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Made comparisons of opinion and judgment ratings of experimental Ss in individual and collective situations. 140 male secondary school students comprised the sample. Group discussions to consensus resulted in statistically significant shifts toward the extremes of the scales. This polarization effect also characterized Ss' postconsensus individual ratings. These results challenged 2 widely held assumptions: (1) that group judgments are less extreme than individual judgments, and (2) that the "risky shift" phenomenon is a content-bound exception to the averaging tendency of the group. A reinterpretation of available data suggests that a normative commitment may be the underlying variable responsible for polarization effects. (34 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Research has superficially explored the role of membership length and extremism online (Stroud, 2010). Extended membership within an echo chamber, towards a particular consensus, may increase the extremism of an individual's attitudes (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). This might suggest that a longer online membership may increase one's opportunities to engage in extremism and be a part of an echo chamber, which could reinforce and strengthen these extremist views. ...
... This research found that a higher number of extreme words occurred significantly more frequently for Twitter accounts with a low membership length. This disputes wider research that has suggested high membership length is associated with non-normative behaviour online (Byrne et al. 2013;Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). ...
... This research did find a significant association between membership length and extreme anti-social behaviour but found that a lower number of months active was significantly associated with a higher occurrence of extreme anti-social behaviours. These findings challenge wider literature that states that online users with an extended membership are likely to demonstrate more extremist behaviour (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). The findings of the present research disputes previous literature that failed to find any significant effects that a user's membership length may have on their level of extremism (Byrne et al. 2013). ...
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The rise in participation of social media networks is accompanied with a corresponding rise in online extremism. The present research was carried out to ascertain whether anonymity, membership length and postage frequency are predictors of online extremism. A total of 205 Twitter accounts and 102,290 tweets were examined. To address the research question, both a corpus linguistic analysis (CLA) and content analysis (CA) were conducted. The former looked at extreme words associated with Islam and the latter looked at four types of extremist behaviour (extreme pro-social, extreme antisocial , extreme antisocial prejudicial biases and extreme radical behaviours). Keyness tests demonstrated that extreme words were most significantly associated with Twitter accounts with high anonymity, low membership length and low postage frequency. A series of multiple regressions found that anonymity significantly predicted four types of extremist behaviour. Membership length only predicted extreme antisocial behaviour and postage frequency did not display any significant predictive power for any of the four types of extremist behaviour. These results suggest that anonymity, membership length and postage frequency differ in terms of predicting extremist language and behaviour. ________________________________________________________________________
... In spite of this there is experimental evidence that group decision making can push the opinion of groups to an extreme not held by any one member of the group (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976). This is particularly relevant for financial decision making as risk-seeking, or risk-avoiding, behaviour may become more extreme within the group, depending on individual group member views. ...
... Group polarization occurs when individuals' views become more extreme after discussion than they were prior to the interaction (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976). These discussions can enhance the initially dominant point of view, reinforcing it and making it more salient. ...
... Although the Groupthink phenomenon has not always received empirical support group influence can lead to polarisation of judgments and risk-taking compared to a more normative or individual benchmark (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976). However, if teams adopt certain safeguards, such as assigning a dedicated role of critical advisor (devil's advocate') and practising critical dissection of assumptions in discussions then this can lead to superior judgment performance in teams compared to individuals (Tetlock & Gardner, 2016). ...
... In spite of this there is experimental evidence that group decision making can push the opinion of groups to an extreme not held by any one member of the group (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976). This is particularly relevant for financial decision making as risk-seeking, or risk-avoiding, behaviour may become more extreme within the group, depending on individual group member views. ...
... Group polarization occurs when individuals' views become more extreme after discussion than they were prior to the interaction (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976). These discussions can enhance the initially dominant point of view, reinforcing it and making it more salient. ...
... Although the Groupthink phenomenon has not always received empirical support group influence can lead to polarisation of judgments and risk-taking compared to a more normative or individual benchmark (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976). However, if teams adopt certain safeguards, such as assigning a dedicated role of critical advisor (devil's advocate') and practising critical dissection of assumptions in discussions then this can lead to superior judgment performance in teams compared to individuals (Tetlock & Gardner, 2016). ...
... All the extremisation results mirror the well-known socio-psychological effect of group polarization, where a group moves toward a view more extreme than most individual views that were held before their exposure to social influence (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976). A similar Figure 10. ...
... A population that takes a longer history of itself into account (larger memory capacity) is less likely to become extremised than a population that quickly forgets the past. These results echo the socio-psychological phenomena of group polarization (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976) and online extremism (Z. Z. Cao et al., 2018), providing a mechanistic explanation for the behaviors. ...
Article
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Using mathematics to model the evolution of opinions among interacting agents is a rich and growing field. We present a novel agent-based model that enhances the explanatory power of existing theoretical frameworks, corroborates experimental findings in social psychology, and reflects observed phenomena in contemporary society. Bespoke features of the model include: a measure of pairwise affinity between agents; a memory capacity of the population; and a generalized confidence bound called the interaction threshold, which can be dynamical and heterogeneous. Moreover, the model is applicable to opinion spaces of any dimensionality. Through analytical and numerical investigations, we study the opinion dynamics produced by the model and examine the effects of various model parameters. We prove that as long as every agent interacts with every other, the population will reach an opinion consensus regardless of the initial opinions or parameter values. When interactions are limited to be among agents with similar opinions, segregated opinion clusters can be formed. An opinion drift is also observed in certain settings, leading to collective extremisation of the whole population, which we quantify using a rigorous mathematical measure. We find that collective extremisation is likely if agents cut off connections whenever they move away from the neutral position, effectively isolating themselves from the population. When a population fails to reach a steady state, oscillations of a neutral majority are observed due to the influence exerted by a small number of extreme agents. By carefully interpreting these results, we posit explanations for the mechanisms underlying socio-psychological phenomena such as emergent cooperation and group polarization.
... Moscovici and Nemeth (1974) extended Lewin's insights with the interpretation that groups can promote innovation and the movement towards unexpected behavioural outcomes. This followed the reinterpretation of another group process, the so-called 'risky shift' (Moscovici and Zavalloni, 1969). The risky shift described the empirical finding that group decisions were inclined to be more risk seeking than the combined preferences of the individual group members would suggest. ...
... Considérons la situation la plus simple dans laquelle une personne doit faire un choix entre deux réponses : oui ou non, pour ou contre, plus ou moins. De tels cas sont nombreux dans le monde social et, en outre, les cas avec un plus large éventail de réponses peuvent généralement être réduits à une situation à deux réponses (Moscovici et Zavalloni, 1969). Le choix individuel peut alors être représenté par une variable à deux valeurs : c = 1 pour la réponse oui et c = − 1 pour la réponse non. ...
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Pérez, J., Kalampalikis, N., Lahlou, S., Jodelet, D., Apostolidis, T. (2019). In memoriam: Serge Moscovici (1925-2014). In N. Kalampalikis et al. (Eds.), Serge Moscovici. Un regard sur les mondes communs (pp. 251-263). Paris, Éditions de la MSH.
... Concerning board size effects on firm risk-taking, there are two competing arguments: i) increasing the size of the decision-making group tends to reduce risk-taking behaviors (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969) and risky firms should work with larger boards because they need more guidance and monitoring actions (Coles, Daniel, & Naveen, 2008;Guest, 2008;Linck, Netter, & Yang, 2008); and, at the opposite pole, (ii) by adapting Jensen's (1993) argument, it is possible to say that ineffectiveness in the monitoring role of the board may not be related with its size, but with an excess of CEO power, directors' self-interest, lack of board expertise, and communication disruptions. ...
... In the context of behavioral finance, the size of the decision-making group tends to affect risk-taking (e.g., Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). At an opposite pole, Jensen (1993) highlights some constraints for a well-functioning board, namely, excess CEO power, directors' self-interest, information disruptions due to large firm complexity, lack of proper expertise on the board, and board culture. ...
Article
Purpose-This study examines the relationship between internal corporate governance mechanisms and firm risk-taking. Design/methodology/approach-This research comprises a sample of 38 non-financial Portuguese firms listed on Euronext Lisbon, over the period from 2007 to 2017. To test the formulated hypotheses we use panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE) models. Findings-Our results provide evidence that, in the Portuguese context, bigger and younger firms, with larger boards of directors and a greater number of independent directors, present higher levels of systematic risk. Our results are consistent across the robustness checks. Originality/value-To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a robust incremental effect of board size on firm systematic risk is reported. This result contradicts the prevailing literature and opens up a new debate, from a financial markets viewpoint, on the benefits of larger boards of directors in terms of mitigating market volatility.
... These experiments were followed by a wave of others on group risk taking. Group risk taking came to be known as 'group polarisation', polarization being the tendency of group discussion to drive the whole group to an extreme position in the direction of the original consensus of the group, (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). ...
