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Psychoanalysis, Its Image and Its Public

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Abstract

The publication in English of Serge Moscovici's Psychoanalysis, Its Image and Its Public (version of 1976 book in french) is an event of singular importance for social psychology. For the first time, English-speaking readers will have access to one of the most influential books published in the discipline in the past 30 years. Moscovici's development of the theory of social representations has long been recognised as a major contribution to social psychology, but discussion of the theory has been limited been by the unavailability in English of the text in which he provides his most extensive presentation of the theory and demonstrates its fecundity through his empirical study of representations of psychoanalysis in France. Psychoanalysis is in many ways the founding text of the theory of social representations and is, as such, a modern classic. As well as tracing the ways in which knowledge of psychoanalysis is transformed as it is reconstructed by different social groups in French society, Moscovici provides an extensive analysis of the representations of psychoanalysis within the mass media, showing how different interests structure such communication through the different forms of propaganda, propagation and diffusion. This book will be an indispensable text for students and scholars of social psychology. It will also be of interest to psychologists, sociologists and cultural theorists concerned with mass communication, and to all those with an interest in current perspectives in the social sciences.
... This chapter zeros in on one key facet of liminal situations, namely the temporary modification, inversion, or suspension of conventional moral standards in circumstances deemed exceptional. Borrowing from William James (1995), we refer to this state or process as "moral holidays" (Collins, 2008: 243-245), a concept that we use in combination with the theories of collective representations (Durkheim, 1995) and social representations (Moscovici, 2008). The chapter's empirical foundation comes from an ethnographic study of Danish expatriates in Delhi (Schliewe, 2019b) and a mixed-methods study of young Danish guides and tourists in Sunny Beach (Tutenges, 2012). ...
... This chapter draws on the theories of collective representations (Durkheim, 1995) and social representations (Moscovici, 1981(Moscovici, , 2008. These theories concern the way humans navigate their lives through shared representations of the world they inhabit. ...
... They give group members a sense of community while indicating how they should understand and relate to themselves, other people, and the wider world (Rateau et al., 2011). Serge Moscovici (1981Moscovici ( , 2008 argues that, rather than inconsequential abstractions, social representations are influential interpretative frameworks that guide and constrain behavior and common-sense experiences. Shared representations of vacations, for example, will frame the way vacationers think, talk, and make sense of their vacation experiences. ...
Chapter
Paul Stenner offers a refreshingly new vision of liminality power by deep empiricism and decoupled from rites of passage that which makes it responsive to the spontaneous precariousness of the present day. Taking up Stenner’s call to apply his concept of liminality to empirical research, this chapter draws on three specific case studies drawn from a year of longitudinal narrative interviews and observations with 17 older couples grappling with terminal illness. The first section of this chapter considers the ways “uh oh” moments can be triggered by seemingly mundane moments which catalyse older spouses’ reinterpretation of their situation and self. We will argue that such moments of disappointed expectations are inseparable from the wider “uh oh” moment of the biopolitical order itself. The second section compares and contrasts older caregiving spouses’ use of what Stenner coins “affective liminal technologies” to pursue—albeit not always successfully—“ah ha” moments that complete liminal passages. We will draw on intersectional theory to further illuminate how people’s specific social location can explain why some carers remain stuck in the liminal. The concluding remarks will offer a critical reflection of the utility and indeed possible expansion of his concept for the social sciences.
... Social representations (SRs) (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008 are notions "conceptually located across minds instead of within minds resembling a canopy across people's concerted talk and actions" and "they unite mental processes as well as behaviours and the social objects emerging thereof" (Wagner, 2017, p. 27). The specific social self-representations entertained by a group (Moscovici, 1988(Moscovici, , 2008 and the group members' social identities are closely entwined in everyday social life. ...
... Social representations (SRs) (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008 are notions "conceptually located across minds instead of within minds resembling a canopy across people's concerted talk and actions" and "they unite mental processes as well as behaviours and the social objects emerging thereof" (Wagner, 2017, p. 27). The specific social self-representations entertained by a group (Moscovici, 1988(Moscovici, , 2008 and the group members' social identities are closely entwined in everyday social life. ...
... Social representations (SRs) (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008 are notions "conceptually located across minds instead of within minds resembling a canopy across people's concerted talk and actions" and "they unite mental processes as well as behaviours and the social objects emerging thereof" (Wagner, 2017, p. 27). The specific social self-representations entertained by a group (Moscovici, 1988(Moscovici, , 2008 and the group members' social identities are closely entwined in everyday social life. ...
Article
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This paper presents an analysis of interviews of participants in a political manifestation in Indonesia about the reasons for the rally and the resulting riot. The rally was held in the middle of the Jakarta gubernatorial election, against a non-Muslim incumbent who was accused of having insulted the Quran. We argue that there is a deep relationship between social identities and religion, which has implications for societal togetherness and political freedom. Using a snowball technique, we interviewed 16 Muslims who had participated in this rally. The findings suggest that 1) even though the rally was held in the middle of an election, the demonstrators denied that the rally was politically motivated; 2) Those demonstrators who thought that intruders had infiltrated the rally, maintained that the intruders are to be held responsible for any violence, but not the ‘actual’ participants. 3) Interviewees claimed that their actions were not motivated by anti-Chinese prejudice, although traces of racist thinking can be found in their statements. The findings are discussed before the background of social representations, social identity, theories of collective action, and the black sheep effect.
