practices have invited negative reactions in social media. Indeed, prior research suggests that humblebragging elicits negative responses and, hence, is less preferable than straightforward bragging. The present research seeks to examine the conditions under which humblebragging might be more effective by exploring the celebrity versus influencer in the context of social media brand endorsement. Three experimental studies show that a humblebragging (vs. bragging) endorsement increases positive brand attitude when performed by a celebrity, but decreases positive brand attitude when performed by an influencer. Building upon benign moral violation theory, this research shows that these effects are mediated by amusement and irritation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Apart from the MOS hypothesis, the pratfall effect is the other social theory that can account for the benefits of designing artificial agents with low-expertise cues. The pratfall effect refers to the phenomenon where a person who is perceived to be highly competent would be rated as more likable when they commit a mistake (Aronson et al., 1966). As shown in S26, under certain circumstances, an artificial agent that makes errors when dispensing information can actually increase its likability. ...
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Artificial agents such as embodied virtual agents, chatbots, voice user interface agents, and robots simulate human roles for dispensing information to people. According to the computers-are-social-actors paradigm, people respond to these technological artifacts with the same social rules originated from human-to-human social routines despite recognizing the artificiality of the entities’ intents, motivations, or emotions. Among the various applications of social rules in human-agent interactions, this study focuses on the social cues signaling expertise or competence (i.e., expertise cues) that can evoke social, affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses toward the artificial agents through activation of social stereotypes or heuristics. Based on a systematic review of experimental studies featuring artificial agents with expertise cues published between 2005 and July 2021 (n=63), this study proposed a classification model categorizing expertise cues into Demographics, Appearance, Social prestige, Specialization, Communication style, and Information quality (DASSCI). The DASSCI model can guide designers to logically devise and infuse relevant expertise cues into the designs of artificial agents. As per the computers-are-social-actors paradigm, this study also outlined the social and communication theories underpinning the implementations and effects of artificial agents’ expertise cues. The implications and recommendations for future directions regarding artificial agents with expertise cues across diverse application domains are discussed in this paper.
... Similar to a human-human relationship, it may not be realistic if the human-robot interaction imitates faultless and impeccable communication. In psychology, the pratfall effect explains that a mistake would increase the interpersonal appeal and make humans more likable (Aronson et al., 2014). In this regard, Mirnig et al. (2017) highlights that the same phenomenon can be applied to social robots. ...
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... Similarly, there are benefits and costs to disclosing negative information. Though several scholars have recommended negative self-disclosures as a tool to boost perceptions of warmth and curtail envy, these disclosures can diminish perceptions of competence (Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd, 1966;Dunn, Ruedy, & Schweitzer, 2012;Kervyn et al., 2009aKervyn et al., , 2009bKervyn et al., , 2012Kervyn et al., , 2016Swencionis & Fiske, 2016;Yzerbyt, Kervyn, & Judd, 2008). (2016) find that individuals who make downward comparisons attempt to appear warm by downplaying their competence, whereas individuals who make upward comparisons attempt to appear competent by downplaying their warmth. ...