... Research on group polarization has found that group discussion to consensus results in a polarization of responses and this effect increases when the group is required to commit itself to a given position. It has also been found that individuals will adopt this group consensus as their own (Myers & Lamm 1976, Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969. Group polarization would predict therefore that individual juror opinions would become more extreme after group discussion. ...
... For board size, according to a study done by Moscovici and Zavalloni (1969), the size of a corporate board has a detrimental influence on risk-taking [25]. A larger board of directors has a stronger track record of monitoring the firm and reducing risk [26]. ...
... For board size, according to a study done by Moscovici and Zavalloni (1969), the size of a corporate board has a detrimental influence on risk-taking [25]. A larger board of directors has a stronger track record of monitoring the firm and reducing risk [26]. ...
Article
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This paper summarizes the previous conclusions on the factors related to systematic risk and idiosyncratic risk. This paper summarizes the impact of some specific macroeconomic factors, product market competition, and investor sentiment on this risk. Then it summarizes the impact of corporate governance and corporate social responsibility on idiosyncratic risk. I found that these factors have different degrees of influence in different environments, countries, and markets, and made a comparative analysis of individual factors. Help investors or company managers better understand the factors related to these two risks.
... Contraintuïtivament, però, estudis clàssics de la psicologia social qüestionen que el diàleg comporti un apropament en les formes de pensar dels membres d'un grup. Analitzant les opinions dins d'un grup, Moscovici i Zavalloni (1969) van definir la polarització de grup com «la tendència d'un grup a prendre decisions que són més extremes que la inclinació inicial dels seus membres». En efecte, segons les seves observacions, confirmades més endavant per altres investigacions (Lord et al., 1979, per citar les més clàssiques), les decisions que es prenen en grup solen portar a prendre decisions més arriscades, i les persones poden pensar, sentir i comportar-se de forma més extrema del que hauria estat el seu comportament habitual pel fet de formar part d'un grup, fins i tot quan dins d'un grup hi ha pluralitat d'opinions. ...
... En segon lloc, en relació amb els objectius educatius, i tal com s'ha recollit en el marc teòric, la polarització no és un factor que per se s'hagi de considerar perniciós: pot complir la seva funció dins l'aula, segons l'objectiu pedagògic buscat. En aquest sentit, tenint en compte que l'abordatge de temes controvertits contribueix més a la polarització que a la convergència d'idees (Moscovici i Zavalloni, 1969;Lord et al., 1979), té sentit planificar l'aula segons els objectius: fomentar més la tolerància a la discrepància d'idees i a la polarització, o bé promoure l'escolta, la comprensió i l'apropament, a través de les metodologies i les estratègies, com es detalla a continuació. ...
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ENGLISH Although in the educational arena it is usually accepted that addressing controversial issues leads to a better understanding of the Other and consequently depolarizes groups, classic experiments in social psychology conclude, conversely, that such topics generate greater polarization, even when these groups express a variety of opinions. This paper describes teacher training practices promoted in Catalonia since 2017, analysing two training models: training courses on how to address controversial issues in the classroom, on the one hand, and dialogues between teachers in a context of polarization, on the other, addressed to almost 200 teachers who ranged from pre-school educators to university professors. Through a qualitative and comparative analysis of these practices, this paper identifies some of the factors that may lead to greater or lesser group polarization: a highly or lowly polarized social context, and a safer or riskier classroom environment; learning objectives oriented towards tolerance for discrepancy or towards understanding; methodologies that promote dialogue or debate; didactic strategies with more or less personal involvement, distancing or expression of empathy; and expected results of argumentation and/or listening and empathy CATALAN Tot i que des de l'àmbit educatiu se sol considerar que l'abordatge de temes controvertits promou la comprensió de l'altre i consegüentment despolaritza els grups, experiments clàssics de psicologia social conclouen, al contrari, que abordar aquests temes genera més polarització, fins i tot quan els grups expressen una pluralitat d'opinions. L'article descriu pràctiques de formació de professorat impulsades a Catalunya des del 2017 i analitza dos tipus de models: tallers i cursos sobre com abordar temes controvertits a l'aula, d'una banda, i diàlegs entre docents en context de polarització, de l'altra, adreçats a prop de dos-cents docents, des d'infantil fins a professorat d'universitat. A partir d'una anàlisi qualitativa comparada d'aquestes pràctiques, s'identifiquen alguns dels factors que poden comportar una major o menor polarització de grup: un context social més o menys polaritzat, i un context d'aula més o menys segur; objectius educatius més orientats a la tolerància envers la discrepància o a la comprensió; metodologies que promouen més diàleg o més debat; estratègies didàctiques amb major o menor implicació, distanciament o expressió d'empatia, i resultats esperats d'argumentació i/o d'escolta i empatia. Com fer referència a aquest article / How to cite this article: Barbeito, C. (2022). Quan la controvèrsia entra a l'aula: factors per a la (des)polarització de grups. Revista Catalana de Pedagogia, 22, 71-82.
... There is a bias to sharing information that group members have in common rather than unique information (Lu et al., 2012;Stasser & Abele, 2020). Since groups tend to form based on similarities in attitudes and preferences, the result of discussion is often an increased polarization of pre-existing perspectives: (Baron, 2005;Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Lamm, 1976;van Swol, 2009). ...
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Objective: We analyze the factors that may have played a role in facilitating the crowd behavior of the January 6 riot and the attack on the U.S. Capitol. Method: Using the theoretical perspectives of Le Bon and of Smelser as background, and comparing and contrasting these with the social identity perspective, we examine the potential relevance of research on social influence, behavioral and emotional contagion, deindividuation, group decision-making, and leadership for understanding crowd dynamics. Results: We find general support for Le Bon's approach, and we also find the crowd behavior consistent with the more contemporary social identity/self-categorization perspective on deindividuation. Conclusions: We also discuss the societal conditions that lead to these types of conflicts and suggest ways for group psychologists to take an active role in helping minimize the polarization that leads to these types of disruptive and violent collective events. We argue for more intellectual humility and for understanding and integrating a greater range of perspectives to solve societal problems.
... However, even (4) can have adverse results. According to Moscovici and Zavalloni [33], these can be consequences of discussions that result from the polarization of personal opinions. To create an "objective" judgment, group verdicts "will often be adopted by the individuals as their personal opinions." ...
Article
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Industry 4.0 emerges as a tool to help organizations manage. Often identified with the Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems, Industry 4.0 appears as a solution to many of the difficulties plaguing manufacturing. The history of management theories, e.g. by Taylor, Fayol, or Simon, shows that deterministic solutions do not ensure the permanent success of organizations. In manufacturing, the economy overlaps the technological, social, environmental, and cultural dimensions that influence organizations. This paper assesses the possible benefits for the efficiency of the organizations resulting from the implementation of Industry 4.0. To fulfill this purpose, the effects on the hierarchical structures of organizations are investigated, namely those related to specialization, authority, and span of control. The results show that technological advances and efficiency of industry 4.0, which are relevant for the economy, still do not respond satisfactorily to social needs that require changes in the behavior of the management system.
... Man bezeichnet dieses Phänomen als Gruppenpolarisation (engl. group polarization) (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). Eine verwandte, aber noch weitaus größere Gefahr in Gruppenentscheidungen ist das Gruppendenken (engl. ...
... This phenomenon consists in the tendency of members of a group of like-minded people to hold more extreme beliefs and positions than the ones they started with after discussing with each other (see Brown 1985, 203-226). The term 'group polarization' was coined by Moscovici and Zavalloni in the late 1960s (Moscovici and Zavalloni 1969; see also Myers and Lamm 1976, 603), once it was acknowledged that the tendency to adopt more extreme beliefs as a result of discussing in group is a fundamental group decision-making process. Thus, the so-called group polarization hypothesis: 'The average postgroup response will tend to be more extreme in the same direction as the average of the pregroup responses' (Myers and Lamm 1976, 603). 1 One of the earliest empirical studies regarding this mechanism was conducted on a group of 140 male students from a Parisian lycée, aged 18-19. ...
Article
When public opinion gets polarized, the population’s beliefs can experience two different changes: they can become more extreme in their contents or they can be held with greater confidence. These two possibilities point to two different understandings of the rupture that characterizes political polarization: extremism and radicalism. In this article, I show that from the close examination of the best available evidence regarding how we get polarized, it follows that the pernicious type of political polarization has more to do with radicalism than with extremism. Reinforcing the confidence in the core beliefs of the group we identify with makes our beliefs immune to the reasons coming from the other political side. Finally, I also suggest that the rise of political polarization is not necessarily the result of an irrational process.