... This work emphasizes the need to develop understanding of the term from the bottom-up, as it is mobilized and oriented to in people's everyday lives (Condor, 2011), often performed outside the sphere of formal politics or state-sanctioned actions (Isin, 2009;Miraftab, 2004). This work naturally aligns itself with a social representations approach which specifies a dynamic relationship between social practices and everyday sense-making (Moscovici, 1961). The Covid-19 pandemic, as an "emergent form" , is fundamentally disruptive to common sense and everyday lives and as such, leaves open the possibility of social and political change. ...
... Following previous work (Kadianaki & Andreouli, 2017;Rodríguez López et al., 2015) we adopt a social representations approach to investigate the phenomenon of Covid-19 mutual aid. A social representation can be defined as the way in which a group socially constructs the "reality" of a certain object, referring at the same time to the process of construction and its content (Moscovici, 1961). Social representations are used by individuals and groups to communicate, construct their identities, as well as guide and justify their practices. ...
... Individuals and groups produce social representations through the active and contextualized reconstruction of socio-historically established ideas, norms, and values (Moscovici, 1961). Therefore, social representations not only guide contextualized practices in the present but also express deep-rooted symbolic structures in which they are anchored (Moscovici & Hewstone, 1983). ...
Article
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People across the world have responded to the pandemic by mobilizing and organizing to support their communities, setting up mutual aid groups to provide practical, financial, and social support. Mutual aid means short‐term 'crisis response' for some, while for other groups, it is a chance to radically restructure society, and what it means to be a member of that society. Drawing on social representations theory and previous work on citizenship in social and political psychology, we examined the ways in which mutual aid was understood and performed by members of UK Covid‐19 mutual aid groups. We conducted 29 interviews with members of these groups in May/June 2020. A reflexive thematic analysis showed that mutual aid groups were characterized as complex, efficient, and non‐hierarchical units, operating on the principles of solidarity, kindness, and trust. Two tensions were evident in the data, specifically between (1) collaboration with existing organizations and structures (e.g., local government and the police), and resistance to it and (2) maximizing group inclusivity and sustaining political critique. Findings are discussed in relation to existing theoretical and empirical work on citizenship and mutual aid groups.
... The chapter opens with an overview of the rise of individual factors in depression and how this rise is understood by the two discourses. Next, using data from our research on the social representations (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008) and experiences of depression in patients, the need for addressing the strongly individualised nature of depression while maintaining agency is discussed. The chapter closes with implications of this approach and suggestions for moving forwards. ...
... The chapter opens with an overview of the rise of individual factors in depression and how this rise is understood by the two discourses. Next, using data from our research on the social representations (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008) and experiences of depression in patients, the need for addressing the strongly individualised nature of depression while maintaining agency is discussed. The chapter closes with implications of this approach and suggestions for moving forwards. ...
... Using data from our qualitative research on understandings and the experience of depression among Greek-Cypriots patients, below we show that these risks expand from the academic realm to that of daily life. The extracts presented below originate from a larger project exploring the social representations (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008 of depression within the Greek-Cypriot press (Orphanidou & Kadianaki, 2020), public and patients. The data were collected through eight semi-structured individual interviews with patients between the ages of 16 and 80. ...
Chapter
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Albeit a vastly researched topic, depression remains a highly controversial subject in the literature. In this chapter, we focus on one source of controversy, namely, the role of the individual in the aetiology and treatment of the condition. Specifically, we examine how patient accountability in treatment is viewed by some in terms of patient empowerment while others warn against its neoliberal, individualising ethos. Data from our research on understandings of depression among Greek-Cypriot patients are used to illustrate the individualisation critique and illuminate a dead-end in the current literature. Particularly, we argue that although empowerment practices run the risk of individualising depression, the alternatives offered by critics of individualisation could victimise patients and deny agency. Therefore, we propose that moving forwards, research should focus on promoting a more socially informed empowerment that aims to maintain agency, but not at the expense of wider social aspects of depression. Implications of this socially informed empowerment and suggestions for how it may be achieved are discussed.
... The very unpredictability of common sense is the problematic of social representations theory". Recognizing that contemporary digital innovations are a major source of such 'ripples', we propose to use the social representation theory (Moscovici 2008) to expand the organizing vision theory. The enhancements include theoretical and operational features that can help situate the phenomenon of organizing vision within a larger public discourse and understand how the widened discourse can contribute to shaping organizing visions. ...
... What OV does so effectively in describing the shift from individual to collective for the specific case of sensemaking for IS innovations, a theory of social representations (Moscovici 2008) does on a more general level of sensemaking for the unfamiliar. It introduces a collective aspect to the individual. ...
