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Abstract

Seven psychotherapists who had experience working with Puerto Ricans on issues of child sexual abuse and 5 Puerto Rican women who were abused sexually as children were interviewed in this exploratory study about disclosure. Other therapists and clients were consulted informally. Certain cultural norms and factors related to Puerto Ricans' status as an oppressed minority in the US are identified as making the disclosure of sexual abuse especially difficult for Puerto Rican children. Systematic factors hindering disclosure include discrimination, migration, poverty, and lack of bilingual services. Cultural factors inhibiting disclosure include childrearing practices, the value placed on virginity, and taboos against discussing sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Contudo, diversos estudos têm vindo a identificar fatores/condições que podem constituir-se como entraves ou facilitadores da revelação do ASC, nomeadamente ao nível: a) intrapessoal: idade e sexo da criança, sentimentos de vergonha, de culpa, medo das consequências negativas da revelação, entre outros; b) interpessoal, remetendo para a natureza da relação da criança com o/a agressor/a, as reações familiares face à revelação do abuso; c) cultural/social, como por exemplo, as atitudes, normas e valores sobre o ASC, e a resposta das instituições à estes casos (Alaggia et al., 2017;Baía et al., 2015;Azzopardi, Eirich, Rash, McDonald, & Madigan, 2019;Brennan & McElvaney, 2020;Collin-Vézina, Sablonni, Palmer, & Milne, 2015;Fontes, 1993;Fontes & Plummer, 2010;Lemaigre, Taylor, & Gittoes, 2017;Manay & Collin-Vézina, 2019;Morrison et al., 2018). ...
... O conjunto de barreiras e facilitadores descritos acima refletem a complexidade da revelação do ASC, constituindo-se em um processo difícil para a criança, família e comunidade, em que se conjugam condições intrapessoais decorrentes da própria vivência do abuso sexual e da qualidade das interações da criança com pessoas e contextos ao longo do tempo (Alaggia, 2010;Alaggia et al., 2017;Collin-Vézina et al., 2015;Fontes, 1993;Tat & Ozturk, 2019). Frente a isto, o presente trabalho tem como base teórica a Teoria Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano (TBDH; Brofenbrenner, 2005;Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006). ...
... Embora em consonância com as publicações empíricas e teóricas sobre o tema (Katz, 2014;Rieser, 1991;Sgroi et al., 1982;Summit, 1983), considera-se que a definição de retratação presente nos artigos consultados é limitada, uma vez que não pondera a possibilidade de a retratação ocorrer ainda antes do encaminhamento/comunicação da suspeita de ASC às autoridades (Rieser, 1991). A revelação é um processo que se estende ao longo do tempo e envolve diversos contextos (Alaggia et al., 2017;Collin-Vézina et al., 2015;Fontes, 1993), sendo fundamental analisar os vários contextos de vida da criança, nomeadamente a família, amigos, profissionais e a comunidade em geral na investigação sobre a retratação (Katz, 2014). ...