... Similarly, a larger board size carries diverse skills, experience, which assists the company to contribute more to environmental and social issues (Haji, 2013). On the other hand, larger boards take more time for discussion and coordination doing more negotiations and concessions than smaller boards (Kogan & Wallach, 1966;Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969), which impede company productivity (Jensen, 1993). It has been found that larger boards tend to have a lower sustainability performance (Fuente, García-Sanchez, & Lozano, 2017). ...
Article
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This study aims at filling the existing research gap by scrutinizing the influence of females on management boards on sustainability performance in a developing country using cross-sectional data from the Egyptian Stock Exchange (EGX) of non-financial companies over the period 2012–2019. To the best of our knowledge, the analysis is considered one of the earliest empirical studies that tests the relationship of females on management board and sustainability performance in Egypt. Our results indicate that female representation on board has a positive impact on sustainability performance, which demonstrates that companies that have females on their boards have a better sustainability performance. Moreover, board size and independence enhance sustainability performance. Thus, this study has imperative repercussions on users and companies’ boards in Egypt, which recommend that current Egyptian regulatory bodies would take further steps that may significantly impact the environmental, social and corporate governance imminent in Egypt
... As observed in [21,32], people update their opinions on topics after interacting or in a discussion and can become more polarized while doing so. In our model, if the individual is attracted, its opinion b j turns out to be closer to b i by a D amount, otherwise is repulsed and turns out to be farthest to b i by a D amount. ...
Article
The study of the dynamics of opinion formation and transmission in social networks has attracted lots of attention. Here, we propose a model that simulates communication in an online social network, in which randomly created posts represent external information. We consider users and friendship relations to be encoded as nodes and edges of a network. The dynamic of information diffusion is divided into two processes, referred to as post transmission and post distribution, representing the users’ behavior and the social network algorithm, respectively. Individuals also interact with the post content by slightly adjusting their own opinion and sometimes redefining friendships. Our results show that the dynamic converge to various scenarios, which go from consensus formation to polarization. Importantly, friendship rewiring helps promote echo chamber formation, which can also arise for particular networks with well-defined community structures. Altogether, our results indicate that the social network algorithm is crucial to mitigate or promote polarization.
... As larger boards have communication and agency problems, which lead to increased conflicts within boards with negative effects on risk ( Cheng, 2008 ;O'Reilly et al., 1993 ;Smith et al., 1994 ;Arrow, 2012 ), it follows that board size issues affect the composition of the risk committee. An increase in the number of risk committee members can generate free riding (agency problems) as well as lengthen the decision-making period ( Kogan and Wallach, 1966 ;Moscovici and Zavalloni, 1969 ;Sah and Stiglitz, 1991 ). ...
Article
The present study aims to investigate how bank governance characteristics are related to liquidity risk by analysing board composition, gender, and the risk committee. A dynamic panel data model is employed on a sample of European banks during the period after the financial crisis (from 2011 to 2017). Furthermore, we collect information about the profiles of the directors on the boards of banks, thereby creating five categories of risk committee members. To address the endogeneity issue, a generalised method of moments two-step estimator is implemented. The findings highlight that the fundamental role of the risk committee adequately shields banks against general liquidity risks. Moreover, the results show a reduction in liquidity risk when a certain threshold of risk supervisors is defined, aiming to reduce risk-taking behaviours. We provide evidence that the effectiveness of the risk committee is strictly related to its complexity. The results of the present study support the corporate governance principles for banks established by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, thus reinforcing the board's risk governance responsibilities, especially with regard to the specific roles of the risk committee.
... The numerous platforms that exist to voice one's ideas-from Facebook to Twitter to YouTube-allow people with extreme views to reach audiences that would have been nearly impossible to reach a decade ago. What we see through social media is group polarization (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969), or what is sometimes called risky shift. In groups, especially ones with homogeneous views, outcomes become exaggerated, and the groups often end up taking more extreme and exaggerated positions than would individuals. ...
Article
Background/Context Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or actually even erode, creativity? This essay addresses this question. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study The goal of our research was to specify the specific societal forces that erode creativity. We have labeled these forces ERODE: Education, Resources, Opportunities, Diffusion, and Exaggeration. The bottom line is that, although our society claims to want creativity, it most wants it when no one is negatively affected. Because creativity almost always negatively affects some people and groups, society tends to be much more supportive of creativity in theory than in practice. We show why. Research Design Our research design is an analysis of the forces in society that erode creativity. We used historical analysis, media analysis, and analysis of educational practice to draw our conclusions.
... It is well established that people infect each other with their opinions and attitudes, making themselves more extreme. Issue position polarization is the exaggeration of the initial individual tendencies through group discussion (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers, 1982;Myers & Lamm, 1976), with two traditional theoretical frameworks explaining such polarization (Isenberg, 1986). According to persuasive arguments theory, the attitudes of group members become more extreme as more convincing arguments become available and salient (Vinokur & Burnstein, 1974). ...
Article
Is political radicalization a product of increased issue position polarization, by which left and right‐wing attitudes become ever more extreme? We argue that this is not the best explanation. Indeed, radical left and right supporters are not so much “left” or “right” in terms of their ideological attitudes. Instead, we argue that political cynicism is a relevant ideological attitude, with radicals being characterized by distinctly high levels, making them truly distinct from moderates. Radicals are primarily driven by anger, more than by anxiety, meaning that their information processing is heavily focused on consistency and closure. We discuss that political cynics have become highly effective as a political force, and we offer suggestions for how traditional parties may overcome the “trust crisis” in politics. It is concluded that issue‐position polarization is a phenomenon that operates to an equal extent in moderate voters than in adherents of radical and populist parties. The abyss between moderates and radicals concerns whether or not “to be in the political system” at all.
... According to the idea of synergy, decisions made collectively also tend to be more effective than those made by a single individual [139]. Methodological problems may arise due to group polarization and biases, which cause some group decisions to be more extreme than the decisions of their individual members [140]. However, for the application in the case presented here, the aim is to validate the elaborated content from a group perspective rather than from an individual perspective. ...
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Due to the rising interest in electric vehicles, the demand for more efficient battery cells is increasing rapidly. To support this trend, battery cells must become much cheaper and “greener.” Energy consumption during production is a major driver of cost and CO $_2$ emissions. The drying production step is one of the major energy consumers and cost drivers. The technological approach of “dry coating” allows the energy-intensive drying step to be eliminated for significant energy and cost savings. However, there are numerous emerging dry coating technologies that differ significantly in physics, chemistry, and readiness levels. Moreover, typical methodological procedures for technology selection remain less applicable to the early stages of technological development. Both issues raise the questions, “What is the most promising dry coating technology?” and “How do we identify it?” To answer these questions, a comprehensive, systematic technology benchmark was conducted. Following a four-step analytical approach, based on the nominal group technique, qualitative content analysis, and multicriteria decision analysis, different dry coating technologies were identified, analyzed, and cross-compared. This was performed qualitatively and quantitatively. We also forecast which factor will impact the application of the most promising technologies for CO $_2$ emission rate reductions and cost savings in 2030. In summary, four different technologies were identified with a high chance of technological breakthrough within the next 3–5 years. By applying these technologies, 4.76 million tons of CO $_2$ could be saved per year by 2030.
... In social psychology, polarization is traditionally conceptualized as an intra-group process involving deliberation between group members which results in a shift in the group position to become more extreme -that is, after discussions, the positions of group members become more extreme (Moscovici and Zavalloni, 1969). In the social identity approach, and particularly, self-categorization theory (SCT, Turner et al., 1987), the intergroup context is introduced as an essential dimension of polarization. ...
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We revisit the construct of political polarization and current distinctions between issue-driven and affective polarization. Based on our review of recent research on polarization from psychology, political science, and communication, we propose to treat polarization as a process that integrates the concepts of social identification (collective self-definition) with ideologically opposed camps - that is, psychological groups based on support or opposition to specific socio-political issues and policies (related to issue-driven polarization), and that of ideological and psychological distancing between groups (related to affective polarization). Furthermore, we discuss the foundations of polarizing groups – and more specifically, the role of conflicting collective narratives about social reality in providing an initial platform for polarization in a technologically networked world. In particular, we highlight the importance of online media in facilitating and enhancing polarization between ideologically opposed camps. As a theoretical contribution, the review provides a more functional conceptualization of polarization that can explain how polarization may occur across partisan fault lines and in domains outside of politics. We conclude with a discussion of new pathways to the study of polarization which this integrative conceptualization opens.
... Firms with larger BSs have lower variability in performance (Cheng, 2008), as it takes more time for the larger board to reach a consensus. Therefore, decisions SEF made by the larger group are less extreme and results in less volatile performance (Kogan and Wallach, 1966;Moscovici and Zavalloni, 1969). This implies that BS is negatively associated with stock price volatility and overreaction. ...