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Aslen 1975 yılında Zahavi tarafından ortaya konulan “Handikap İlkesi”ne dayanan “Maliyetli Sinyalizasyon Teorisi” günümüzde gerek hayvan davranışını gerekse insan davranışını açıklamakta yararlanılan bir teoridir. İletişim disiplini altında incelendiğinde Maliyetli Sinyalizasyon Teorisi, temelinde, iletişimsel eylem içerisinde olan oyuncunun karşı tarafa dürüst sinyaller göndermesinin yarattığı maliyete odaklanır. Maliyetli sinyalizasyon, çoğu zaman (özellikle sinyal veren taraf açısından) bir kayba yol açsa da zaman zaman söz konusu maliyete sebep olan dürüst sinyallerin, sinyali alan tarafta güven oluşturması sebebi ile bir kazanç da yaratabilir. Dürüst sinyaller sayesinde tesis edilen güvenin yaratacağı kazanç ile zayıflığın ortaya çıkması sebebi ile oluşan kayıp Oyun Teorisi kapsamında da çalışılmaktadır. Türkçe alanyazında Maliyetli Sinyalizasyon Teorisi ile ilgili ciddi bir boşluk bulunduğu görülmektedir. Bu derleme çalışmasında Maliyetli Sinyalizasyon Teorisi irdelenmiş ve bu teori doğrultusunda, teoriye örnek teşkil edebilecek pazarlama iletişimi kampanyaları ve kitle iletişim araçları incelenmiştir. Çalışma dahilinde verilen kampanyaların seçiminde herhangi bir kriter kullanılmamış, teoriye örnek teşkil edebilecek tartışmalı pazarlama iletişimi kampanyaları incelenmiştir. Çalışmada ayrıca kampanyaların yer aldığı mecraların sinyalizasyon gücü de ele alınmıştır. Derleme mahiyetinde hazırlanan bu çalışmanın Maliyetli Sinyalizasyon Teorisi ile ilgili Türkçe alanyazına katkıda bulunması umulmaktadır. Çalışmanın, bu konuda ileride yapılacak nitel / nicel çalışmalara altyapı oluşturması amaçlanmıştır.
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A comprehensive model of interpersonal attraction is presented in which attraction is an emotion expressed to regulate interpersonal relationships. The model proposes that cognitive appraisals, the subjective experience, and the expression of affiliative behavior are fundamental to understanding how attraction operates. Specifically, we discuss how (a) cognitive appraisals (willingness and ability) are fundamental to the subjective experience of attraction, (b) social dilemma considerations affect when and why the subjective experience aligns with the expression of affiliative behavior, (c) the interplay of the components of attraction explain the panoply of extant attraction phenomena, and (d) the attraction process operates in both initial interactions and enduring relationships. We conclude with a discussion of methodological and theoretical directions to fuel future growth.
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Es gibt selbst bei Demut Grenzen und Nachteile. Viele davon lassen sich leicht umgehen oder kompensieren. Dennoch ist es wichtig zu wissen, dass an manchen Stellen die positive Wirkung von Demut durch einen selbst, durch andere oder durch die vorherrschende Kultur konterkariert werden kann. Wo Demut nicht echt ist, wo Mitarbeiter sich zu weit entfernt von der Führungskraft fühlen, wo es an Kompetenz fehlt oder ein anderes Image wichtig ist, muss sich jede Führungskraft überlegen, welche Tugenden und Verhaltensweisen sie vielleicht zuerst einsetzen muss, bevor sie auf Demut zurückgreifen kann.
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Teachers often struggle with determining how vulnerable to make themselves in the classroom. Many teachers intuitively desire to exude strength and confidence in their teaching and view vulnerability as a hindrance to that aim. However, there exists a vulnerability paradox: the more vulnerable teachers make themselves, the stronger students’ trust in teachers becomes. Drawing upon research on trust, we provide important insights for teachers to consider regarding how vulnerability can generate trust and in turn improve student learning. We then introduce three pedagogical strategies that teachers can use to demonstrate vulnerability, thereby engendering greater trust in the classroom.
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Purpose This purpose of this paper is to explore to efficacy of influence tactics at the outset of a job interview. Across three empirical studies, five influence tactics were manipulated during a simulated job interview to explore first impressions for candidates with or without a visible disability. Design/methodology/approach Participants viewed videos of candidates (either in a wheelchair or not) responding to the opening question in a job interview by using one of five influence tactics (i.e. revealing a strong alternative, setting a numerical anchor, demonstrating approachability through imperfections, presenting hard skills that described job-related competencies or presenting soft skills including connecting well with and leading others). Perceptions of trustworthiness, fit for the current job and perceived appropriate salary amount were rated. Findings Results show that, in general, tactics that might have beneficial effects when used at later moments, including the use of a strong alternate, anchor or imperfection display, may instead harm first impressions of anyone. When discussing specific skills, hard skills helped in both cases. However, the presentation of soft skills helped only the non-disabled job candidate. Trustworthiness acted as a mediator for most of these relationships in both populations. Originality/value Results provide insight into how the use of these tactics very early in an interaction unfolds. Further, parsing the use of influence tactics into their effects on specific populations (such as people with disabilities) allows us to better understand the conditions under which they may help or hurt perceptions of employability.
