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The exceptional child in the family

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The exceptional child in the family

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A practical guide, covering all phases of exceptional children and geared particularly to help parents and others understand the unique problems which may arise in those families with children who have some type of exceptionality. It offers counsel to parents to help them make adequate personal adjustments to their exceptional offspring. A comprehensive illustrative case history and selected bibliography are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Considerable research has appeared relating parental behavior, attitudes, and rearing practices to a variety of characteristics of the "normal" and the disabled child. These studies have identified a variety of parent and child characteristics that have been associated with raising a disabled child (Ross, 1964). The majority of writers comparing disabled/nondisabled children base their 'Thanks are extended to C, Krieter, D. Wacker, and L. Cobb for their comments and statistical assistance in preparation of the manuscript. ...
... Pertinent child characteristics selected for this study included the child's age and sex (Yarrow, Campbell, & Burton, 1968), intellectual status (Ross, 1964), and the degree and presence of physical and sensory impairments (Holroyd & Guthrie, 1979;Easson, 1966;Ross, 1964;Cook, 1963;Hall, 1963). Relevant parental characteristics selected for study included the age and educational level of the parent (Hess, 1970) and the presence of nonhandicapped siblings in the family (Shere & Kastenbaum, 1966). ...
... Pertinent child characteristics selected for this study included the child's age and sex (Yarrow, Campbell, & Burton, 1968), intellectual status (Ross, 1964), and the degree and presence of physical and sensory impairments (Holroyd & Guthrie, 1979;Easson, 1966;Ross, 1964;Cook, 1963;Hall, 1963). Relevant parental characteristics selected for study included the age and educational level of the parent (Hess, 1970) and the presence of nonhandicapped siblings in the family (Shere & Kastenbaum, 1966). ...
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The current study evaluated the generalizability of a parent-child rearing inventory designed for normal children and parents to a group of parents of disabled children. A total of 101 mothers of multihandicapped children completed a questionnaire (Parent Report of Child Behavior) reporting their child's behavior toward them in five areas: Positive Relationship, Detachment, Obedience, Independence, and Control Problems. Factor analysis of these mothers' responses revealed a qualitatively different set of underlying factors as contrasted to the original normative group. For mothers in this study, a positive relationship with their disabled child was contingent upon a combination of compliant behaviors (obeying rules, doing things independently, actively trying to please), all of which are likely associated with general child competence. The disabled child's age, intellectual level, degree of physical impairment, and number of nonhandicapped sibs influenced maternal report of child behavior.
... The child may also be seen as a way for parents to achieve "immortality", by perpetuating their good name into the next generation. In some families the child is seen by the mother as a gift from her to her husband [3]. The disability of a child also makes a difference. ...
... Often the initial diagnosis of the child's disability will produce a grief reaction in parents and other family members [3]. This may be the result of initial confusion and uncertainty. ...
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When a child is born, the life of the family changes significantly and each of its members must adapt to the new situation. When the child is born with a disability, in addition to regular adaptation, the family must cope with stress, grief, disappointments, and challenges, which may lead to a serious crisis or even disruption of family life. Parents must coordinate assessments, evaluations, and various treatments while maintaining contact with many professionals and numerous institutions or services. They find themselves faced with important decisions on behalf of the child, decisions on management of the child with disability, and economic decisions that will affect the whole family. This paper reviews the literature on the topic of coping when a child with disability is born and also studies the question as to whether a connection exists between parental orientation toward feelings of guilt and the family relationships system. The event of a child born with a disability is always a tragedy for the family, but early intervention and support may help the family to adjust and become positively involved in the care and development of the child, even if that child is different and in need of special treatment.
... Furthermore the parents of gifted children feel stress and tidal when they encourage gifted children because of the family climate. Thus, they try to encourage gifted children to have self-motivation (Ross, 1964;Van Deur, 2004;Garn, Jolly, & Matthews, 2010). From this point of view, the parents are directly a crucial contributor for helping to improve gifted children's self-control and through self-control promote grit. ...