... According to social representations theory, the knowledge about phenomena including digital innovations is always mediated (Moscovici 2008). Digital innovations acquire meaning only through representations. ...
Conference Paper
With the speed, scale, and scope of digital innovation accelerating, it becomes increasingly challenging for organizations to make well-informed adoption decisions. Socio-cognitive sensemaking is seen as essential for digital innovation but mainly focuses on the processes within individual organizations. We suggest taking organizing vision theory, a native IS theory, as a starting point focusing on how organizations rely on collective learning for digital innovations and enhancing it with social representation theory to recognize the widening discourse in a larger community for digital innovation. The latter explains how the lay public uses common sense to get familiar with new technologies and helps us to propose a conceptual framework relating the organizational world of organizing visions to the public world of social representation. We presented specific implications of this view concerning the formation of an organizing vision, the role of early interpretation on legitimation, competing organizing visions, and the link between the organizing vision and the public's vision of an organization.
... Shared and dynamic social representations Moscovici (2008) founded the theory of social representations, which he referred to as the theory of social knowledge. His aim was to create a theoretical approach capable of elaborating the contents, expressions, and consequences of everyday social knowledge. ...
... Durkheim, in turn, regarded representations as collective, formed by institutions, and capable of predetermining individual representations (Sakki et al., 2017). Interpreting these traditions in a novel way, Moscovici (2008) labeled representations as social but not determining people's thoughts and actions. Instead, social representations are dynamic and subject to change and reconstruction (Moscovici, 1984). ...
... Naturalization is the third process of social representation, although some scholars regard it as the final stage of objectification (Jodelet, 2008). Naturalization conceptualizes the process in which certain social representations are repeated in diverse media, forms of communication, and social practices to the extent that their constructed nature is forgotten and they become taken for granted (Flick and Foster, 2010;Moscovici, 1984Moscovici, , 2008. These taken-for-granted social representations are often used beyond awareness and reflection (Moscovici, 1984). ...
Article
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This paper explores the possibilities of drawing as a method of researching social representations. The theory of social representations focuses on studying the forms, contents, and functions of socially shared common knowledge. In this paper, we (1) present the central premises of social representations theory, (2) elaborate drawing as a visual research method, and (3) synthesize how the drawing method may promote and diversify our understanding of social representations. We suggest that the drawing method is especially fruitful in the analysis of objectification process (how something abstract is made tangible); cognitive polyphasia (the idea of the simultaneous existence of diverse and contradicting social representations); and the different levels of analysis in which social representations become observable: ontogenesis (individual level), microgenesis (social interaction level), and sociogenesis (societal level). Through these insights, this paper advances the current understanding of the drawing method in qualitative social representations research.
... Desse modo, balbúrdia é ação coletiva; impossível fazê-la sozinha, é sempre necessário a presença de outras pessoas na constituição do cenário. , e materializada na obra A psicanálise, sua imagem e seu público (La Psychanalyse son image, son public) (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008, causou, desde a sua proposição, balbúrdia, ou como explanou Gerard Duveen (1961Duveen ( /2008, o conteúdo da obra foi um escândalo ao desafiar as perspectivas funcionais dominantes na psicologia social. O próprio Moscovici, no prefácio da segunda edição da obra, reconhece que sua "tese provou um certo desconforto" e foi "uma intrusão intolerável" na medida em que ousou ir além dos limites da filosofia positivista, do behaviorismo e da psicologia social tradicional, que se restringia a estudar os indivíduos, os pequenos grupos e as relações informais (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008. ...
... , e materializada na obra A psicanálise, sua imagem e seu público (La Psychanalyse son image, son public) (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008, causou, desde a sua proposição, balbúrdia, ou como explanou Gerard Duveen (1961Duveen ( /2008, o conteúdo da obra foi um escândalo ao desafiar as perspectivas funcionais dominantes na psicologia social. O próprio Moscovici, no prefácio da segunda edição da obra, reconhece que sua "tese provou um certo desconforto" e foi "uma intrusão intolerável" na medida em que ousou ir além dos limites da filosofia positivista, do behaviorismo e da psicologia social tradicional, que se restringia a estudar os indivíduos, os pequenos grupos e as relações informais (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008. ...
... Uma dessas imagens é a do estupro coletivo. O estupro é "um crime de gênero, que não tem e não pode ter objetivos intencionais, mas pode infligir o máximo sofrimento às vítimas, à multidão que olha e à comunidade em geral" (Astashkevich, 2018, p. 40 Por outro lado, ao nos sensibilizar pelo terror da violência, para criar sentidos àquilo que de algum modo toca o insabido e tornar familiar algo que estranhamos, acionamos outros saberes, isto é, as "representações sociais" (Moscovici, , 2008 sua palavra e persuasão, e não pela força e violência (Arendt, 2007 Para "compreender como as coisas acontecem e por que acontecem dessa forma, e não de outra" (Moscovici, 1979(Moscovici, /2011b 12) e "Por que as pessoas fazem o que fazem?" (Guareschi, 2020, p. (Moscovici, 1979(Moscovici, /2011b) e a psicologia das massas (Moscovici, /1985 são abertamente políticas. Na primeira, ele volta sua atenção aos conflitos entre minorias e maiorias, com a finalidade de pensar as possibilidades de transformação das relações de poder. ...