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Email and text-based communication have become ubiquitous. Although recent findings indicate emotional equivalence between face-to-face and email communication, there is limited evidence of nonverbal behaviors in text-based communication, especially the kinds of unintentional displays central to emotion perception in face-to-face interactions. We investigate whether unintentional emotion cues occur in text-based communication by proposing that communication mistakes (e.g., typos) influence emotion perception. Across six studies, we show that communication errors amplify perceptions of email sender’s emotions—both negative (Studies 1A–2, 4, 5) and positive (Study 3). Furthermore, by contrasting perceptions of message senders who make mistakes in emotional versus unemotional contexts (Study 5), we show that people partially excuse message sender communication errors in emotional (versus unemotional) contexts, attributing such mistakes to the sender’s emotional state rather than solely their intelligence level. These studies suggest that nonverbal behavior in text-based and face-to-face communication may be more comparable than previously thought.
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In diesem Kapitel wird dargestellt, dass Emotionen im menschlichen Dialog eine wesentliche Rolle spielen und demzufolge bewusst oder unbewusst zu Beeinflussung und Manipulationszwecken benutzt werden können. Und dabei kommt wiederum eine Reihe kognitiver Effekte zum Tragen, etwa die Fokussierungsillusion: Je stärker man sich auf einen bestimmten Aspekt des Lebens konzentriert, desto größer scheint dessen Einfluss auf das ganze Leben zu sein. Durch die Affektheuristik treffen wir Entscheidungen zu den unterschiedlichsten Sachverhalten intuitiv und ohne großartig nachzudenken. Das geht schnell, macht wenige Mühe und kann positive oder negative Konsequenzen haben. Um Mitgefühl geht es ebenfalls: Einflüsse wie Stress und starke negative Gefühle führen zu weniger empathischem Verhalten. Eine höhere Zahl anonymer Toter zählt weniger als eine niedrigere Anzahl identifizierbarer Opfer. Und gemäß Zuschauereffekt sollte man bei einem Unfall oder kriminellen Übergriff nicht unbedingt auf das Eingreifen unbeteiligter Augenzeugen hoffen. Bei Personenbewertungen ordnen wir anderen gewisse Attribute zu, die teilweise auch ganze Gruppen betreffen und durchaus negativ belegt sein können (Attributionsfehler).
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Photos are a ubiquitous mode of social communication. Analysis of thousands of online profiles finds that people overwhelmingly post posed photos of themselves. But might candids actually lead observers to react more favorably? Five studies test this possibility. Compared to posed photos, candids made observers feel more connected to the poster, feel more interested in getting to know or date them, and like them more. This was driven by candids making people seem more genuine, which made others react more favorably. Furthermore, consistent with the hypothesized role of genuineness, the benefits of candids were diminished when observers learned that the poster realized their photo was being taken. These finding highlight the role of authenticity in person perception and a potential disconnect between photo posters and viewers. Although posters seem to post mostly posed photos, observers may prefer candids because they provide a more authentic sense of who the poster really is.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Report on the behavior of group members observed while in a problem solving discussion situation. The data indicate 7 types of acts or stages of discussion, and suggest identifiable roles taken by members of the group. The studies make "clear that social stability is an extremely complex achievement" and because of this complexity "interminable series of meetings around the conference table… are perhaps worth while after all." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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"The relationship between leadership, followership, and friendship peer nominations was studied within eight sections of Naval Aviation Cadets, N = 187 . . ... From the results it may be concluded that peer nominations on leadership are by no means a total function of friendship ties; quite the contrary, friendship appears to play only a minor role in the emergence of leadership nominations. Furthermore, followership status is not necessarily implied by nonleadership status on peer nominations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Role differentiation in small decision-making groups The family, socialization, and interaction process
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Task roles and social roles in problem solving groups
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