Article
Purpose – This study aims to investigate which stock characteristics and corporate governance variables affect stock price overreaction and volatility during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Design/methodology/approach – A set of stock characteristics and corporate governance variables which may affect price overreaction and volatility were identified following a review of the literature. A dummy variable was created for the cross-sectional analysis to take into account the unique sector effect in the consumer staples sector. Out of sample analysis was conducted to confirm the robustness of the main results. Findings – The empirical results consistently show that size, dividend and trading volume determine the stock price reactions when the market is in turmoil during the pandemic period. Board size and average board tenure exhibit moderate effects on reducing the stock price reactions, but the effects become insignificant while controlling for the firm characteristics in the regressions. The results remain robust when tested out of the sample. More interestingly, a consumer staples sector effect is identified and tested. The test results show that the consumer staples sector effect mitigates the stock price reactions. Practical implications – The results have practical implications for investors who aim to manage desired levels of risk in their portfolios during the pandemic. The results also provide meaningful insights to stock market speculators regarding pandemic-related speculation opportunities. Originality/value – This study makes a meaningful connection between the irrational stock market anomalies and the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Similarly, negative political advertisement exposure, combined with more diversified media sources about presidential candidates, drove people toward liking their preferred candidate (Lau et al., 2017). Polarization was first understood as the "un-averaging" of opinions or judgments of individuals in a group, especially after group discussions (Moscovici and Zavalloni, 1969;Myers and Lamm, 1975). Since the 1970s, studies into politics have begun to focus on the relationship between partisanship, psychological involvement, and the formation of polarization (Pierce, 1970). ...
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Background: Under the uncertainty led by the decentralized information on social media, people seek homogeneity in either opinions or affection to establish group identity to better understand the information. This also means they are easily polarized, not only ideologically but also in their actions. Affective polarization is the emotional tendency for people to show animosity toward opposing partisans while seeking homogeneity from fellow partisans. Much research into online affective polarization has focused on quantifying anxiety at an individual level while neglecting that on a collective basis. Therefore, this paper examined the polarization of collective anxiety in topic-based communities on Weibo. Methods: We aim to interpret correlations between collective anxiety online and topic characteristics, user competence, as well as the proportion of influencers of Weibo topic-based communities. Our neural networks model and statistical analysis were based on 200 communities with 403,380 personal accounts and 1,012,830 messages. Results: Collective anxiety levels are correlated to (1) the extent to which a topic captures public interest, (2) how community members articulate topics on social network platforms, and (3) the ratio of influencers in the community. Specifically, people’s conflicting perceptions and articulations of topics might increase collective anxiety, while the extent to which a topic is of the public interest and the number of influencers engaged in a topic account for any decline in its ranking. Furthermore, familiarity with a topic does not help predict collective anxiety levels. There are no significant links between community size or interactivity dynamics and the level of collective anxiety in the topic-based community. Our computational model has 85.00% precision and 87.00% recall. Conclusion: This study found the collective anxiety augment due to topic proximities to public interest and members’ lack of declarative knowledge on topics, while to decline with an increasing portion of online influencers. These findings indicate that collective anxiety is induced due to a lack of credibility. Also, the amount of conflicting information shared by different people places them in a state of flux. Therefore, a community with more influencers may be more likely to experience anxiety polarization, bringing forth the issue of layered information and inequality.
... El concepto de la polarización es explicado por la psicología por autores como Moscovici y Zavalloni (1969) como un fenómeno inducido por el grupo que implica un cambio de actitud hacia una cuestión concreta. De hecho, sería la interacción grupal la que determinaría los ajustes en los posicionamientos individuales a polarización, el grupo tan solo configuraría el espacio en el que se desarrolla la polarización (Turner, 1991). ...
Chapter
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Differentiation of self is a multidimensional construct that refers to the capacity of emotional self-regulation, which allows a person to function individually and to be emotionally connected with others. Attachment is the emotional bond we create with the people of our close environment, which looks for our needs of feeling near and secure during our life, promoting our survival and providing the necessary stimulation in children for their correct development. The objective of the present study is to understand the relation that exist between differentiation of self and adult attachment. For the making of the present study, a bibliographic review was carried out with the following metasearch engines: Jabega UMA, Google Academics and APA PsycNET. The studies appear to agree in the existence of a negative association between Differentiation of Self and anxiety and avoidance in relationships of adult attachment, and positive association between emotional cutoff and avoidance, and among emotional reactivity and anxiety in attachment.
... People in group decision making polarize their attitude toward the positions held before in individual decision making ( Lamm & Myers, 1978 ;Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969 ). For example, individual members of a book club may think a book is good; when the club gathers, they amplify the good elements of that book and leave the club with an even more positive opinion. ...
Article
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Group of people shows the shift towards extreme of decision-making as opposed to individuals. Previous studies have revealed two directions of group polarization, i.e., risky shift and cautious shift, but how group of brains drive these shifts remains unknown. In the current study, we arranged risk advantage and disadvantage situations to elicit group polarization of risky shift and cautious shift respectively, and examined the averaged inter-brain synchronization (ABS) among participant triads during group decision making versus individual decision making. The elicited group polarizations were accompanied by the enhanced ABS at bilateral prefrontal areas and left temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Specifically, the TPJ ABS was equivalent in risky shift and cautious shift, and based on machine learning analyses, could predict the extent of group polarization; for two shifts, it negatively correlated with negative emotion. However, the right prefrontal ABS was stronger in risky shift than in cautious shift, and the same area showed the larger brain deactivation in former shift, indicating weaker executive control. For the left prefrontal ABS, only the equivalent ABS was found for two shifts. In sum, group polarization of risky shift and cautious shift calls for inter-brain communication at the group level, and the former shift is with deactivation and more brain synchronization. Our study suggests emotional and cognitive adjustment in decision making of the group compared with individuals.
... In related work, Moscovici [26] (also [27]) studied how (opinion) minorities can influence (opinion) majorities in a group setting. Most importantly, the minority member must be consistent in their opinion, have confidence in the correctness of their position, appear to be unbiased and resist social pressure and abuse. ...
Preprint
The latest IPCC report forcefully states that immediate, decisive, and large-scale actions are needed to avert climate catastrophe. This essay presumes that democratic governments are best and most desirably positioned to take these actions. Yet in the countries most pivotal to global climate, significant voting blocs are uninterested in environmental issues. The essay urges adding bottom-up dialog between environmental and anti-environmental voters, to current and future top-down technocratic “solutions.” To make this combination result in a unified pro-environment electorate, we must understand: religious objections to environmentalism; the capital-vs.-knowledge strife that slows polluting corporations’ green transitions; and the psychological mechanisms that can make inter-group dialog fruitful.
... In related work, Moscovici [32] (also [33]) studied how (opinion) minorities can influence (opinion) majorities in a group setting. Most importantly, the minority member must be consistent in their opinion, have confidence in the correctness of their position, appear to be unbiased and resist social pressure and abuse. ...
Article
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The latest IPCC report forcefully states that immediate, decisive, and large-scale actions are needed to avert climate catastrophe. This essay presumes that democratic governments are best and most desirably positioned to take these actions. Yet in the countries most pivotal to global climate change, significant voting blocs are uninterested in environmental issues. The essay urges adding bottom-up dialog between environmental and anti-environmental voters, to current and future top-down technocratic “solutions”. To make this combination result in a unified pro-environment electorate, we must understand: religious objections to environmentalism; the capital-vs.-knowledge strife that slows polluting corporations’ green transitions; and the psychological mechanisms that can make inter-group dialog fruitful.
... The empirical evidence for group polarisation has been obtained as early as 1969 [46] and further corroborated in the 70-s [47,48]. In its essence, the theory of group polarisation suggests that the key underlying condition for polarisation to occur is the members' interactions within the group. ...
Article
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This paper presents a study on the dynamics of sentiment polarisation in the active online discussion communities formed around a controversial topic—immigration. Using a collection of tweets in the Swedish language from 2012 to 2019, we track the development of the communities and their sentiment polarisation trajectories over time and in the context of an exogenous shock represented by the European refugee crisis in 2015. To achieve the goal of the study, we apply methods of network and sentiment analysis to map users’ interactions in the network communities and quantify users’ sentiment polarities. The results of the analysis give little evidence for users’ polarisation in the network and its communities, as well as suggest that the crisis had a limited effect on the polarisation dynamics on this social media platform. Yet, we notice a shift towards more negative tonality of users’ sentiments after the crisis and discuss possible explanations for the above-mentioned observations.
... These differences depend on the task: they are generally larger in opinion related tasks than in judgment related tasks, for which participants aim at being 'objective'. Analyses of the individual responses to the same items following the group discussions also suggest shifts in individuals' own attitudes (Moscovici and Zavalloni 1969). ...