Book
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"Este livro que apresentamos é uma tentativa de materializar algumas das ideias apresentadas e discutidas no evento [XI JIRS e na IX CBRS]. O objetivo da obra consiste em somar-se às produções na TRS de modo que os textos divulgados possam servir de referência a diferentes campos de saber, particularmente à psicologia social, educação, ciências sociais, saúde coletiva e ciências políticas, bem como demais áreas interessadas em avançar nas reflexões e metodologias no campo da Teoria das Representações Sociais. Visamos a contribuir com o adensamento das reflexões sobre epistemologia, ontologia, teoria e metodologias relativas à TRS e esperamos que seu conteúdo possa servir como material científico de apoio às práticas de ensino de graduação e pós-graduação nos diferentes campos de saber que se interessam pelo estudo da TRS. Em síntese, pretendemos espraiar “the beautiful invention” (Jodelet, 2008, p. 411) que é essa teoria, divulgando as conferências, os simpósios e trabalhos correlacionados apresentados na XI JIRS e na IX CBRS." (ROSO, 2021, p. 26)
... Desse modo, balbúrdia é ação coletiva; impossível fazê-la sozinha, é sempre necessário a presença de outras pessoas na constituição do cenário. , e materializada na obra A psicanálise, sua imagem e seu público (La Psychanalyse son image, son public) (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008, causou, desde a sua proposição, balbúrdia, ou como explanou Gerard Duveen (1961Duveen ( /2008, o conteúdo da obra foi um escândalo ao desafiar as perspectivas funcionais dominantes na psicologia social. O próprio Moscovici, no prefácio da segunda edição da obra, reconhece que sua "tese provou um certo desconforto" e foi "uma intrusão intolerável" na medida em que ousou ir além dos limites da filosofia positivista, do behaviorismo e da psicologia social tradicional, que se restringia a estudar os indivíduos, os pequenos grupos e as relações informais (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008. ...
... , e materializada na obra A psicanálise, sua imagem e seu público (La Psychanalyse son image, son public) (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008, causou, desde a sua proposição, balbúrdia, ou como explanou Gerard Duveen (1961Duveen ( /2008, o conteúdo da obra foi um escândalo ao desafiar as perspectivas funcionais dominantes na psicologia social. O próprio Moscovici, no prefácio da segunda edição da obra, reconhece que sua "tese provou um certo desconforto" e foi "uma intrusão intolerável" na medida em que ousou ir além dos limites da filosofia positivista, do behaviorismo e da psicologia social tradicional, que se restringia a estudar os indivíduos, os pequenos grupos e as relações informais (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008. ...
... Uma dessas imagens é a do estupro coletivo. O estupro é "um crime de gênero, que não tem e não pode ter objetivos intencionais, mas pode infligir o máximo sofrimento às vítimas, à multidão que olha e à comunidade em geral" (Astashkevich, 2018, p. 40 Por outro lado, ao nos sensibilizar pelo terror da violência, para criar sentidos àquilo que de algum modo toca o insabido e tornar familiar algo que estranhamos, acionamos outros saberes, isto é, as "representações sociais" (Moscovici, , 2008 sua palavra e persuasão, e não pela força e violência (Arendt, 2007 Para "compreender como as coisas acontecem e por que acontecem dessa forma, e não de outra" (Moscovici, 1979(Moscovici, /2011b 12) e "Por que as pessoas fazem o que fazem?" (Guareschi, 2020, p. (Moscovici, 1979(Moscovici, /2011b) e a psicologia das massas (Moscovici, /1985 são abertamente políticas. Na primeira, ele volta sua atenção aos conflitos entre minorias e maiorias, com a finalidade de pensar as possibilidades de transformação das relações de poder. ...
Chapter
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Jodelet, D. (2021). Sobre o espírito do tempo e representações sociais. In A. Roso et al. (Eds.), Mundos sem fronteiras. Representações sociais e práticas psicossociais. Florianopolis : Abrapso Editora (pp. 84-108).
... Representational diversity, ambivalent thoughts, inconsistent ideas, and tension are embedded in the very structure of social representations. This cognitive polyphasia reflects both how knowledge is intrinsically bound to communities and social contexts, thus changing social conditions knowledge changes as well (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008Jovchelovitch, 2002Jovchelovitch, , 2007, and the agency of the individuals to act in a context with competing representations, which means also the ability to adapt or to resist to social change (Batel, 2012). ...
... Representational diversity, ambivalent thoughts, inconsistent ideas, and tension are embedded in the very structure of social representations. This cognitive polyphasia reflects both how knowledge is intrinsically bound to communities and social contexts, thus changing social conditions knowledge changes as well (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008Jovchelovitch, 2002Jovchelovitch, , 2007, and the agency of the individuals to act in a context with competing representations, which means also the ability to adapt or to resist to social change (Batel, 2012). ...