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The present study aims to investigate the structural relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, teacher support, self-control and grit of gifted students. This study was conducted with 247 gifted elementary students. The findings obtained in this study showed that parental attachment influenced self-control directly, and self-control was the full mediator for grit of the gifted students. However, peer attachment and teacher support affected the grit of gifted students directly, and self-control was not a mediator among peer attachment, teacher support and the grit of gifted students. Future studies can be conducted to investigate whether individual characteristics (personalities) and school environment of the gifted students effect self-control and grit in detail.
... The myth of sibling jealousy, rivalry, or resentment (Bridges, 1973;Cornell, 1984;Ross, 1972) was exposed in the face of explicit findings: being gifted is frequently an asset to sibling relationships. The current study found no influence of the "labeling of gifted" among the Eilat sample of mixed families neither in learning, nor in empathy level. ...
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A most common belief is that giftedness is the cause of problems in sibling relationships when the family is •mixed•, has at least one gifted child, and at least one non-gifted one. This belief has been accepted not only by parents and educators of the gifted, but also by researchers in the area of gifted education in general and counseling the gifted family in particular. However, quantitative studies have shown that in most case gifted families maintain healthy connections, a high level of psychological adjustment and positive coping strategies (Mathews et al., 1986; Silverman, 1993a). Relationships among gifted and non-gifted siblings have not been widely studied. Thus, until the Chamrad et al. (1995) study the common belief was that having a gifted child has a negative influence on the sibling relationships. Our work is the first Israeli one that examines a whole population, all gifted children invited to participate at the enrichment program for the gifted in Eilat, the most southern Israeli city, with a population of approximately 50, 000, in the year 2007/2008. We studied the 6 following parameters of sibling relationships: friendship, empathy, learning, rivalry, conflict and avoidance. We found that the labeling of one sibling as •gifted• in Eilat did not have a negative influence on the sibling relationship. This result is of crucial importance, as many parents prefer not to send their gifted children to the enrichment program for the gifted I order not to harm the relationships between the gifted and the no-gifted sibling.
... Other studies examined the sibling relationship rather than the adjustment of unlabeled siblings. Several authors have proposed that the positive status accorded to a gifted child may trigger increased feelings of jealousy, rivalry, or resentment in siblings not recognized as equally gifted (Bridges, 1973;Cornell, 1984;Ross, 1972). In a study ofpairs of brothers, Pfouts (1976Pfouts ( , 1980 found that the less-able brother felt hostility toward the brother who outshined him. ...
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The present study examined the impact of maternal labeling of children as gifted on the sibling relationship. Subjects were 144 pairs of firstborn and secondborn siblings classified according to maternal perceptions into one of four groups: both gifted, firstborn gifted, secondborn gifted, or neither gifted. Five aspects of the sibling relationship were examined: Warmth/Closeness, Status/Power, Conflict, Maternal Partiality, and Paternal Partiality. Results indicated that unlabeled children generally did not view the sibling relationship more negatively than their labeled siblings. However, there was consistent evidence of labeling effects which interacted with birth order. Maternal labeling of firstborn children was associated with greater Warmth/Closeness in the sibling relationship, but maternal labeling of secondborn children appeared to have the opposite effect of reduced Warmth/Closeness.
... It has been suggested that when parents are told their child is gifted, they react in much the same way as parents who are told that their child has an intellectual disability (Ross, 1964). ...
... The myth of sibling jealousy, rivalry, or resentment (Bridges, 1973;Cornell, 1984;Ross, 1972) was exposed in the face of explicit findings: being gifted is frequently an asset to sibling relationships. The current study found no influence of the "labeling of gifted" among the Eilat sample of mixed families neither in learning, nor in empathy level. ...
