Article

Individual differences in response to hypnosis.

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Abstract

How are we to understand the fact that clients respond idiosyncratically to hypnotic treatment? Is it possible to be more precise about the particular individual differences that influence the outcome of therapy? And what are the implications for the way in which we use hypnosis with our patients? Topics include: general factors that influence treatment outcome with hypnosis; individual differences in response to hypnosis per se; relation of hypnotizability to treatment outcome; and clinical implications of individual differences in hypnotic responding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... For instance, obsessive-compulsive patients are less hypnotizable than both other patient groups and normal controls (Spinhoven, Van Dyck, Hoogduin, & Schaap, 1991). Of course, clients with little or no hypnotic ability may be better served with nonhypnotic treatments (Bates, 1993). However, Lynn and his colleagues (Lynn, Kirsch, Barabasz, Cardena, & Patterson, 2000) have observed that many hypnotic interventions require little special hypnotic or imaginative abilities and, instead, rely on relatively easy suggestions (e.g., guided imagery, relaxation, imaginative rehearsal) that the majority of the population can successfully pass. ...
... Kirsch, Montgomery, and Sapirstein's (1994) meta-analytic study showed that simply labeling a technique as hypnotic facilitated gains in cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches (see also Schoenberger, 2000). Also, in many of the disorders in which hypnotizability has been linked with treatment outcome, an association between positive motivation to change and treatment success has been identified (Bates, 1993). Relatedly, Kirsch (1991 has argued that therapeutic benefit may derive as much from positive treatment expectancies as hypnotic ability. ...
... " (pp. 1259-1260) As an initial assessment of potential responsiveness, particularly with clients who are reserved about experiencing hypnosis, clients can be introduced to hypnoticlike experiences such as the Chevreul pendulum 1 (see Bates, 1993) prior to hypnosis. These demonstrations are simple, powerful, and increase the client's expectations of responsiveness in other situations defined as hypnotic (Kirsch, 1994; Kirsch, Lynn, & Rhue, 1993). ...
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Disparate opinions about the importance of the assessment of hypnotizability reflect very different ideas about what hypnosis is, the relevance of hypnotizability to psychotherapy and treatment outcome, and the importance of gathering scientific data to document treatment effectiveness and the presence of hypnotic effects. In this article, we argue that in recent years important developments have occurred in the conceptualization, assessment, and technical aspects of hypnotic intervention that imply that clinicians who eschew the use of hypnotizability assessment ought to reconsider their position. In making this argument, we will discuss reasons for assessing hypnotizability, the relation between hypnotizability and treatment outcome, and practical considerations in the assessment of hypnotizability.
... Following Crawford et al. (1998), hypnotic analgesia is understood to be attention-based " in that persons inhibit incoming sensations from awareness while often simultaneously deploying their attention elsewhere " (p. 1). Highly hypnotizable persons in contrast to low hypnotizables appear to have a greater ability to: (1) sustain focused attention; (2) become absorbed in either positive or negative experiences; (3) actively inhibit their attention to incoming stimuli, and (4) learn to flexibly shift their focus of attention, coping strategy, or state of consciousness (Bates, 1993; Crawford, 1990 Crawford, , 1994 Crawford et al., 1998; Eimer & Freeman, 1998; Evans, 1991; Hilgard & Hilgard, 1994; Lynn & Sivec, 1992; Spiegel & Spiegel, 1978 Woody, Bowers, & Oakman, 1992). To the extent to which a clinician is able to draw on these abilities in a highly hypnotizable patient, or teach low hypnotizables how to do these things, the clinician is more likely to be effective in inducing relief from pain through the use of hypnosis. ...
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This paper describes four specific clinical applications of hypnosis that can make psychotherapy for pain management briefer, more goal-oriented, and more efficient: (1) the assessment of hypnotizability; (2) the induction of hypnotic analgesia and development of individualized pain coping strategies; (3) direct suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and pain relief imagery; and (4) brief psychodynamic reprocessing during the trance state of emotional factors in the patient's experience of chronic pain. Important theoretical and clinical issues regarding the relationship of hypnotizability to the induction of hypnotic analgesia are presented, and attempts to individualize pain treatment strategies on the basis of assessed differences in hypnotizability and patients' preferred coping strategies are described. Some ways are also presented of integrating direct hypnotic suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors and imagery for alleviating the sensory and affective components of pain with an exploratory, insight-oriented, and brief psychodynamic reprocessing approach during trance for resolving unconscious sources of resistance to treatment and reducing the emotional overlay associated with chronic pain. Some basic assumptions underlying the use of this approach are discussed, and a brief step-by-step protocol is outlined.
... For instance, obsessivecompulsive patients have been shown to be less responsive to hypnotic suggestion than both other patient groups and normal controls (Spinhoven, Van Dyck, Hoogduin, & Schaap, 1991). Patients with little or no hypnotic ability may be better served with nonhypnotic treatments (Bates, 1993). ...
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Drawing on the literature reviews of this special issue of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (2000), this article summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis as an empirically supported clinical intervention. As a whole, the clinical research to date generally substantiates the claim that hypnotic procedures can ameliorate some psychological and medical conditions, as judged against the Chambless and Hollon methodological guidelines. In many cases, these clinical procedures can also be quite cost-effective. It is probable that with some key empirical refinement a number of other hypnosis treatment protocols will have sufficient empirical documentation to be considered "well-established." However, it is noted that the Chambless and Hollon guidelines are not particularly well-suited for assessing hypnosis' impact when used adjunctly with other interventions. The article concludes with recommendations regarding the efficacy questions that need to be more fully addressed empirically and offers methodological guidelines for researchers and practitioners.