... 26 While the ability to analyse data to find patterns is the foundation of science, it can also lead us astray. The gambler's fallacy, 27 for example, sees out brains invent links between independent variables, hindsight bias 28 makes people think malleable events were inevitable, 'the IKEA effect' 29 means we Moscovici and Zavalloni, 196935. Cialdini, 198436. ...
Article
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Any poor decision can be blamed on insufficient information, but the paralysis provoked by too much data can be as damaging as snap decisions based on too little. Human judgement must find the right balance between analysis and action, prudence and reform. Entrepreneur Peter Fritz AO and writer Nicholas Mallory discuss the individual and organisational factors behind bad decision making and how it can be improved in business and government today.
... On the other hand, Fraser et al. (1971) found evidence also for a cautious shift, with groups advocating more conservative decisions than those of the individuals of the group. In other words, group discussions produce a strengthening of the prevailing initial attitudes (Moscovici and Zavalloni, 1969), a polarization which is supposed to be produced by both the informational and normative social influence processes (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993, p. 658). ...
Article
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Making investment decisions is usually considered a challenging task for investors because it is a process based on risky, complex, and consequential choices ( Shanmuganathan, 2020 ). When it comes to Investments in human capital (IHC), such as startups fundings, the aspect of decision-making (DM) becomes even more critical since the outcome of the DM process is not completely predictable. Indeed, it has to take into consideration the will, goals, and motivations of each human actor involved: those who invest as well as those who seek investments. We define this specific DM process as multi-actor DM (MADM) since not a group is making decisions but different actors, or groups of different actors, who – starting from non-coinciding objectives – need to reach a mutual agreement and converge toward a common goal for the success of the investment. This review aims to give insights on psychological contributions to the study of complex DM processes that deal with IHC to provide scholars and practitioners with a theoretical framework and a tool for describing the complex socio-ecological systems involved in the DM processes. For this purpose, we discuss in the paper how the third generation of activity theory ( Leont’ev, 1974 , 1978 ; Engeström, 1987 , 2001 ) could be used as an appropriate model to explain the specificities of MADM construct, focusing on the particular case of startup funding. Design thinking techniques will be proposed as a methodology to create a bridge between different activity systems.
... However, other features of group decision-making could operate in the opposite direction -for example, the so-called groupthink (Janis, 1972), a concept from psychology that refers to the negative effect on decision caused by the desire for consensus and harmony in a group, or the presence of self-selection effects (Otamendi, Brocas & Carrillo 2018;Palfrey & Pevnitskaya, 2008). On the other hand, some groups tend to take more extreme decisions that would take individuals separately (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969) -a phenomenon known in psychology as group polarization (Myers & Lamm, 1976). ...
Article
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Purpose: An important issue in decision-making processes is whether groups decide better than individuals. This paper compares the bidding behavior of groups of professionals while playing a business game that simulates, in a controlled environment, the sequential unit capacity auctions in the Spanish LNG market. Design/methodology/approach: First, we randomly grouped professionals in groups of different size—SOLOs, DUOs, and TRIOs—and played the game in-situ under both First and Second price unit capacity auctions, with SOLOs outperforming groups. Second, we ran non-parametric simulations mixing professionals in groups of different size, in which bids were coupled with those registered during the in-situ sessions. Third, we ran non-parametric simulations in which the players were either ‘rational machines’ that bid according to Nash equilibrium or groups of ‘professionals’ of different size. Findings: The size of the decision group does matter. After the in-situ and the bootstrapped simulated games, the main result is that size is critical, and groups are not necessarily superior to individuals bidding alone. SOLOs bid closer to MACHINEs and lower than DUOs or TRIOs, while obtaining about the same number of units and higher payoffs than groups. Additionally, the ‘degree of rationality’ of the participants does also matter. Research limitations/implications: Even after applying the hybrid simulation methodology to increase sample size and allow for additional experimental settings, some of the scenarios are fictitious. Modification of the business game to allow for an even more realistic game could be implemented. Practical implications: After the hybrid simulation approach, the main implication of the paper is that to increase efficiency in resource allocation professionals should bid individually while using the theoretical knowledge of rational machines. Originality/value: To our knowledge, this is the first time that this double-experiment simulation methodology is used to analyze bidding behavior in auctions.
... Despite the decision by researchers to conduct mock juror studies rather than mock jury studies, one must remember that the former lack a primary component of a trial-jury deliberation. These deliberations influence jurors by publicly identifying individual jurors' biases and attenuating these biases (Shaw & Skolnick, 1995) or by strengthening those biases through a process of attitude polarization (e.g., Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;Myers & Bishop, 1970;Nunez, McCrea, & Culhane, 2011). ...
Chapter
The present chapter reviews experimental research investigating the complexities and phenomena influencing legal decision-making involving an outcome measure (e.g., verdict, guilt rating, and/or sentence recommendation) in cases of adult rape. Because rape is a crime subject to social bias, myths, and cultural beliefs, rape cases are vulnerable to the influence of extralegal factors (i.e., not within the scope of the law) when making judgments. Major theoretical perspectives (e.g., the Story Model, the Commonsense Justice model, and the theory of Generic Prejudice) concerning legal decision-making and rape are presented, as well as methodological details of existing legal decision-making research. Coverage of prior research involving extralegal factors includes investigations of the influence of mock juror characteristics (e.g., mock juror gender), acquaintance rape (including victim and defendant characteristics and contextual factors such as intoxication), intimate partner rape, non-heteronormative rape, and legal issues that arise in both a criminal trial context (e.g., sentencing) and outside of this context (e.g., civil trials). The chapter concludes with a discussion of avenues for future research and the practical implications of research investigating perceptions of rape cases.KeywordsRapeVictimCourtJusticeJurorJuryConsentTrialSexual assault
... Several classical models assume that opinion change results from a linear combination of neighboring nodes' observed opinions, such as averages and weighted means (DeGroot 1974;Friedkin and Johnsen 1990;Deffuant et al. 2000). However, experimental evidence suggests that non-linear multiplicative dynamics often govern opinion change (Bail et al. 2018;Pescetelli and Yeung 2020b;Pescetelli et al. 2016;Moscovici and Zavalloni 1969). Here, we used a Bayesian opinion update model that captures the dynamics of belief conviction, uncertainty, and probabilistic judgments (Pescetelli and Yeung 2020a, b;Harris et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Bots’ ability to influence public discourse is difficult to estimate. Recent studies found that hyperpartisan bots are unlikely to influence public opinion because bots often interact with already highly polarized users. However, previous studies focused on direct human-bot interactions (e.g., retweets, at-mentions, and likes). The present study suggests that political bots, zealots, and trolls may indirectly affect people’s views via a platform’s content recommendation system's mediating role, thus influencing opinions without direct human-bot interaction. Using an agent-based opinion dynamics simulation, we isolated the effect of a single bot—representing 1% of nodes in a network—on the opinion of rational Bayesian agents when a simple recommendation system mediates the agents’ content consumption. We compare this experimental condition with an identical baseline condition where such a bot is absent. Across conditions, we use the same random seed and a psychologically realistic Bayesian opinion update rule so that conditions remain identical except for the bot presence. Results show that, even with limited direct interactions, the mere presence of the bot is sufficient to shift the average population’s opinion. Virtually all nodes—not only nodes directly interacting with the bot—shifted towards more extreme opinions. Furthermore, the mere bot’s presence significantly affected the internal representation of the recommender system. Overall, these findings offer a proof of concept that bots and hyperpartisan accounts can influence population opinions not only by directly interacting with humans but also by secondary effects, such as shifting platforms’ recommendation engines’ internal representations. The mediating role of recommender systems creates indirect causal pathways of algorithmic opinion manipulation.
... Although several other opinion models exist (Flache et al. 2017), many assume that opinion change results from a linear combination of neighboring nodes' observed opinions, such as averages and weighted means (DeGroot 1974;Friedkin and Johnsen 1990;Deffuant et al. 2000). However, experimental evidence suggests that non-linear multiplicative dynamics often govern opinion change (Bail et al. 2018;Pescetelli and Yeung 2020b;Pescetelli, Rees, and Bahrami 2016;Moscovici and Zavalloni 1969). Here, we used a Bayesian opinion update model that captures dynamics of belief conviction, uncertainty, and probabilistic judgments (Pescetelli and Yeung 2020b, [a] 2020; Harris et al. 2016). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bots’ ability to influence public discourse is difficult to estimate. Recent studies found that hyperpartisan bots are unlikely to influence public opinion because bots often interact with already highly polarized users. However, previous studies focused on direct human-bot interactions (e.g., retweets, at-mentions, and likes). The present study suggests that political bots, zealots, and trolls may affect people’s views indirectly via the mediating role of a platform’s content recommendation system, thus influencing opinions even in the absence of direct human-bot interaction. Using an agent-based opinion dynamics simulation, we isolated the effect of a single bot – representing 1% of nodes in a network – on the opinion formed by rational Bayesian agents after removing direct human-bot connections. We compare this experimental condition with an identical baseline condition where such a bot is absent. We used the same random seed in both simulations so that conditions remained identical except for the presence of the bot. Results show that, even in the absence of direct interactions, the mere presence of the bot is sufficient to shift the average population opinion. Virtually all nodes – not only nodes directly interacting with the bot – shifted towards more extreme opinions. Overall, these findings offer a proof of concept that bots and hyperpartisan accounts can influence population opinions not only by directly interacting with humans but also by secondary effects, such as shifting platforms’ recommendation engines’ internal representations. The mediating role of recommender systems creates indirect causal pathways of algorithmic opinion manipulation.