Article
This article reports on two of the first studies of post-Soviet reforms of gifted education in Lithuania. After a professional development (PD) programme was provided Lithuanian teachers to help them develop a list of characteristics of gifted children, define giftedness, and design a procedure for gifted identification, two qualitative studies examined: a) how teachers’ perceptions of giftedness changed as a result of a Western professional development programme in gifted education that introduced the Renzulli Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness; and b) what gifted educational practices do teachers in an urban basic school know, practice, and recommend after the implementation of a systematic gifted identification process. Evidence for change in teachers’ perceptions was gathered via pre-and post-surveys. In the follow-up case study at a basic school, the Screening Committee identified 19% or 84 of 450 pupils as ’gifted.’ Observational and interview data from the case study school indicated that teachers from the PD programme felt more empowered to differentiate the curriculum for identified gifted pupils.(1) How have the Lithuanian teachers’ perceptions of giftedness changed as a result of a Western professional development programme in gifted education that introduced the Renzulli Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness Model?(2) What gifted educational practices do Lithuanian teachers in an urban basic school know, practice, and recommend after the implementation of a systematic gifted identification process?
... The myth of sibling jealousy, rivalry, or resentment (Bridges, 1973;Cornell, 1984;Ross, 1972) was exposed in the face of explicit findings: being gifted is frequently an asset to sibling relationships. The current study found no influence of the "labeling of gifted" among the Eilat sample of mixed families neither in learning, nor in empathy level. ...
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This study focuses on perfectionism in Japanese and North American academically gifted children as it pertains to their potential contribution in the countries seeking progress and global leadership. Perfectionist’ tendencies and the characteristics that typically reveal such tendencies are examined in academically gifted Japanese juku-school students (N=195, average age 11 years 6 months) using the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost et al., 1990). A comparison is made with the same age peers living in the United States of America from the Parker and Mills study conducted in 1996. The study revealed a stronger orientation towards perfectionism in academically gifted Japanese children than their American counterparts, especially in terms of their efforts to do their best in their own social milieu. Concluding remarks recognize the difficulties in conducting cross-cultural research.
... The myth of sibling jealousy, rivalry, or resentment (Bridges, 1973;Cornell, 1984;Ross, 1972) was exposed in the face of explicit findings: being gifted is frequently an asset to sibling relationships. The current study found no influence of the "labeling of gifted" among the Eilat sample of mixed families neither in learning, nor in empathy level. ...
Article
Full-text available
A most common belief is that giftedness is the cause of problems in sibling relationships when the family is "mixed", has at least one gifted child, and at least one non-gifted one. This belief has been accepted not only by parents and educators of the gifted, but also by researchers in the area of gifted education in general and counseling the gifted family in particular. However, quantitative studies have shown that in most case gifted families maintain healthy connections, a high level of psychological adjustment and positive coping strategies(Mathews et al., 1986; Silverman, 1993a).Relationships among gifted and non-gifted siblings have not been widely studied. Thus, until the Chamrad et al.(1995) study the common belief was that having a gifted child has a negative influence on the sibling relationships. Our work is the first Israeli one that examines a whole population, all gifted children invited to participate at the enrichment program for the gifted in Eilat, the most southern Israeli city, with a population of approximately 50,000, in the year 2007/2008. We studied the 6 following parameters of sibling relationships: friendship, empathy, learning, rivalry, conflict and avoidance. We found that the labeling of one sibling as "gifted" in Eilat did not have a negative influence on the sibling relationship. This result is of crucial importance, as many parents prefer not to send their gifted children to the enrichment program for the gifted I order not to harm the relationships between the gifted and the no-gifted sibling
... Literature on the birth of . . . children [with special needs] (reviewed in Ross, 1964; Wright, 1960) clearly indicates that their . . . mothers go through stages of guilt, sorrow, mourning, and anger, which may well interfere with stable, warm relations with their infants. ...