... According to the theory of social representations, two processes-anchoring and objectification-underlie the emergence of new social objects that represent something previously unknown or unfamiliar. Anchoring relates the unknown to existing knowledgeinserting it "into a hierarchy of values and into its operation" (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008. Objectification is the process as a result of which the "invisible" becomes "perceptible" (Farr, 1984: 386), or something that is abstract becomes material and concrete, "integrated into social reality" (Moscovici, 1961(Moscovici, /2008(Moscovici, :106, 1984Farr, 1984;Abric, 1996;Billig, 1988). ...
Article
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The representations of heroes and the heroic acts point to social values, norms, and morality of the present, creating a bridge between the past and a potential future. In this paper, a cross-cultural explorative study of heroes is presented aiming to explore general tendencies and possible patterns related to the different social contexts. Participants were reached from seven countries via social media (N = 974) for corpus construction. We asked by their choice of hero, national hero, and desired heroic action in their respective countries. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results show that there is a high rate of no choice, while among the chosen the prototypical hero is a lone moral man acting in the private (fam-ily) or public sphere (political actors). Both spheres offer the naturalization of the hero. There is a dialogical frame between the exceptional and the ordinary. Chosen heroes are dominantly contemporary males' family members or political figures. While the purpose attributed to the personal hero is to maintain stability, the purpose attributed to the heroic actions of the public sphere is to obtain change. Similarities and differences between the seven subcorpuses are also described.
... This chapter zeros in on one key facet of liminal situations, namely the temporary modification, inversion, or suspension of conventional moral standards in circumstances deemed exceptional. Borrowing from William James (1995), we refer to this state or process as "moral holidays" (Collins, 2008: 243-245), a concept that we use in combination with the theories of collective representations (Durkheim, 1995) and social representations (Moscovici, 2008). The chapter's empirical foundation comes from an ethnographic study of Danish expatriates in Delhi (Schliewe, 2019b) and a mixed-methods study of young Danish guides and tourists in Sunny Beach (Tutenges, 2012). ...
... This chapter draws on the theories of collective representations (Durkheim, 1995) and social representations (Moscovici, 1981(Moscovici, , 2008. These theories concern the way humans navigate their lives through shared representations of the world they inhabit. ...
... They give group members a sense of community while indicating how they should understand and relate to themselves, other people, and the wider world (Rateau et al., 2011). Serge Moscovici (1981Moscovici ( , 2008 argues that, rather than inconsequential abstractions, social representations are influential interpretative frameworks that guide and constrain behavior and common-sense experiences. Shared representations of vacations, for example, will frame the way vacationers think, talk, and make sense of their vacation experiences. ...
Chapter
When bodies and minds cease to function in silence, everyday lives get disrupted and self-understandings unsettled. We wonder whether we are ill, what ails us, and how it will affect the immediate or long-term future. Through the theoretical lens of liminality, experiences of illness have been described in terms of uncertainty and affective destabilization. In the context of healthcare, liminality is countered by a search for causal explanations, diagnoses, and effective treatment. Little attention has been directed towards how the liminality of illness/disease is managed as patients and medical professionals interact.
... In the same line, Garland (2001) notes that our fears, and most of our ways of understanding them, are based on social facts and are supported by "cultural scripts". This idea of a cultural script is very close to the notion of social representation developed by Moscovici (2008Moscovici ( , 1961. ...
... However, Moscovici's (1961Moscovici's ( , 2008 proposes that three minimum conditions have to be satisfied for the establishment of a social representation structure: a social object must be ambiguously defined, people should feel the need to infer about it, and different aspects of that object should be salient for different groups. These three conditions are met in the event of a viral pandemic (Eicher & Bangerter, 2015). ...
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In the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic (between 26 March and 2 April 2020), we analysed (n=1144) the social representations of the coronavirus and the differentiated perceptions according to the origins attributed to the appearance of the virus (Human vs Non-Human and Intentional vs. Unintentional) in a French population. The results show that the social representation is organized around five potentially central descriptive, anxiety-provoking and globally negative elements. But death and contagion are the only stable and structuring elements. The other elements vary according to the reason attributed to the object of fear. Depending on how individuals attribute the origin of the virus, social representations of it vary not only in terms of their content but also in terms of their structure. These results indicate how important it is to consider the perceptions that individuals share about the human (vs. non-human) and intentional (vs. unintentional) origin of an object of fear in the analysis of their representation of that object.
... We speculate that one reason why Confucianism does not act as a historical charter may be due to the mode of communication about it. Moscovici (2008Moscovici ( [1961 ) theorised three types of communication that produce different forms and contents of social representations, namely diffusion, propagation and propaganda. The mode of diffusion is characterised by the intention to make information available to the widest possible audience. ...
... We speculate that one reason why Confucianism does not act as a historical charter may be due to the mode of communication about it. Moscovici (2008Moscovici ( [1961 ) theorised three types of communication that produce different forms and contents of social representations, namely diffusion, propagation and propaganda. The mode of diffusion is characterised by the intention to make information available to the widest possible audience. ...