... group, known as 'herding' [1,2], finds its most famous and dramatic evidence in the experiments conducted by social psychologists in the aftermath of the Second World War. An extensive literature has demonstrated how people might go against their own private evidence and conform to an ostensibly wrong but unanimous mob [3][4][5][6]. Numerous studies have examined the many contextual factors that may affect the costs and benefits of herding for social individuals when making uncertain decisions [7][8][9]. ...
Article
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Classic and recent studies demonstrate how we fall for the ‘tyranny of the majority' and conform to the dominant trend when uncertain. However, in many social interactions outside of the laboratory, there is rarely a clearly identified majority and discerning who to follow might be challenging. Here, we asked whether in such conditions herding behaviour depends on a key statistical property of social information: the variance of opinions in a group. We selected a task domain where opinions are widely variable and asked participants (N = 650) to privately estimate the price of eight anonymous paintings. Then, in groups of five, they discussed and agreed on a shared estimate for four paintings. Finally, they provided revised individual estimates for all paintings. As predicted (https://osf.io/s89w4), we observed that group members converged to each other and boosted their confidence following social interaction. We also found evidence supporting the hypothesis that the more diverse groups show greater convergence, suggesting that the variance of opinions promotes herding in uncertain crowds. Overall, these findings empirically examine how, in the absence of a clear majority, the distribution of opinions relates to subjective feelings of confidence and herding behaviour.
... stereotyping Political conflict is also exacerbated by reliance on overly simplistic perceptions or stereotypes to characterize "the opposing side," including stereotypes used to characterize liberals and conservatives (Brewer, 2005;Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969;tetlock & Mitchell, 1993). Work by Farwell and Weiner (2006) suggests that the use of category-based stereotypes of the left and right leads to exaggerated ascriptions of avarice to conservatives and indiscriminate generosity to liberals. ...
Book
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Conflict and conflict resolution
... Vasiljevic et Oberlé (2016) proposent un ouvrage synthétisant un grand nombre d'études et rendent compte des nombreux débats qui subsistent. Notamment, alors que certains rapportent une prise de risque parfois accrue en groupe (e.g., Stoner, 1961), d'autres concluent à un déplacement vers la prudence (e.g., Fraser et al., 1971) ; des contradictions interprétées par les auteurs par le fait que les individus vont préférer aller vers l'extremisation de leur propres positions initiales (Moscovici & Doise, 1973, Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969. ...
Thesis
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Les recherches s'intéressant au développement de la créativité ont démontré que la capacité à générer des idées créatives pouvait être entravée par des blocages cognitifs (e.g., effet de fixation) et sociaux (e.g., inhibition sociale de l'attente d'évaluation). Ces deux types de blocages ont essentiellement été étudiés de façon isolée et peu d'étude ont examiné leurs interactions dans une perspective développementale. Ainsi, l'objectif de cette thèse était d'étudier l'impact de différents contextes sociaux sur la créativité et le biais de fixation, et de dégager et comprendre les processus impliqués. Pour ce faire, quatre études ont été mises en place, chacune reposant sur des contextes sociaux différents et permettant un ensemble de mesures systématiques. La première étude a permis de montrer dans un premier temps que même si l'effet de fixation est renforcé au cours de l'adolescence, leur capacité à proposer des idées originales se développe également. Ce changement s'accompagne d'une évolution de leur capacité à détecter que leurs idées appartenant à la fixation ne sont que peu créatives. L'attente d'une évaluation manipulée n'a cependant pas été suffisamment saillante, ce qui explique que nous n'ayons pas observé d'effet du contexte sur la créativité et ce, quel que soit l'âge. De ce fait, nous avons, par la suite, décidé de nous concentrer sur la période de fin d'adolescence et d'améliorer la saillance des contextes sociaux étudiés. Ainsi, dans notre deuxième étude, nos participants étaient en compétition soit avec des coacteurs présents (i.e., compétition in-group), soit avec des individus fictifs (i.e., étudiants d'une autre université ; Compétition out-group). Les résultats ont montré que générer des idées à un problème créatif pouvait être facilité par la compétition out-group, sans que l'effet de fixation ne soit pour autant minimisé. Afin de comprendre l'absence d'effet de la compétition in-group, nous avons mené deux autres études en portant une attention toute particulière au processus de comparaison sociale, celui-ci pouvant être de différents types. Nos données ont révélé que se comparer à moins bon que soi (i.e., comparaison descendante) diminuait l'effort, la productivité, et ainsi le nombre d'idées créatives proposées. Les individus en comparaison ascendante (i.e., se comparer à meilleur que soi), quant à eux, semblent avoir proposé un maximum d'idées sans prêter une attention particulière à leur créativité. Dans cette condition, on a en effet constaté une diminution de l'expansivité mais un renforcement de l'effet de fixation. Nous avons également pu montrer que ces effets n'étaient retrouvés que s'il était question de contexte de coaction. Enfin, nous avons mené une dernière étude portant sur les effets d'un travail collaboratif (i.e., en binôme). Alors que les participants devant générer à deux se sont sentis plus en confiance, plus à l'aise et moins en compétition, leurs productions se sont révélées moins bonnes que ceux qui généraient individuellement, en simple coaction. L'ensemble de ces résultats a un impact pour la recherche fondamentale et a permis la proposition de diverses pistes de recherches ultérieures.
... Furthermore, it is not clear that preference for representatives, on the one hand, and social ties, on the other hand, capture an identical phenomenon. Finally, a fourth indication of a tendency to prefer extreme views comes from the literature on attitude polarization [25][26][27][28][29][30][31] . One driver of polarization, among many, is people's tendency to express extreme views to be 'better' than others in their group [32][33][34][35][36] . ...
Article
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Political segregation is an important social problem, increasing polarization and impeding effective governance. Previous work has viewed the central driver of segregation to be political homophily, the tendency to associate with others who have similar views. Here we propose that, in addition to homophily, people’s social tie decisions are driven by political acrophily, the tendency to associate with others who have more extreme political views (rather than more moderate). We examined this using a paradigm in which participants share emotions and attitudes on political policies, observe others’ responses and choose which others to affiliate with. In four studies (N = 1,235), both liberal and conservative participants’ social tie decisions reflected the presence of acrophily. We found that participants who viewed peers who expressed more extreme views as more prototypical of their political group also tended to engage in greater acrophily. These studies identify a previously overlooked tendency in tie formation. Goldenberg et al. find that people are attracted to social ties who are more politically extreme, rather than moderate. This tendency, called acrophily, is shown to occur when people select ties on the basis of both emotions and attitudes to political issues.
Chapter
Never before have we had access to as much information as we do today, but how do we avail ourselves of it? In parallel with the increase in the amount of information, we have created means of curating and delivering it in sophisticated ways, through the technologies of algorithms, Big Data, and artificial intelligence. I examine how information is curated, and how digital technology has led to the creation of filter bubbles, while simultaneously creating closed online spaces in which people of similar opinions can congregate—echo chambers. These phenomena partly stem from our tendency toward selective exposure—a tendency to seek information that supports preexisting beliefs, and to avoid unpleasant information. When the technologies I discuss are employed as they are today, combined with human nature, they pose a threat to liberty by undermining individuality, autonomy, and the very foundation of liberal society. Liberty is an important part of our image of the good society, and this chapter is an attempt to analyze one way in which applications of technology can be detrimental to our society. While Alexis De Tocqueville feared the tyranny of the majority, we would do well to fear the tyranny of the algorithms and perceived opinion.
Chapter
There are various losses in the process of working together as a group. On the other hand, even individuals with limited knowledge can operate complex systems using information obtained from the environment and others. Groups also communicate and pay attention to shared information, yet because of their wisdom, they make various errors.