Article
From the Editors: This article represents another in our series of "classics" that helped to shape the field of deaf studies and deaf education. The article first appeared as Chapter Two in Sound and Sign: Childhood Deafness and Mental Health, H. S. Schlesinger and K. P. Meadow (1972), Berkeley: University of California Press. The book reported pioneering research and clinical mental health services at the Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, San Francisco. For current readers, some of the language may seem out of date, and the Editors have made several minor modifications to ensure that readers fully recognize the original intention of the author. (Such modifications are indicated by square brackets or ellipses for contemporary purposes, but the intentions of the original all have been maintained, and Editors’ notes are indicated as such to distinguish them from the Authors’ notes.) Nevertheless, many of the ideas are fresh and important. Indeed, some passages serve as particular reminders of significant changes in opportunities for and attitudes about Deaf people over the past three decades. Many of these changes resulted directly from the work of Dr. Schlesinger and her colleagues.
... Todo esto se agrava, cuando se posee un bajo nivel cultural, ya que crece el deseo de que sus descendientes no presenten altas capacidades, puesto que no los entienden. No parece, por lo tanto, tan extraño y contradictorio que no se acepte de buen grado que sus hijos sean especiales, «raros», (Ross, 1964). ...
Article
RESUMENEste trabajo analiza las percepciones que tienen las familias y los educadores sobre el desarrollo personal, familiar y cognitivo de los niños y niñas de altas capacidades. Se estudian los aspectos coincidentes y discrepantes entre padres, madres y educadores con el fin de comprender e identificar las causas que dificultan la buena comunicación y colaboración. Se pone de manifiesto que uno de los aspectos más importantes es la relación que las familias mantienen con los centros.ABSTRACTThis essay analyses the perceptions that families, counsellors and teachers have regarding the personal and cognitive development of gifted children. We will study the coinciding and opposing aspects among mothers, fathers and educators with the objective of understanding and identifying the causes that obstruct good communication and collaboration. We will highlight the fact that one of the most important aspects is the relationship that the families maintain with the educational centres.
... The adventurously deaf (people who though were not born deaf, still became deaf later in life, due to some accident or illness). Ross (1972) expressed that hearing impaired is the generic term that include both the hard of hearing (partially hearing) and deaf. These two terms came up because of newer diagnostic and testing method, persons classified as deaf have been classified as hard-of-hearing.. ...
Article
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The ear is the part of the body that is used for hearing. Information about the world is acquired through hearing. Anybody that hears nothing around him, no matter how loud the sound is should be seen as having ear problem. It is a condition or rather an impairment which is a physical, observable condition of tissue that can affect the function of the organ system of which that tissue is a part. Hearing impairment is a disability that can affect the effective functioning of the total personality no matter the period of onset (Okeke, 2001). Among the earliest attempt to define hearing impaired was the one made by the committee of Nomenclature of the conference of Executives of American schools for the deaf (1938) which says that the deaf are those people in whom the sense of hearing is non-functioning for the ordinary purpose of life. According to them also, the hard-of-hearing can be defined as those in whom the sense of hearing although defective is functional with or without a hearing aid. The committee went on to categdrize the deaf into two, thus: i. The congenially deaf (people that become deaf from birth) ii. The adventurously deaf (people who though were not born deaf, still became deaf later in life, due to some accident or illness). Ross (1972) expressed that hearing impaired is the generic term that include both the hard of hearing (partially hearing) and deaf. These two terms came up because of newer diagnostic and testing method, persons classified as deaf have been classified as hard-of-hearing.. The hard-of-hearing are those who can benefit maximally from auditory training and from wearing hearing aids. This then enables them to acquire speech and language naturally. The deaf are set of people whose sense of hearing is completely lost as a result of damage in the auditory channel, thus such people's sense of hearing are rendered in-active and non-functional with or without hearing aids for the day-to-day life purposes. Hearing impaired include both the hard-of-hearing (partially hearing) and the deaf. The two describe the degree of impairment. The hard of hearing refers to those whose hearing loss in the pre-lingual period or later is not of sufficient severity to preclude the development of some spoken language, and those who have normal hearing in the pre-lingual period but acquire hearing loss later. The category of their impairment is not as severe as that of the deaf. Bryan (1975) observed that it is well documented that deaf children are worse than hard-of-hearing and normal hearing children in arithmetic problems involving reading skills. Proper diagnosis is therefore important for proper categorization and eventual realization of the fullest potentials of hearing impaired children.