Article
Recantation in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) corresponds to the situation in which the child/adolescent denies a previously disclosure. This article aims to identify risk and protective factors associated with recantation, through an integrative review of empirical studies on this topic, published in the LILACS, PePSIC, PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO and Scopus / Elsevier databases. The descriptors "recantation", "sexual abuse", "disclosure", "child" and "adolescent" were used in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. From a total of 294 articles found, 12 studies were included in the review. The content analysis resulted in five dimensions related to risk and protection factors of recantation: “Child-related conditions”; “Dynamics of CSA”; "Disclosure of CSA"; "Family system"; and “Responses from protection and justice systems”. The identified themes represent an advance in the theoretical field of recantation, indicating the combination of intrapersonal and interpersonal conditions at various systemic levels: family, community and institutions of the protection and justice system. These results represent an asset for the field of risk assessment of recantation, to subsidize the work of professionals and entities that deal with victims of CSA. Study limitations and possible implications for future investigations are presented. Keywords: Child sexual abuse; Disclosure; Recantation; Associated factors; Integrative review. Resumo: A retratação em casos de abuso sexual de crianças (ASC) corresponde à situação na qual a criança/adolescente nega uma revelação prévia. Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar fatores de risco e de proteção associados à retratação, através de revisão integrativa de estudos empíricos sobre esta temática, publicados nas bases de dados LILACS, PePSIC, PubMEd, PsycInfo, SciELO e Scopus/Elsevier. Utilizaram-se os descritores "retratação", "abuso sexual", "revelação", "criança" e "adolescente" em português, inglês e espanhol. De um total de 294 artigos encontrados, foram incluídos 12 estudos na revisão. Da análise de conteúdo resultaram cinco temas relativos aos fatores de risco e de proteção da retratação: “Condições relacionadas com a criança”; “Dinâmicas do ASC”; “Revelação do ASC”; “Sistema familiar”; e “Respostas dos sistemas de proteção e justiça”. Os temas identificados representam um avanço no campo teórico da retratação, indicando a conjugação de condições intrapessoais e interpessoais em vários níveis sistêmicos: família, comunidade e instituições do sistema de proteção e justiça. Estes resultados representam uma mais valia para o campo da avaliação do risco de retratação, de forma a subsidiar o trabalho de profissionais e entidades que lidam com vítimas do ASC. São apresentadas limitações dos estudos e as possíveis implicações para investigações futuras. Palavras-chave: Abuso sexual de crianças; Revelação; Retratação; Fatores associados; Revisão integrativa
... Pourtant, les recherches à ce niveau n'ont commencé à prendre de l'ampleur que depuis une vingtaine d'anné es (Cohen, Deblinger, Mannarino, & De Arellano, 2001 ;Mennen, 1995). Fontes (1993), pour sa part, a é laboré un modè le é cologique qui pré sente la hié rarchie des facteurs qui peuvent influencer le dé voilement de l'agression sexuelle vé cue par un enfant. Ces diffé rents niveaux peuvent être vus comme é tant des couches se superposant les unes sur les autres et augmentant la difficulté du dé voilement. ...
... 3.1. De´finitions de la honte et de la culpabiliteĹ es é tudes effectué es au sujet de la honte dans les cultures qui pourraient être caracté risé es comme é tant collectivistes dé montrent l'importance et l'influence de cette é motion, notamment au niveau du dé voilement d'une agression sexuelle (Fontes, 1993 ;Futa, Hsu, & Hansen, 2001 ;Haboush & Alyan, 2013 ;Kenny & McEachern, 2000). Le Petit Robert dé finit la honte comme é tant un « sentiment pé nible de son infé riorité , de son indignité ou de son abaissement dans l'opinion des autres (sentiment du dé shonneur) » (Robert et al., 2001). ...
Article
Résumé L’agression sexuelle vécue par les femmes durant l'enfance, une problématique qui a de graves répercussions sur ces dernières, est largement présente dans notre société. L’état de stress posttraumatique, la peur d’être revictimisées et une faible estime de soi sont seulement quelques-unes des conséquences relevées chez les victimes. Même si de nombreuses recherches concernent les victimes d’agression sexuelle, peu d’études se sont penchées sur l'apport de la culture dans cette problématique. Selon certains auteurs, la culture d'appartenance pourrait influencer la façon dont l'agression sexuelle est vécue par la victime et les conséquences de celle-ci. De plus, bien que la honte soit commune chez les victimes d’agression sexuelle, c'est une émotion qui a été peu explorée, notamment selon une perspective ethnique. La honte se trouve parmi les raisons pour lesquelles certaines victimes ne dévoileront pas l'agression sexuelle qu'elles ont vécu ou tarderont à le faire. Pourtant, à notre connaissance, aucune étude n’explore et ne compare en profondeur le sentiment de honte chez les victimes d'agression sexuelle provenant de différentes communautés ethniques. L’objectif de cet article est de faire état des recherches effectuées jusqu’à présent sur ces thèmes, issues de différents domaines, afin de mettre en lumière l’importance d’explorer le rôle de la culture et plus précisément, l’identité ethnique, dans le vécu de l’agression sexuelle chez les victimes afin de développer des interventions plus adaptées. Plus spécifiquement, l’article abordera l’agression sexuelle durant l’enfance et ses conséquences, la culture, l’ethnie et l’identité ethnique, les sentiments de culpabilité et de honte, et comment ces différents concepts sont interreliés.