... Multicultural research on SHSS:C norms shows responsiveness can vary. Predominately Caucasian student samples from the United States (US) showed that 40% scored low (passing 0 to 4 items), 30% scored average (passing 5 to 7 items), and 30% scored high (passing 8 to 12 items) (Bates, 1993). Native Americans show significantly higher hypnotizability scores (Allan, Barabasz, & Barabasz, 2009), as do Mexicans living in Mexico (Sánchez-Armáss & . ...
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This article investigates the effect of hypnosis on immunity and whether this is the key mechanism in the hypnotic treatment of the genital infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and can lead to cervical and other cancers. Current medical treatments are aimed at tissue assault (acids, freezing, surgery). Medical wart clearance rates are only 30% to 70% and recurrence is common. Our research contrasted hypnosis-only with medical-only therapies, using both urban hospital and rural community samples. Both hypnosis and medical therapy resulted in a statistically significant (p < .04) reduction in areas and numbers of lesions. Yet, at the 12-week follow-up, complete clearance rates were 5 to 1 in favor of hypnosis.
... Gender differences are also evident in emotions identified or experienced while listening to music. A study by Sopchak (1955) reported that men and women were equally responsive to mood or emotional responses which are thought to be portrayed in a piece of music. The subjects in this study were asked to select specific adjectives from a list provided. ...
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The purpose of this study was to begin developing an understanding of the personal, subjective experience of crying responses to music that arouses emotions. A phenomenological research method was used, which studies the lived experience of an individual in regard to a specific phenomenon, in this case to the crying response to music listening. This research investigated the subjective experiences individuals have while listening to music and the essence of the experiences that may exist in this experience through a phenomenological interview. The existing literature only contained one reference to crying to music, therefore, further research was necessary for this phenomenon. The literature review contains literature and research in regard to crying and music that provide a foundation for the phenomenon explored. Four participants signed consent and participated in the study. The results of the data analysis indicated that situational contexts, music, text or performance can have an influence on their experiences; there are connections, associations, or thoughts to real, anticipated, imagined or recollected relationships; physical exhibitions of intensity or anxiety were experienced between all participants; and crying experiences are personal. The essence of the experience emerged as the essential structures were compared to the literature review, and the final results indicated that relationships play a large role in the crying experience to music. Text or lyrics, situational contexts, physiological responses, and that the intimate nature of the crying experience were also important parts of the essence of the experience.
... For instance, obsessivecompulsive patients have been shown to be less responsive to hypnotic suggestion than both other patient groups and normal controls (Spinhoven, Van Dyck, Hoogduin, & Schaap, 1991). Patients with little or no hypnotic ability may be better served with nonhypnotic treatments (Bates, 1993). ...
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Full-text available
Drawing on the literature reviews of this special issue of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimentnl Hypnosis (2000), this article summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis as an empirically supported clinical intervention. As a whole, the clinical research to date generally substantiates the claim that hypnotic procedures can ameliorate some psychological and medical conditions, as judged against the Chambless and Hollon methodological guidelines. In many cases, these clinical procedures can also be quite cost-effective. It is probable that with some key empirical refinement a number of other hypnosis treatment protocols will have sufficient empirical documentation to be considered "well-established." However, it is noted that the Chambless and Hollon guidelines are not particularly wellsuited for assessing hypnosis' impact when used adjunctly with other interventions. The article concludes with recommendations regarding the efficacy questions that need to be more fully addressed empirically and offers methodological guidelines for researchers and practitioners.
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This paper describes four specific clinical applications of hypnosis that can make psychotherapy for pain management briefer, more goal-oriented, and more efficient: (1) the assessment of hypnotizability; (2) the induction of hypnotic analgesia. and development of individualized pain coping strategies; (3) direct suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and nain relief imagery; and (4) brief psychodynamic reprocessing during the trance state of emotional factors in the patient's experience of chronic pain. Important theoretical and clinical issues regarding the relationship of hypnotizability to the induction of hypnotic analgesia are presented, and attempts to individualize pain treatment strategies on the basis of assessed differences in hypnotizability and patients' preferred coping strategies are described. Some ways are also presented of integrating direct hypnotic suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors and imagery for alleviating the sensory and affective components of pain with an exploratory, insight-oriented, and brief psychodynamic reprocessing approach during trance for resolving unconscious soul ces of resistance to treatment and reducing the emotional overlay associated with chronic pain. Some basic assumptions underlying the use of this approach are discussed, and a brief step-by-step protocol is outlined.
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