... The adventurously deaf (people who though were not born deaf, still became deaf later in life, due to some accident or illness). Ross (1972) expressed that hearing impaired is the generic term that include both the hard of hearing (partially hearing) and deaf. These two terms came up because of newer diagnostic and testing method, persons classified as deaf have been classified as hard-of-hearing.. ...
... The study concluded that non-trained parents of gifted students scored higher on parent irrational beliefs than did trained parents. This result might be expected because parents generally have developed child-rearing behaviors and attitudes according to the average child (Ross, 1964). When the child does not meet the regular expectation, parents might have trouble dealing with the child. ...
Article
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This study examined the irrational beliefs of parents of gifted children. Ninety-nine parents of gifted children in Turkey participated in the study. Parent Irrational Beliefs Scale was used as a data collection tool. Mann-Whitney’s U and Kruskal-Wallis Tests were used to compare the scores. Results revealed that parents who had no training about giftedness had scored higher on parent irrational beliefs than did trained parents. In addition to training, education levels of parents had a significant effect on parent irrational beliefs. With regard to the gender of their gifted children, there were no significant differences in parent irrational beliefs scores. Parents’ explanation of their difficulties with their gifted children were related to irrational beliefs.
Article
Sixty-one caregivers were interviewed before and after their first visit with the child in their care to specialist neurodevelopmental outpatient clinics at Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto. The interview focused on their understanding of the child's disability and their expectations of the service offered at the clinics. Before consultation the majority of caregivers had a fair understanding of the child's functional problems and the short-term complications, but after the consultation levels of understanding decreased significantly. Caregivers left the consultation with a significantly improved understanding of the aetiology of the problem. Understanding of long-term complications did not differ significantly before and after the consultation. These findings may reflect the consultative process, as professionals may be more comfortable discussing aetiology than long-term complications. Caregivers in a state of shock may be unable to absorb all the information given, and translation during consultation may also be a confounding factor. Even though more than half the caregivers had no idea what services the clinics offered prior to the consultation, the majority (81%) indicated they were satisfied with the service after the consultation.
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Purpose: Parents of children with developmental disabilities who have a non-western migration background often experience unique challenges in foreign health care systems. This study aimed to describe these experiences to better understand these challenges and thereby improve health care provision. Method: Twelve parents were interviewed using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Our data was analysed, and themes were identified using open, selective, and axial coding. Results: Multiple parents in our study had a different perception of what constitutes a "handicap", may regard it as something that is very severe and highly stigmatized and will be less aware of the complex system of care professionals that aim to support them in the care for their child. Additionally, communication with care professionals may be complicated because of language differences and expectations about the division of roles and responsibilities between parents and professionals. This may result in lower involvement in health care. Conclusion: As a result of cultural differences in the meaning, information and interaction about disabilities, non-western migrant parents will have a harder time coping with the diagnosis of their child's disability and will experience more challenges with their involvement in health care.1Implications for RehabilitationTo be aware that non-western parents who are told their child has a disability are likely to experience more shame, fear of stigma and may have other definitions of disability than western parents.To pay specific attention to explain as much as possible about the causes, meaning and medical as well as societal future expectations for children with a disability to parents with another cultural background.To explore which knowledge parents have about their child's disability and the Dutch health care system, so that information and support can be personalized.To make sure there are translators present who can not only translate in the correct language but who can also explain commonly used terms for disabilities and other medical concepts, diagnostic procedures, and other specificities of the health care system of the host country to migrant parents.To psycho-educate parents with a migrant background that they are expected to be actively involved in the professional care for their child with a disability without this having negative consequences for the care of their child.