... This phenomenon has been termed "silencing" and may reflect the possibility that nondisclosure is more adaptive for some males than is disclosure [45]. Other research suggests that men and women are similar in context and consequences of CSA, but that men are more likely to experience abuse by someone of the same sex, accounting for some of the gender differences in reporting and disclosure [46,47]. Taken together, stigma associated with homosexuality as well as unhelpful disclosure responses likely relate to more mental distress and may impair future disclosures. ...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to its immediate negative consequences, childhood sexual abuse is associated with lifelong deleterious mental and physical health outcomes. This review employs a biopsychosocial perspective to better understand pathways from childhood sexual abuse to eating disorders, food and drug addictions, and obesity across the life course. Guided by an updated conceptual model, this review delineates how the biological embedding of childhood sexual abuse triggers a cascade of interrelated conditions that often result in failed attempts at weight suppression and eventually obesity. Such biological embedding involves pathways such as inflammation, allostatic load, reward sensitivity, activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, epigenetics, and structural and functional changes in the brain. These pathways are in turn theorized to lead to food addiction, substance use disorder, and eating disorders—each with potential pathways toward obesity over time. Predisposing factors to childhood sexual abuse including gender, culture, and age are discussed. This model calls into question the longstanding “protective measure” theory that purports individuals exposed to sexual abuse will deliberately or subconsciously gain weight in attempt to prevent future victimization. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which childhood sexual abuse becomes biologically embedded may help clinicians and survivors normalize and/or address disordered eating and weight-related outcomes, as well as identify intervention strategies. Level of evidence: Level V: opinions of respected authorities, based on descriptive studies, narrative reviews, clinical experience, or reports of expert committees.
... Pomiar skali zjawiska WSD jest trudnym zadaniem, ponieważ jest on zależny od zachowań i norm kulturowych (Fontes, 1993;Gilligan i Akhtar, 2006 ...
Research
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Zjawisko wykorzystywania seksualnego jest jednym z najbardziej traumatycznych przeżyć, jakie może spotkać dziecko. Biorąc pod uwagę zaniżoną liczbę statystyczną przestępstw na tle seksualnym wobec dzieci tzw. wykorzystywanie seksualne w dzieciństwie (WSD) konieczne jest przeprowadzenie bardziej szczegółowych sondaży wśród społeczeństwa polskiego. Celem badania było pokazanie skali tego zjawiska poprzez ilościową analizę internetowego forum dyskusyjnego dla kobiet. Badanie to jest częścią większego projektu badawczego dotyczącego przemocy seksualnej wobec dzieci w Polsce.
... Measuring the prevalence of CSA is a challenging task because research shows that detailed information of how the abuse occurred and how silence is perpetuated may be different depending on the culture. As an example, for CSA victims from Asian and Hispanic backgrounds disclosing the abuse was difficult as a result of their cultural norms (Fontes, 1993;Gilligan & Akhtar, 2006). African-American girls experienced less abuse incidents, waited shorter times before disclosing, and were less likely to be abused by biological fathers and stepfathers than were Hispanic girls (Shaw et.al, 2001). ...
Research
This is a first research report by The Lost Childhood Association. The report focuses on investigating prevalence of child sexual abuse in Poland by means of online discussion forums.
