ArticlePDF Available

Effects of message repetition and position on cognitive response, recall, and persuasion

Authors:

Abstract

Although the mere exposure effect has been researched widely, surprisingly little is known about the attitudinal and cognitive effects of message repetition. It was hypothesized that the sequence of topic-relevant thoughts generated in response to a (repeated) persuasive message would parallel attitude change. To test this prediction, 2 experiments were conducted. In Exp I, 133 undergraduates heard a communication either 0 (control), 1, 3, or 5 times in succession, rated their agreement with the advocated position, and listed the message arguments they could recall. In Exp II, 193 undergraduates heard a communication either 1, 3, or 5 times, rated their agreement, listed their thoughts, and listed the message arguments they could recall. In both experiments, agreement first increased, then decreased as exposure frequency increased (regardless of the position advocated), but agreement was unrelated to the recall of the message arguments. In Exp II, analyses of the listed thoughts revealed that counterargumentation decreased, then increased, whereas topic-irrelevant thinking increased as exposure frequency increased; as expected, only topic-relevant thoughts were related to agreement. Results are interpreted in terms of an attitude-modification model in which repetition and content of a persuasive advocacy affect the type and number of thoughts generated; these thoughts, in turn, affect the attitudinal reaction to the advocacy. (63 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A preview of the PDF is not available
... The effect of previous exposure to similar content has largely been neglected in mass communication studies [49,50]. Message fatigue can sometimes trigger an aversive motivational state [51]; it can lead to passive forms of resistance, e.g., message avoidance and inattention [52], as well as more active types of resistance, e.g., counterarguments [53]. Our results are consistent with the existing fatigue effect theory: the greater the fatigue of a message or exposure to repetitive promotional campaigns, the lower is the consumer's interest in related messages, and the lower is the cognitive effort required to understand it. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the determinants of digital music success in South Korea. We identified information sources and factors that may influence the consumption of digital music, including song and artist factors, record label and distributor influence factors, promotional media influence factors, and electronic word of mouth (e-WOM). The analysis was conducted using music download data and ranking chart data from a major music platform. First, we found that traditional promotional media, such as the number of television or radio exposures and appearances in an audition program, significantly affected the success of music. Second, regarding social promotional media factors, promotional videos on YouTube mainly affected short-term success, whereas Twitter mentions showed an increasing influence over time. Third, an artist with a long career positively affected a song's early success, while frequent song releases had a negative impact. Our results offer marketers insights into promoting digital music in this new era.
... While Ohme and Mothes (2020) found that political interest plays a positive role in promoting only scanning behavior, not click-through, our study found the positive impact of political interest on both and click-through (Table 4). Our finding makes more sense that politically motivated people with high political interest tend to engage more with the central mode of information elaboration, which requires higher cognitive efforts (Cacioppo and Petty 1979). While Ohme and Mothes (2020) examined only what factors influence scanning and click-through separately, our study investigated the link between scanning and clickthrough and found a meaningful association between the two. ...