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This study examined fathers' views about the effects of children with Down syndrome on themselves and their families. Taped interviews were obtained from 90 fathers of children aged from 7 to 14 years. Qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed 28 categories of comments made by fathers. The most frequent comment, made by 46% of fathers, was about the cheerful personality of their child with Down syndrome. About 42% of fathers talked about the initial trauma they experienced following the diagnosis; 43% of them bemoaned the restrictions imposed on the family, and 30% commented that the child had minimal effects on family life. The greatest concern expressed by fathers was the long-term provision for their children. More fathers commented on the positive effects on their marriage than on negative effects. The results of this study provide a somewhat different view of fathers' experiences to that found in the existing literature.
Article
In summary, this article has emphasized the stressful effect of a handicapped child on the family. The effect of the family on the child's achievement is emphasized as many handicapped children would not become disabled or their disability lessened by appropriate parental behavior. Because of the importance of the family as a teaching environment, for the preschool child in particular, three home-oriented programs are out-lined as possible models that others might find useful. These programs attempt to capitalize on the mother's continued contact with the child and her ability to supply a one-to-one teaching arrangement during the time when the child is most susceptible to change. Such programs also increase mother-child communication and enhance her sense of having some control over the child's development, and her self-image as a competent parent, in addition to making the parents aware of community resources and fostering contact with appropriate services. These parent programs for handicapped children should not be seen as a substitute for other child-oriented preschool programs but as part of a co-ordinated approach to the education of the preschool handicapped child.
Article
Posits that to effectively plan for services for young handicapped children, early objective developmental assessments are necessary. Although caution must be exercised in their use, assessment measures for infants can help to prevent, ameliorate, or uncover the difficulties that the handicapped child might face. By using a battery of assessments, a profile of the child's abilities, strengths, weaknesses, and disabilities is yielded. The uses of a number of instruments are reviewed, and a case study of a 3-yr-old is presented. (11/3 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The family as a basic unit of society performs essential functions for its individual members as well as for society at large. In spite of the fact that, with the changing times, the family too has undergone changes in its structure and functions, it is still recognised as the most stable and effective system for taking care of its member — able-bodied as well as disabled. This paper has focussed on two main aspects. Firstly, it has highlighted the vital role of families in supporting their disabled family members in these changing times, their successes and their problems in coping. The roles and interactions of family members have been viewed through the framework of family functions. Secondly, it has briefly reviewed the extent to which current professional practices or approaches have facilitated the family's supporting role. Though I am aware that a variety of professional disciplines such as medical experts, special teachers, allied health professionals etc. and other resources such as the printed media, electronic media, etc., also play an important role in aiding the disabled and their families, I have restricted myself basically to the interventions made by counsellors in order to keep the paper within limits. Lastly, I have made a few suggestions for making professional intervention with the families of the disabled more constructive and effective.
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The impact of a retarded child on a family has previously been described by individual family members' reports. This study of 40 families, 10 in each of four critical periods during the life of the retarded child, utilized videotaped interviews with whole families, with subsequent clinical observation and analysis based on the Beavers family assessment model. Healthy and problematic adaptations are delineated, with specific attention to systems concepts such as family structure and power, member individuation, feeling expression, and values. The report includes data analysis and a summary of pattern differences in family functioning.