Article
The present study focuses on a new type of social representation: the historical system of meaning embodied by the philosophy and lifeways of Confucianism. Eighteen young and educated Chinese were interviewed face-to-face. Thematic analyses of their transcripts showed that Confucianism representations contained two subthemes, figures (Confucius and Mencius) and thoughts (e.g., propriety and benevolence, etc.). These representations were transmitted by formal education from school and informal education from family, and the influence of Confucianism was often implicit, as evidenced by two subthemes: self-cultivation and social norms. The analyses also showed that almost everything mentioned about Confucianism was more than 2,000 years old and more recent developments were ignored. These results provide insight into how a historically central system of meaning is represented today, when it has lost its institutional bases. It is argued that the social representation of Confucianism is fragmented rather than hegemonic and lacks the systematic coherence that characterises a historical charter. Contributions to social representations theory and implications for how Confucianism could function in the modern world are discussed.
... Social Representations Theory (SRT) focuses on the complex symbolic, emotive and social aspects of everyday lay meaning-making and on the dynamic quality of representation formation and transformation. Coined by Moscovici in 1961Moscovici in (2008, social representation refers to the process whereby social knowledge is constructed and a shared system of meaning elaborated within and across social groups through processes of communication. The term also refers to the product of that process: the shared imagery, metaphors, values and practices that allow us to make sense of, navigate, and position ourselves within the social world. ...
... In their contradictions, tensions and ambiguities, they reveal the challenges young people face when trying to make sense of HIV and stigma with recourse to the plethora of divergent resources culturally available to them. The resulting tensions align with Moscovici's (2008) concept of cognitive polyphasia, which allows for competing and potentially contradictory social representations to co-exist in the same group or individual at the same time. Cognitive polyphasia is a particularly important concept for the study of stigma in light of the sensitivity of the subject matter and its vulnerability to social desirability bias. ...
Article
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Research on social representations (SRs) has often focused more on categorical than narrative‐based representations. However, narratives are considered to play a key role in the organization of SRs. This article describes an empirical study of some 2000 creative narratives about human immunodeficiency virus written by young Africans from five countries between 1997 and 2014 and examines the theoretical, methodological and applied relevance of Social Representations Theory (SRT) for this study and the implications of the study for the intersection between narrative and SRT. The study is unusual within the SR paradigm: it is temporal and cross‐national; addresses a subject whose science has evolved over time; and uses creative narratives as its data source. A narrative perspective foregrounds holistic understandings of SRs as systems of thought. Creative narratives fit well within an SR framework. Our triangulating methodologies foreground categorical or narrative dimensions depending on the objectives of specific sub‐studies. Central Core Theory provides a framework to articulate stability and change within narrative representations. In creative narrative, objectification also happens at the level of plot and characters, such that dominant cultural narratives can be viewed as a form of hegemonic SR. We link with health communication and embrace more critical streams within SR research.
... In the same line, Garland (2001) notes that our fears, and most of our ways of understanding them, are based on social facts and are supported by 'cultural scripts'. This idea of a cultural script, is very close to the notion of social representation developed by Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( , 2008. For this author, social representations are socio-cognitive constructs that reformulate the environment of individuals so that they appropriate it. ...
... However, Moscovici's (1961Moscovici's ( , 2008 proposes that three minimum conditions have to be satisfied for the establishment of a social representation structure: a social object must be ambiguously defined, people should feel the need to infer about it and different aspects of that object should be salient for different groups. These three conditions are met in the event of a viral pandemic (Eicher and Bangerter, 2015). ...
Article
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic (between 26 March and 2 April 2020), we analysed ( n = 1144) the social representations of the coronavirus and the differentiated perceptions according to the origins attributed to the appearance of the virus (Human vs Non-Human and Intentional vs Unintentional) in a French population. The results show that the social representation is organized around five potentially central descriptive, anxiety-provoking and globally negative elements. But death and contagion are the only stable and structuring elements. The other elements vary according to the reason attributed to the object of fear. Depending on how individuals attribute the origin of the virus, social representations of it vary not only in terms of their content but also in terms of their structure. These results indicate how important it is to consider the perceptions that individuals share about the human (vs non-human) and intentional (vs unintentional) origin of an object of fear in the analysis of their representation of that object.
... The main functions of these representations are to achieve social order with shared meaning and to make communication possible (Moscovici, 2008). First, the creation of a social order allows individuals and groups to navigate their material and social reality (instrumental). ...
... Moreover, the presence of the Vatican and a historically Catholic mentality in Italy, the Anglican-Protestant establishment in the UK, and the non-Western Hindu-Muslim culture of India provide an interesting comparative setting for initial explorations of a matter of pertinent ethical and moral concern. For the analysis of social milieus, we consider different political (left/right-leaning), ideological (religious/secular), and cultural (tabloid/quality) positions as constraints in the production of different social representations (Moscovici, 2008). ...