Chapter
Everyone working in and with organizations will, from time to time, experience frustrations and problems when trying to accomplish tasks that are a required part of their role. This is an unusual routine - a recurrent interaction pattern in which someone encounters a problem when trying to accomplish normal activities by following standard organizational procedures and then becomes enmeshed in wasteful and even harmful subroutines while trying to resolve the initial problem. They are unusual because they are not intended or beneficial, and because they are generally pervasive but individually infrequent. They are routines because they become systematic as well as embedded in ordinary functions. Using a wide range of case studies and interdisciplinary research, this book provides researchers and practitioners with a new vocabulary for identifying, understanding, and dealing with this pervasive organizational phenomenon, in order to improve worker and customer satisfaction as well as organizational performance.
Chapter
Socially situated thought and behaviour are pervasive and vitally important in human society. The social brain has become a focus of study for researchers in the neurosciences, psychology, biology and other areas of behavioural science, and it is becoming increasingly clear that social behaviour is heavily dependent on shared representations. Any social activity, from a simple conversation to a well-drilled military exercise to an exquisitely perfected dance routine, involves information sharing between the brains of those involved. This volume comprises a collection of cutting-edge essays centred on the idea of shared representations, broadly defined. Featuring contributions from established world leaders in their fields and written in a simultaneously accessible and detailed style, this is an invaluable resource for established researchers and those who are new to the field.
Article
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Social exclusion is a condition that seems to allow terrorism to flourish. Since radicalization is argued to occur mostly in the context of group identification and accompanying processes, we hypothesized that these may contribute to pushing excluded individuals toward radicalism. To investigate this, we performed four studies. In Studies 1 to 3, we conducted experiments in which we manipulated exclusion (vs. inclusion), created new in-groups, and measured radicalism intentions in the context of eco-or animal rights extremism. In Study 4, we tested the focal variables in a re-analysis of coded qualitative data of an Islamist sample. In Study 1, the exclusion-radicalism link revealed to be mediated by in-group sympathy as opposed to out-group antipathy. Studies 2 to 4 specifically identified perceived group threat as a driver of radicalism in the aftermath of exclusion. This work provides first experimental evidence for the catalyzing power of relationships in the exclusion-radicalism link.
Article
There are a huge number of phenomena about which people might have stable opposing opinions. In social psychology, this is called group polarization. The most difficult here are the problems of moral choice, which do not have unambiguous solutions and often divide people in a group into two irreconcilable camps. Numerous studies in this direction are being conducted on the basis of the so-called “Kant-Constant paradox”. The presented experiment, according to the authors, confirms the hypothesis that in the process of making a decision in a group discussion, the subjects undergo a restructuring of value judgments not only at the level of consciousness, but also at the unconscious level. The results of the study were explained on the basis of V.M. Allakhverdov’s theory of consciousness, according to which rational judgments and decisions can be carried out not only consciously, but also unconsciously. The study was conducted in the form of an online discussion in 4 experimental groups. In total of 106 people took part in it. A list of specially selected Russian folk proverbs was used as a test material. It was found that after a discussion that requires a public statement of the respondent about his moral choice, there may be a significant shift in the assessments of his attitude to proverbs, both related to the task being performed and not directly related to it, which the participant of the experiment may not realize.
Book
Ob Covid-19-Pandemie, Fake Stories oder politische Erdbeben: Der Umgang mit Unsicherheit ist eine wesentliche Herausforderung im menschlichen Alltag. Obwohl viele beunruhigende Ereignisse der Vergangenheit (z. B. Sonnenfinsternis) erklärt werden konnten, verharren wir bei neuen Unsicherheitslagen in unseren alten Denk- und Verhaltensmustern. Diese sind geprägt durch Phänomene wie verzerrte Wahrnehmung oder (Selbst-)Überschätzung. Dieses Buch leistet einen Beitrag zum kompetenten Umgang mit Unsicherheit. Mithilfe von psychologischem Wissen werden Denkprozesse und Interaktionen besser verständlich gemacht, um künftig reflektierter (re-)agieren zu können. Das Buch ist ein Plädoyer für eine neue Aufklärung mit einem Appell an die individuelle Verantwortlichkeit, sich seines Verstandes zu bedienen.
Article
Our study compares individual and team bidding in standard auction formats: first-price, second-price and ascending-price (English) auctions with independent private values. In a laboratory experiment, we find that individuals overbid more than teams in first-price auctions and deviate more from bidding their own value in second-price auctions. However, we observe no difference in bidding behavior in English auctions. Based on control variables, we provide evidence that the observed difference could be explained by better reasoning abilities of teams. Emotions seem to play a role in determining bids, but the effect of emotions on bidding does not differ between individuals and teams.
Article
In the last few years, breakthroughs in computational and experimental techniques have produced several key discoveries in the science of networks and human collective intelligence. This review presents the latest scientific findings from two key fields of research: collective problem-solving and the wisdom of the crowd. I demonstrate the core theoretical tensions separating these research traditions and show how recent findings offer a new synthesis for understanding how network dynamics alter collective intelligence, both positively and negatively. I conclude by highlighting current theoretical problems at the forefront of research on networked collective intelligence, as well as vital public policy challenges that require new research efforts.
Article
Science preservice teachers (PSTs), as successes of the school system, often mimic what they experienced as a student when they start teaching, which can be problematic if they never experienced science taught in contextualized ways. Since not all school students report that they find school science relevant, it is important to provide opportunities for PSTs to consider ways to connect science teaching and learning in more relevant ways for their students' lives. Values and knowledge education (VaKE), is a student‐centered pedagogical approach, that uses dilemma stories and a series of purposeful steps to combine values education with knowledge education, provides such an opportunity. This qualitative study investigated secondary science PSTs views on the ways a VaKE experience challenged their assumptions about school science to support their future development as quality teachers of science, and the extent to which PSTs feel confident, able and likely to use VaKE as a teaching strategy in their future teaching of science. VaKE, an innovative pedagogy, provided a powerful and novel learning experience for almost all PSTs, by challenging and inspiring them to critically reflect on their own schooling and expand their pedagogical knowledge for teaching science in the future.
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"This theory illustrates a way by which many complex phenomena about groups can be deduced from a few simple postulates about interpersonal relations. By the application of digraph theory we are able to treat in detail the patterns of relations whose importance has long been noted by the field theorists." Three major postulates are presented as well as a variety of theorems dealing with the effects of the power structure of the group, the effects of communication patterns, the effects of patterns of opinion, and leadership. 32 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Recent research has indicated that groups tend to accept greater risk in pursuing a desirable outcome than do their individual members. By demonstrating that risk-takers are viewed more favorably than risk-rejectors, the studies reported here provide evidence that this group shift toward risk is induced by a cultural value for risk. Further, the value for risk appears to mediate this risk shift by biasing arguments toward the risky alternative course of action, rather than by an image-maintenance mechanism. Groups are also found in the present studies to have greater pessimism than individuals about the likelihood of success of the risky alternative, a factor that could exert a “conservative” influence on group decisions. Since conservative shifts can also be induced by introducing conflicting moral values into the decisions and by extending the consequences of possible failure to individuals not involved in the decision making, it is suggested that greater caution is warranted in extending the results of the laboratory risk-shift studies to complex decision-making contexts.
Article
Negotiations among leaders were compared with negotiations among delegates in order to investigate the effect of role in the reference group on intergroup bargaining behavior. The negotiations of ten groups of leaders and ten groups of delegates matched on initial positions were examined. Because of their greater flexibility and authority, leaders were expected to spend less time negotiating and have fewer deadlocks than delegates. Neither of these hypotheses was supported. Leaders and delegates, however, were found to resolve their conflicts in different ways. While delegates more often reached agreement through compromise, leaders were more likely to choose one party's position. Thus, delegates tended to converge upon the average of their initial positions while leaders showed a significant change in the risky direction. Leaders' and delegates' reactions to their negotiations were also analyzed. In general, the results suggested that leaders can be influenced more by other leaders than delegates can by other delegates.
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A model is described in this paper which interprets the extremity, confidence and salience of an opinion as different functions of the positively and negatively evaluated attributes ascribed to the object of this opinion. An experiment is described which tests the predictions of this model. The results of this experiment, while substantially confirming these predictions, also suggest that negatively evaluated attributes have relatively greater weight in this situation. The value of the model in explaining already established findings is discussed.
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The investigation is concerned with the relation between the subjective importance of a personal attribute and the manner of judging other people in terms of that attribute. A prediction was made that in a task involving the rating of others in terms of a number of attributes, there will be a tendency to use relatively extreme judgments for attributes which are important to the person making the judgments. This hypothesis, derived from a background of general findings about quantitative judgment, was confirmed. It was tested in a situation in which the subjects were able to give fairly free descriptions of others. Some time after these descriptions were made, each subject rated photographs on rating scales based on his own use of various attributes. The salience of attributes (i.e. their relative priority and frequency of occurrence in free descriptions of others) was assumed to be an index of their importance to the subjects. This assumption was tested and validated in a separate experiment.