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Explores the effect of chronic pediatric disability on grandparents, concentrating on grandparents' response to a disabled grandchild and on how their reaction affects the nuclear family. The roles grandparents often assume as well as the meaning of grandparenthood to society are identified, and the emotional and practical effects of a disabled grandchild on grandparents is considered. The role of grandparents as stressors and resources to the family with a disabled child are discussed. Models and programs drawn from the literature that attempt to help grandparents adapt to their disabled grandchildren and to acquire skills and knowledge that enable them to cope with their special situation are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews—in relation to parents and families of gifted children—family characteristics, parental attitudes and values, family problems with gifted children, achievement and underachievement, role of parents in identification, parental encouragement and enrichment activities, and parents and schools. Although the importance of parents is seen as a key factor in the development of all children, discussion of the role of parents with their gifted children has been superficially treated. Many articles deal only with rules of thumb about good parenting. The review indicates that parents are interested and responsive to suggestions for more active participation in the education of their children. One problem has been that schools have not always provided direction for participation; when such direction has been provided, it has often not been specific enough to be fruitful. Studies also indicate an implied value on the importance of the home environment and family relations on the later achievement of high-ability youngsters. There is still considerable confusion as to what constitutes the major family influences. This is perhaps due in part to the complexity and variation within the population of gifted children. With the expansion of the concept of giftedness will come an expansion of variables that are important in the family environment. (56 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Suggests that problems associated with giftedness cluster around 3 primary areas: self-perceptions, perceptions of others, and personality traits/external factors. Parental response to the gifted child may be problematic, including anxiety/guilt, denial, ambivalence, disagreement between parents, and overinvestment. Family relationships may be affected in the areas of tempo of family interactions, family system makeup, sibling self-perceptions, and collective attitude toward the giftedness. Counseling strategies include a family counseling modality, exposing myths about giftedness, clarifications of family expectations, and developing educational strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews the literature on the effects of sibship with a handicapped child across a variety of conditions and discusses potential interventions for this group. The review is divided into 3 parts: (1) the psychological effects of sibship with a handicapped brother or sister, (2) the characteristics believed to be related to psychological maladjustment, and (3) the ways in which school psychologists can facilitate the functioning of siblings of the handicapped. Research findings suggest that siblings of the handicapped are a population at risk to develop psychological difficulties. At particular risk are older females in small, low-socioeconomic-status families who assume excessive caretaking responsibilities for their impaired sibling. Consequently, it appears that school psychologists should work not only with the handicapped child and his/her parents but also with the child's brothers and sisters. Such a broadening of involvement would allow school psychologists to move away from a narrow diagnostic role and embrace more preventive, therapeutic approaches. (59 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three groups of mental health professionals—psychiatrists, licensed psychologists, and certified social workers completed questionnaires in which they were asked to react to descriptions of identical hypothetical adolescent clients designated as adopted or nonadopted. Results indicated that most of the clinical judgments made about these clients, including prognosis, anticipated length of treatment, the importance of including families in treatment, the nature of additional clinical information desired, and the treatments that they would recommend were not a function of the clients' adoptive status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
For the last couple of decades UNESCO has aimed to achieve to a far extent the implementation of the guiding principle of inclusion at all levels in education systems worldwide. The idea that countries ‘should ensure an inclusive education system at all levels’ is also a central objective of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This Introduction to the Special Issue explores what participation as an aspect of inclusion means in general, and realistically can mean in sport and quality physical education in particular. Sport is introduced as a context in which, unlike in education, the individual choice of a sporting activity on a spectrum ranging from separate activities for persons with disabilities to modified activities designed for all makes it necessary to attribute each approach equal importance and validity instead of discrediting segregated structures and glorifying supposedly inclusive ones.
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Training parents to use behavior modification with their children is widely considered an effective consultation strategy. However, effectiveness may depend on the acceptability of behavioral prescriptions and adherence to the program. Parents of children with disabilities may be particularly apt to find behavioral programs very acceptable--at least formally. Yet, they may experience difficulties in implementing the proposed intervention plan. An integrative approach to consultation is proposed as a means of surmounting resistance to behavioral programs. Traditionally, consultee-focused mental health consultation and behavioral consultation have been conceptualized as divergent approaches. A case illustration is used to show how the integration of these two perspectives can contribute to the effectiveness of consultation with parents.
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One of the most important responsibilities facing professionals in the educational setting is consultation with parents; few areas are as sensitive as consultation with parents of handicapped children. Various stages of adjustment tend to be experienced by these parents, and these need to be taken into consideration when consulting with them. Professionals should become more cognizant of the emotional factors which may be present in the lives of parents of handicapped youngsters.