Article
Our research explored the social representations of the “vegetative state” across different cultural (India, Italy, and the UK) and social milieus (left-leaning, right-leaning, and religious/tabloid newspapers). The aim was to discover how public discourse engages liminality between life and death. Qualitative and quantitative text analyses were conducted on news headlines and full-texts from British (n = 300), Indian (n = 300), and Italian (n = 300) newspapers published between January 1990 and June 2019. Our study shows three results: (a) the vegetative state is a potentially global issue that remains discussed with local timing and characteristics; (b) it is commonly represented in eight frames of different resonance across cultural milieus; (c) the news flows are organised on different dimensions (quality, political, and ideological). Results shed light on how liminality is discursively managed by the interplay of cultural resources and social positionings. In particular, this suggests a hitherto unrecognised function of the objectification process: personification as position-taking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... In these meaning-making battles, individuals and groups resort to different communicative strategies for justifying their positions and relating to the positions of the "other"and these formats have more dialogical or more monological consequences (Batel & Castro, 2009;Gillespie, 2020;Moscovici & Markov a, 2000). Moscovici's (1976) analysis of press discourses identified three Self-Other communication modalities: propaganda, a dichotomic form presenting just one view (that of the Self) as reliable and acceptable; propagation, an integrative form reconciling some of the divergent views of Self and Other; and diffusion, a form disseminating a plurality of views in a way distanced from any (clearly defined) Self and Other. ...
... Its integrative theoretical and methodological proposal has shown how a social representations approach with a focus on discourse and communication (Howarth, 2006;Batel & Castro, 2018) can play a central role in revealing how neoliberal values are entering our meaning-making processes, demonstrating how, as they become increasingly dominant in today's common sense, they acquire the power of entering press coverages and worldviews as "evidence" about which reflexion is not necessary. Moreover, in illustrating the discursive strategies employed by alternative views to gain visibility, this study also offers some suggestions about the role of minorities in disputing hegemonic representations (Moscovici, 1976). It highlights how the framing and presentation of political choices to the public can open up or close down space for citizens and groups with more or less radical discursive strategies (Araya L opez, 2021) to enter the public debate and play an active role in redefining it (Van Dijk, 2013). ...
Article
Resistance to tourism intensification and its unsustainability has grown. However, decision-makers in many cities continue to present tourism and the political and legislative options supporting it as an inevitable and consensual path for economic growth, concealing competing choices, voices, and values. The media can follow, presenting the issue in a depoliticised way: i.e., by foregrounding undiscussed dominant discourses, leaving little space for debate of alternatives. Drawing from Social Representations Theory and the literature on depoliticisation, we offer an integrative theoretical and methodological proposal for analysing tourism discourses in the press, as a privileged arena where meanings are constructed and contested. Specifically, we explore if and to what extent the Portuguese press presenting Lisbon's tourism intensification (2011–2017) foregrounded undiscussed (depoliticised) and hegemonic representations. A content analysis (n = 247 articles; four newspapers) identifies signs of a hegemonic and depoliticised tourism's view, with low heterogeneity of voices and values. Second, a detailed discursive analysis (n = 187; two newspapers) illustrates discursive strategies helping advance (propaganda and reification) or dispute (propagation and consensualization) this view. Contributions to the understanding of neoliberalism's discursive formations and its contestations made concrete around tourism are discussed, with implications for future tourism more attentive to justice and participation issues.
... Alternative representations can function to keep other social representations at arm's length psychologically (Gillespie, 2008). In order to describe this process, Gillespie proceeded from Moscovici's (2008) notion of semantic barriers, which "are used to neutralise the transformative and dialogical potential of these alternative representations" (Gillespie, 2008, p. 377). He compares them to a psychological immune system that ensures a degree of continuity amidst sociological diversification (Gillespie, 2012). ...
... The focus of this paper is not on the specific types of semantic barriers deployed, but rather on the construction of the alternative representation in time and how imagined futures influence semantic contact and the juxtaposition of views (Gillespie, 2020). Moscovici (2008) suggests that the transformation of social representations happens through the processes of anchoring and objectification, while Duveen and Lloyd (1990) argue that this occurs through accumulated microgenetic changes. Here, I want to focus on what Kadianaki and Gillespie (2015) have called semiotic dialogicality, that is, the internal relation of social representations to their opposites. ...
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People and societies are guided by what they imagine to lie beyond the present, by what can and should be the case in the future. Yet people do not always agree about the form, content or path to realisation of a given imagined future. As a result, conflicts can arise over something that does not exist yet. In this paper, I propose to integrate theories of social and alternative representations with a sociocultural psychological interpretation of imagination, in order to explore the addressivity of futures and to call for more studies that explicitly take into account the future's role in the present. I draw on a dialogical case study that was carried out on the Faroe Islands, more precisely on the island of Suðuroy. Whereas the Faroe Islands are experiencing a rapid acceleration in growth, Suðuroy has failed to keep pace and has witnessed decades of emigration and a worsening of its population's relative socioeconomic situation. Islanders liken the current situation to standing at a crossroads, while being unable to agree on which path must be taken in order to reinvigorate a shrinking future. By analysing how one of the two major social representations constructs the other-its alternative representation-I suggest that the absence of transformative dialogue results from incompatible futures. Furthermore, in line with a sociocultural psychological perspective, I also attempt to move beyond the homogenising force inherent in social representation theory by introducing Ingolf and Karin, whose stories illustrate how social and alternative representations are not uniformly shared and enacted, but take different forms in light of unique life experiences.