... Secondary analyses were also done, including participants' individual difference scores on the PGSI and the enhancement motives subscale of the GMQ (appendix pp [18][19][20][21][22][23]. Overall, these secondary analyses supported the conclusions presented above, that the messages did not have any beneficial effects in reducing gambling behaviour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Safer gambling messages are a common freedom-preserving method of protecting individuals from gambling-related harm. Yet, there is little independent and rigorous evidence assessing the effectiveness of safer gambling messages. In our study, we aimed to test the effect of the historically most commonly-used UK safer gambling message on concurrent gambling behaviour of people who gamble in the UK. Methods In this study, three preregistered, incentivised, and randomised online experiments, testing the UK's “when the fun stops, stop” message, were carried out via the crowdsourcing platform Prolific. Adults based in the UK who had previously participated in the gambling activities relevant to each experiment were eligible to participate. Experiments 1 and 3 involved bets on real soccer events, and experiment 2 used a commercially available online roulette game. Safer gambling message presence was varied between participants in each experiment. In experiment 2, exposed participants could be shown either a yellow or a black-and-white version of the safer gambling message. Participants were provided with a monetary endowment with which they were allowed to bet. Any of this money not bet was afterwards paid to participants as a bonus, in addition to the payouts from any winning bets. In experiment 2 participants had the opportunity to re-wager any winnings from the roulette game. The primary outcome in experiment 1 was participants’ decisions to accept (or reject) a series of football bets, which varied in their specificity (and payoffs), and the primary outcomes of experiments 2 and 3 were the proportion of available funds bet, which were defined as the total amount of money bet by a participant out of the total that could have been bet. Findings Participants for all three experiments were recruited between May 17, 2019, and Oct 17, 2020. Of the 506 participants in experiment 1, 41·3% of available bets were made by the 254 participants in the gambling message condition, which was not significantly different (p=0·15, odds ratio 1·22 [95% CI 0·93 to 1·61]) to the 37·8% of available bets made by the 252 participants in the control condition. In experiment 2, the only credible difference between conditions was that the 501 participants in the condition with the yellow version of the gambling message bet 3·64% (95% Bayesian credibility interval 0·00% to 7·27%) more of available funds left over than the 499 participants in the control condition. There were no credible differences between the bets made by the 500 participants in the black-and-white gambling message condition and the other conditions. In experiment 3, there were no credible differences between the 502 participants in the gambling message condition and the 501 participants in the control condition, with the largest effect being a 5·87% (95% Bayesian credibility interval –1·44% to 13·20%) increase in the probability of betting everything in the gambling message condition. Interpretation In our study, no evidence was found for a protective effect of the most common UK safer gambling message. Alternative interventions should be considered as part of an evidence-based public health approach to reducing gambling-related harm. Funding University of Warwick, British Academy and Leverhume, Swiss National Science Foundation.
... This reasoning is also in line with advertising studies showing that wear-out effects occur with greater repetition (Schmidt & Eisend, 2015). Wear-out occurs because of redundancy or boredom (Berlyne, 1970), which results in negative thoughts (Cacioppo & Petty, 1979) that outweigh the positive ones. ...
Article
Full-text available
Review set valence (the degree of negativity or positivity of a set of online reviews) strongly determines review readers' responses. Previous research has mainly considered the mere number of positive and negative reviews to determine a review set's valence. This paper aims to study how increasing the number of important positive reviews influences readers' hotel staying intention, exploring the 'tipping point' at which important positive reviews compensate for the negative effect of a larger number of less important negative reviews. We further explore whether reader responses are more positive when all positive reviews address the same product attribute or different attributes. We present a 4 (review set valence) x 2 (attribute repetition vs. different attributes for the positive reviews) online experiment (N=408). The results show that a more positive review set leads to a higher staying intention only when the positive reviews discuss different attributes (and do not repeat the same attribute). The 'tipping point' at which positive reviews compensate negative ones is four positive reviews about different attributes in a set of 12. This study nuances the bandwagon effect, negativity bias, and truth effect by showing that negative review sets can be positively evaluated.
Article
Consumers around the world have moved dramatically toward online platforms. Purchasing goods and services from independent suppliers through digital platforms has become a routine part of daily life. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the paradigm shift toward digital economy and servitization. Data show that ecommerce sales have grown by $32 billion during the last two years ( https://www.digitalcommerce360.com/article/coronavirus-impact-online-retail/ ). A large part of this ecommerce is on platforms-based models, where management of the platform community remains a difficult problem. One such question often discussed in the platforms context remains: Does acquiring a marquee seller help the platform owner? If so, how exactly? We show that in the specific context of B2B platforms, the impact of a marquee seller’s presence is significantly positive on prices obtained by other sellers on the platform. This is because the marquee seller generates higher prices, given its brand, and these prices become reference prices for other sellers. The managerial implications highlight the importance of acquiring marquee sellers and encourage platform owners to understand the associated price effects. Our paper suggests that platform owners should consider and target sellers with marquee brand names, as they can result in a sugar-rush for prices of other sellers on the platform.