Article
Positive religious coping is linked with better mental health outcomes following physical and sexual abuse while negative religious coping is associated with poorer outcomes. Religious coping styles may be linked with dispositional tendencies to experience guilt or shame. This study compared the associations between guilt and shame proneness and religious coping styles and tested whether abuse history moderated these relationships. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 425 college students ( n = 145 with physical and/or sexual abuse history, n = 280 with no abuse history). Participants completed questionnaires assessing positive and negative religious coping style, as well as two dimensions of guilt proneness and shame proneness. Structural equation models were fitted to examine associations between guilt proneness and shame proneness, and positive and negative religious coping, respectively, accounting for abuse history as a binary moderator. Across the full sample, positive religious coping was positively associated with guilt repair (i.e., the tendency to engage in reparative behaviors following one’s wrongdoing), guilt negative behavior evaluation (i.e., the tendency to feel bad about how one acted in a given scenario), and shame withdrawal (i.e., the tendency to try and avoid unpleasant situations in which one has done something wrong), and negatively associated with shame negative self-evaluation (i.e., the tendency to make internal, negative self-attributions about one’s wrongdoing). Negative religious coping was positively associated with shame withdrawal and, for participants with no abuse history, shame negative self-evaluation. Results suggest that positive religious coping is more closely related to guilt proneness, and negative religious coping to shame proneness. Additional research with longitudinal designs and more defined abuse history subgroups is needed.
Article
Full-text available
Specialists on issues of sexual abuse in religious institutions unanimously stress that this kind of experience significantly affects the victims’ spirituality. Particularly devastating and distorting for their spirituality is sexual abuse committed by clergy. In order to explore this issue for the first time in Poland, the authors conducted a qualitative study in the form of semi-structured interviews with five women who had experienced sexual abuse by Catholic clergy and/or religious in adolescence and young adulthood. The interviews were analyzed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and narrative methodology. The results showed that four respondents experienced or had experienced religious struggles in three areas: interpersonal, intrapsychic, and relationship with God. These struggles are complex and intense enough to be referred to as “spiritual trauma” (Doyle, 2009, 2011; Kusner & Pargament, 2015), “religious trauma” (Panchuk, 2018), or “spiritual violence” (Tobin, 2019). The results of the study may be of importance for people helping or having any other kind of contact with victims of clergy sexual abuse.
Chapter
Das Projekt „Aufdeckung und Prävention von sexualisierter Gewalt gegen männliche Kinder und Jugendliche“ hat sich der Frage gewidmet, was es männlichen Betroffenen von sexualisierter Gewalt in Kindheit und Jugend erleichtert, die ihnen widerfahrene sexualisierte Gewalt aufzudecken. Männliche Betroffene stehen vor besonderen Herausforderungen, da Aufdeckungsprozesse von Männlichkeitskonstruktionen beeinflusst und teilweise verhindert werden; dies betrifft die Bewusstwerdung und Anerkennung stattgefundener sexualisierter Gewalt auf Seiten der Betroffenen, ihres Umfelds, in Institutionen sowie auf gesellschaftlicher Ebene. Dieser Beitrag präsentiert die Ergebnisse der Projektarbeit – aus Interviews mit Betroffenen, (professionell) Beteiligten sowie Forscher_innen, rekonstruierten typischen Verlaufsmustern und helfenden Faktoren sowie Reflexionen aus dem Transfer der Erkenntnisse für spezifische Praxisfelder.
Article
Disclosure is one of the keys to providing help to victims of sexual abuse (SA). It is a source of many psychological benefits and a way to obtain appropriate support resources. However, there is an important difference between the number of victims that have been sexually abused and the number that have actually disclosed the abuse. This means that many victims choose to keep silent about their abuse. Therefore, the first objective of this study is to draw a portrait of the characteristics of the disclosure of SA. The second aim is to explore if these characteristics are the same by taking into account the victim and the abuse’s characteristics. A total of 64 transcriptions of SA forensic interviews conduct by police officers and social workers had been codified to trace the relevant information about the disclosure. All the victims were aged between 4 and 17 years old. A codebook was developed to collect the characteristics of disclosure (e.g., type of disclosure, confident, obstacles, incentive, delay, number of attempts) into the transcriptions. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis suggest that contrary to the sex of the victim, the age influences some characteristics such as the choice of the confidant and the obstacles that prevent victim to disclose. Moreover a majority of the victims mention that they had to do more than one disclosure attempt before they had been taken care of by the authorities. Finally, the disclosure of a majority of the victims in this study had been influenced by internal factors (emotions, nightmares, realization). New knowledge brought by this study will improve our comprehension of SA disclosure. These findings could be used as theoretical background for preventive measures aiming to improve the number of sexual abused victims that disclose the abuse to authorities.
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