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This review supports the meaningfulness hypothesis of rating extremity and, most importantly, supports the profitability of pursuing the implications of the extremity rating within Personal Construct theory, focusing upon extremity ratings as done within the individual's own language dimensions. As for the construct of meaningfulness versus pathology, this contrast can be accepted as heuristically valuable, although of questionable validity. A new series of studies could be designed to clarify whether, under certain conditions, pathology and meaningfulness are related. To design such a series of studies, it would be helpful to have a theory of personality and behaviour which might suggest possible conditions of relationship. Personal Construct theory can provide a context within which to consider this paradox of meaning and pathology.
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In a study designed to neutralize any leadership effects of highly risk-prone persons, group discussion to consensus stil produced decisions which were riskier than the mean of the individual decisions of group members. The hypothesis that the risky effect of group interaction is due to the leadership of particular risk-prone persons must be rejected as an explanation of the risky shifts obtained in the present study and appears to be an untenable hypothesis for explaining the results obtained in earlier studies. Significant relationships were found between dispersion of individual preferences on an item and magnitude of group shift, and between the mean of individual prior preferences within the group and the amount of group shift.
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An extensive series of studies has shown that group decisions on life-situation items involving a risky dimension are significantly different from the average of the initial individual decisions of the members of the group. The present study investigates the possibility that widely held values and individuals' perceptions of their own riskiness relative to “other people like them” are important factors in individual and group decisions on life-situation items. Initial individual decisions on the items are found to be consistent with widely held values as assessed on a separate instrument. Significant differences between individuals' perceptions of their own and others' riskiness are also found. The life-situation items were divided into two types of items, on the bases of widely held values and the subjects' perceptions of their own relative riskiness. For items on which the widely held values favored the risky alternative and on which subjects considered themselves relatively risky, unanimous group decisions were more risky than the average of the initial individual decisons. The group decisions tended to be more cautious on items for which widely held values favored the cautious alternative and on which subjects considered themselves relatively cautious. The results are interpreted as supporting both the Nordhøy-Marquis general values hypothesis and the Brown “value to being relatively risky or relatively cautious” hypothesis.
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What situational elements can account for the enhanced risk taking typical of group relative to individual decision making? The three elements investigated were provision of information about the risk-taking levels favored by peers, with the implication of judgmental comparison; group discussion, with the affective involvement it can generate; and achievement of consensus, with its possible centering of commitment upon the group. The Ss were 360 undergraduates, 180 of each sex, randomly assigned within sex to one of three experimental conditions, all involving five-person groups. The group members in the respective conditions reached decisions concerning matters of risk through discussion to a consensus, through achievement of consensus without discussion, or through discussion without the requirement of consensus. For both male and female groups, discussion with or without consensus produced substantial shifts toward greater risk taking, while consensus without discussion yielded an averaging effect. Hence, the occurrence of group discussion is both necessary and sufficient for generating the risky shift effect.
Article
Opinion change increased as the amount of effort expended to deliver a persuasive counternorm speech was increased. In two experiments physical effort was manipulated by varying the interval of delay in auditory feedback. No differences were found between Ss who improvised a speech advocating a discrepant attitude position and those who merely read the speech sincerely. The theory of cognitive dissonance appears to offer adequate and parsimonious explanation of the results.
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Previous research has shown that after discussing risk-taking problems, group members advocate riskier solutions to them than they did before the discussion. Such an increase may be due either to group processes occurring during the discussion (e.g., responsibility diffusion, interpersonal influence, etc.) or simply to increased familiarization with the problems. In the present experiment, the effects of group discussion and private study of the problems were compared. In both cases riskiness increased to a roughly equal extent, but no such increase followed private study of irrelevant materials. It is suggested that increased familiarization with the problems led to reduced cautiousness in dealing with them, which in turn led to the increase in riskiness.
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In a partial replication of an earlier study by Wallach and Kogan, group risk taking was examined under conditions of discussion and information exchange. Group size was also manipulated. Unlike the earlier findings, a risky shift occurred in the information exchange condition, where the subjects only revealed to one another the contents of their prior decisions. A stronger risky shift was found when discussion was permitted. Risky shift was more pronounced the larger the size of the group. The extent of risky shift on a decision problem was found to be positively related to the initial level of risk on that problem. The results appear to support Brown's “value of risk” theory of group risk taking more closely than any other theory.
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RECENT CRITICISMS OF RESPONSE STYLE RESEARCH HAVE IGNORED THE LITERATURE OF THE EXTREME RESPONSE STYLE (ERS). THESE CRITICISMS ARE QUESTIONED BY A SIZABLE LITERATURE SUGGESTING THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF ERS AS AN INDICATOR OF CERTAIN PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES. THERE IS CONSIDERABLE EVIDENCE FOR THE RELIABILITY OF ERS. STUDIES OF GROUP DIFFERENCES IN ERS TENDENCIES YIELD EVIDENCE FOR RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ERS AND PERSONALITY VARIABLES. CORRELATIONAL AND FACTOR-ANALYTIC STUDIES OFFER FURTHER SUPPORT, ALTHOUGH THE VARIABLES UNDERLYING ERS HAVE NOT BEEN CLEARLY IDENTIFIED. (2 P. REF.)
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An attempt is made to reconcile those studies linking the tendency to use the extremes of rating scales (polarization) to pathology with those studies linking polarization to more effective behavior. It is suggested that simultaneous consideration of stimulus and task meaningfulness and subject personality classification will shed light on the seeming discrepancies. A set of propositions consistent with the results of both sets of studies is advanced. Implications of laboratory studies of verbal learning for improved research in response style are discussed. (4 p. ref.)
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Shifts in judgmental extremity were examined when experimental Ss made judgments (1) individually, (2) as a group, and (3) again as individuals. Control Ss made individual judgments twice. 206 secondary school students (103 males, 103 females) comprised the sample. Discussion to consensus in experimental groups was followed by significant declines in postconsensus extremity, but under different confidence conditions for males and females. Interpretation of these results stressed the role of group-mediated modification of the cognitive risks and the need for uncertainty reduction reflection in individual extremity judgments. (16 ref.)
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RESULTS OF A 2 * 2 FACTORIAL EXPERIMENT WITH 180 MALE COLLEGE STUDENTS REPLICATED PREVIOUS FINDINGS CONCERNING THE MAIN EFFECTS OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES OF GROUP DISCUSSION AND FAMILIARIZATION UPON SHIFTS IN RISK-TAKING DISPOSITIONS AND REVEALED A SIGNIFICANT INTERACTION BETWEEN THESE VARIABLES, INDICATING THAT GROUP DISCUSSION PRODUCES RISK-TAKING SHIFTS AMONG UNFAMILIARIZED SS BUT HAS NO EFFECT UPON FAMILIARIZED SS. PREDICTIONS CONCERNING THIS INTERACTION BASED UPON PREVIOUSLY ELABORATED EXPLANATIONS OF THE RISKY SHIFT EFFECT IN TERMS OF GROUP PROCESSES (RESPONSIBILITY DIFFUSION AND INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCE) WERE UNCONFIRMED. THE OBSERVED RISKY SHIFTS CAN BE INTERPRETED IN TERMS OF A PROCESS OF INCREASED COMPREHENSION, WHICH IS THEORIZED TO BE THE OUTCOME OF INTERPOLATED FAMILIARIZATION OR DISCUSSION PROCEDURES.
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The 1st of a series of 2 papers discussing a theoretical approach to conceptualization of theory and principles in social psychology. The present formulation, an extension of a theoretical approach begun in 1942 (Allport, 1942) and elaborated elsewhere (Allport, 1954, 1955) involves understanding social phenomena as a function of "collective structuring." Such a concept is offered as a substitute for other terms implying the group as a referent point, e.g., social norm, life space, group mind, etc. This formulation is necessitated by a need to explain the empirically-derived influence on individual behavior in and out of groups without resorting to epiphenomena. Collective structuring implies the interrelating of individual frames of reference with those of others, born out of a personal involvement and "heightened probability of satisfactions through integrated behaviors."
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This study reports evidence supporting the following propositions: (a) Group discussion and consensus concerning decisions that involve actual risks and payoffs lead to greater risk taking than occurs in the absence of such discussion and consensus. (b) The mechanism that underlies this group-induced shift toward greater risk taking consists of a diffusion or spreading of responsibility. Using risks and payoffs based on monetary gain and loss for problem solving performance, the above propositions received strong confirmation for male college Ss. The results of various experimental manipulations provided positive support for viewing diffusion of responsibility as the causal factor at work.
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