Article
The family systems of 45 underachieving and 45 achieving gifted male adolescents were compared on the variables of family functionality, family satisfaction, family environment (conflict, achievement orientation, independence, and expressiveness), and achievement satisfaction. Families with achieving and underachieving gifted students did not differ on the measure of family functionality. Achievement satisfaction and family satisfaction differentiated families on the basis of the status of their gifted student; achievement satisfaction differentiated functional from dysfunctional families. Families with achieving gifted students expressed higher achievement satisfaction than families with underachieving gifted students, and dysfunctional families with an underachieving adolescent were less satisfied with their child's achievement than were functional families with an underachieving student.
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A selected review of the theme issue of the journal Family Relations, 33(1), January 1984.
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In this study I am going to describe some practical aspects of the environmental influences on the early years of the gifted child's development: how social factors work in vivo, how special effects, illnesses or disabilities cause strong influence on the later achievement. Statistical data and case studies help us to understand these effects.
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The paper focuses on the constructions of the phrase-'an ideal father'-by integrating findings from six different qualitative studies. Out of these six studies, five are from the city of Baroda while one is from Mumbai, both cities in western India. The total sample included 175 fathers, 50 mothers and 120 children. The studies used semi-structured interviews to elicit data from fathers and mothers about 'who is an ideal father'? The study also sought children's notions in the form of responses to open-ended statements. The data was analysed using themes from the generative-fathering framework (Dollahite, 2002; Dollahite and Hawkins, 1997). The results revealed that fathers were most influenced by their own parents in their ideals, followed by close relatives and other sources such as the media, mythology, friends and their respective spiritual gurus. The discussion focuses on understanding the results in terms of change and continuity in fatherhood ideals as well as the use of a generative framework for research on fatherhood.
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This paper deals with the stressors that are found within families in which there is an intellectually handicapped person. The review deals with the impact of stress upon the parents and the nonhandicapped siblings. The basic proposition expounded is the need for respite care to allow the family to engage in those activities that are part of the experiences enjoyed by other families within the community. Respite care offers a substitute care to families for periods of time ranging from several hours to days and it has been argued that such relief is able to substantially reduce the stress on families resulting from intensive caregiving.
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In order to provide an historical context in which to view current practice in our field, the first two sections of this chapter are devoted to brief reviews of major developments in preschool special education and neuropsychology. Next, a rationale for the application of neuropsychological techniques in the assessment of young children is provided within which to evaluate the contributions of this approach over more traditional models. The next section addresses general considerations in the assessment of young children. The major portion of the chapter focuses on a description of neuropsychological assessment techniques appropriate for infants and preschool children. Two subsequent sections address other issues relevant to neuropsychological appraisal of this population, handedness and the effects of age. Next we discuss the use of neuropsychological assessment data in the development of educational programs for young children. The chapter concludes with an illustrative case study.
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The syndrome of mental retardation presents a unique challenge to the affected child or adult, to his family, and to the physician who seeks to enhance his habilitation potential. It is the most common serious disorder of childhood, and it is a major social and economic problem. Yet in our country, major interest in the mentally retarded has developed only within the last three decades. Two events, the establishment in 1950 of a citizen advocacy group called the National Association for Retarded Citizens, and President Kennedy’s 1963 federal mandate on mental retardation, were benchmarks for our nation’s modern era of care of its retarded citizens.
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The social worker in a rehabilitation center for the visually handicapped plays a vital role in helping the client to take full advantage of the services offered. However, this role is often imperfectly defined in planning programs. Problems and responsibilities faced by social workers are examined, and the functions of social workers in 2 agencies are presented.
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O diagnóstico de Síndrome de Down pode ser feito em berçário. A presença da criança atípica leva a desagregação da família. A intervenção da enfermeira ensinando técnicas higiênicas, alimentares e de estimulação precoce poderá permitir um ajuste melhor da família. O estudo de dez crianças com Síndrome de Down e seus familiares, realizado num período de seis anos, demonstrou que o diagnóstico precoce da afecção permite que se inicie precocemente a estimulação da criança, assim como a orientação do casal. A estimulação tardia leva a resultados menos favoráveis assim como à maior dificuldade de adaptação da criança à família.
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