Article
Design of advertising stimuli is critical for marketing, especially to destinations which have limited exposure to visitors. Existing studies postulate the design of advertising affects the amount and valence of thoughts (Cognition), thought confidence (Metacognition) and attitudes towards a destination. Despite this, limited research has considered the influence of emotional arousal and perceived credibility of advertising on cognition, metacognition and attitude. This research implemented a two-by-two experimental design to examine how cognition, metacognition and attitude differ across different levels of emotional arousal and perceived credibility of an advertisement of Iran. Results demonstrate participants showed higher cognitive engagement with the advertisement and more thought confidence and developed more favourable thinking and attitude to Iran in response to a highly credible and emotionally arousing tourism stimulus. A key contribution of this research is that high emotional arousal evokes more favourable cognition, metacognition and attitude towards a destination.
Thesis
Die Förderung epistemischer Überzeugungen gilt als wichtige Aufgabe in der Lehrerbildung. Insbesondere im bildungswissenschaftlichen Begleitstudium tendieren Studierende jedoch zu ungünstigen Überzeugungen: Bildungswissenschaftliches Wissen wird im Vergleich zu fachwissenschaftlichem Wissen als wenig systematisiert, subjektiv und kaum praxisrelevant beurteilt. Wie Studierende dabei unterstützt werden können, angemessene Überzeugungen zum Wissen in den Bildungswissenschaften zu entwickeln, ist empirisch noch unzureichend untersucht. Aus diesem Grund wurden literaturgestützt drei Kurzinterventionen entwickelt, die auf je spezifischen Förderstrategien gründen: (1) Direkt-explizite Adressierung von epistemischen Überzeugungen, (2) indirekt-implizite Adressierung und (3) Kombination aus direkten und indirekten Förderansätzen. Die Eignung der drei Interventionen wurde in einem quasi-experimentellen Mixed-Methods-Design in zwei Teilstudien untersucht. Die quantitative Teilstudie umfasste eine Veränderungsmessung. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich die Studierenden aus der direkten und der kombinierten Intervention tendenziell in Richtung reflektierter Überzeugungen weiterentwickelt haben. Die indirekte Intervention blieb dagegen wirkungslos. Die qualitative Teilstudie umfasste die Analyse von Follow-Up-Interviews, die im Nachgang der Interventionen mit teilnehmenden Studierenden geführt wurden. Die Ergebnisse stützten erstens die Befunde aus der quantitativen Teilstudie, wobei ein besonderes Veränderungspotenzial für die kombinierte Intervention deutlich wurde. Zweitens konnten die zugrunde liegenden Wirkweisen der verschiedenen Interventionen herausgearbeitet werden. Drittens konnten weiterführende Erkenntnisse zu den grundlegenden Veränderungsmechanismen epistemischer Überzeugungen erzielt werden. Das bestehende Veränderungsmodell epistemischer Überzeugungen konnte weiterentwickelt und um individuelle Faktoren ergänzt werden.
Article
Full-text available
Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. Since 2000, residential sector electricity consumption has continuously increased, indicating households as a central and influential research target. This study develops the concept of electricity consumption and conservation in a household context based on the literature. This paper aims to assess and review the household's cognitive, personal, and external factors directly, indirectly, or interactively minimizing electricity consumption and maximizing its conservation, addressing the multifaceted challenge of energy-wasting and saving consumer's behavior, massive variation in scale, and energy usage pattern. Further, the study offers a research model that describes the role played by the socio-demographic, psychological factors, and efficacy behavior for electricity consumption and conservation. 150 electricity consumers tested this model. The theoretical and empirical debate reveals three broad variables (socio-demographic, psychological, and efficiency behavior) that contribute to consumers' consumption and conservation activities. Furthermore, massive, cost-effective, and generalizable solutions regarding energy-efficient technology and low emission electricity sources are required. Long-term behavioral change is the crux of curtailing electricity consumption and rising conservation.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.