... According to the theory of social representations [15], knowledge emerges from common thought, which is shaped during interactions where the processes of transmission and construction are intertwined [16,17]. In this theory, a central role is given to the social as a place of co-construction and sharing of knowledge between individuals [18]. ...
... In this theory, a central role is given to the social as a place of co-construction and sharing of knowledge between individuals [18]. Social representations are conceived as dynamic sets that make possible to interpret and intervene on reality [15]. They are formed through relationship between individuals. ...
Article
The Okpara dam in Northern Benin offers multiple ecosystem services (ESS) to the riparian communities living around. It is an important drinking water source for the populations of the largest nearby metropolis Parakou. Many development activities have been undertaken to increase its capacity to supply drinking water by the Benin national water Company (SONEB: Société National des Eaux du Bénin). These activities combined with climate change are drastically affecting the sustainability of ESS supply. This paper aims to analyse the determinants of changes in the provision of ESS and to assess the local innovations developed by local communities to adapt to these changes. Data collection consisted in interviewing 111 individuals in the nearby villages of the Okpara dam. It included farmers, fishermen, religious dignitaries, SONEB officials, and traditional leaders. The results show that the modernization work undertaken by SONEB has increased the capacity of the dam to supply drinking water to the Parakou’s population. On the other hand, they have deprived the local communities of many ESS such as cultural and religious spaces, entertainment and agricultural production areas. In addition to these development works, climate change and other anthropic actions are also cited as factors explaining the depletion of certain ESS around the dam. To limit the damage and safeguard agricultural production, local population have developed agricultural areas downstream of the dam with the creation of autonomous water points for market gardening. Fish farming areas have also been created for small-scale fishing. These innovations have helped not only to improve the availability of drinking water but also increase the income of farmers and fishermen and improve the social cohesion among the communities.
... The encounter of novel objects or events in social life requires interpretative representational work on the part of individuals to make the unfamiliar familiar (Moscovici, 2008). During the course of sharing perspectives in intersubjective communication, individuals develop construals (Ross and Nisbett, 1991) of novel items in their environment that make sense to them in light of their prior knowledge and experiences. ...
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We studied the role of worldviews in the endorsement of proposals for the legalisation of recreational cannabis. Drawing on literature on generalised belief structures, we developed categorical measures for five worldviews drawing on commonalities in the typologies reviewed (Orthodox, Localised, Reward, Pragmatist, and Survivor). We proceeded to study the relative influence of worldviews in support of a range of items concerned with the legalisation of recreational cannabis amongst a randomly generated sample (N = 1000) in Malta. Our findings demonstrate that the Orthodox worldview stands in contrast to all others in opposing the proposals and constitutes the resistance group to legalisation. On the other hand, no other worldview unilaterally supports the proposals albeit these are, on an individual basis, favourably perceived. Our study further demonstrates that proportions of variance accounted for by the worldview measures we adopted are comparable to those exercised by demographic variables demonstrating significance. We propose that the study of worldviews is critical in understanding social and political alliances that come together to support or oppose particular politicised projects or collective courses of action.
... The reflection of the environment can be unlimited, but the intervention in its processes is limited by the rights of third parties [32]. It deals with ethical principles in which it is intended to regulate human relations, the establishment of its objectives, the instrumentation of its capabilities and the achievement of its goals [33]. ...
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The discussion and specification of a model for the study of reproductive choice was the objective of this paper. A documentary study was carried out with an intentional selection of sources indexed to Academia, Copernicus, Dialnet, Ebsco, Latindex, Publindex, Redalyc, Scielo, Scopus, WoS, Zenodo and Zotero from 1961 to 2020. The relationship between the calculation of costs and benefits with risk behaviors was established, although the research design limited the discussion with the literature consulted, suggesting the extension of the work to the revision of its dimensions; incommensurability, unpredictability and uncontrollability.
... and administration of resources play an important role, many times essential and central in decision-making when requesting and assisting an assisted interruption of pregnancy [10]. ...
... The Social Representations (SR) Theory (Moscovici, 2008), developed in the field of social psychology, offers a relevant framework for exploring how survivors of IPV construct the meaning of the couple relationship, and more generally speaking, the representations system in which the experience of IPV is anchored. SRs can be defined as an organized set of opinions, attitudes, beliefs and information referring to an object or situation. ...
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized internationally as a significant problem against which public action is being taken. However, victims commonly disclose little of this violence. The understanding of sociocultural factors that prevent women from talking about their male partner’s violence towards them thus appears to be an important issue. Using a qualitative approach, this study examines the representations that women survivors of IPV draw on to give meaning to the couple relationship and the links that these representations maintain with IPV and the help-seeking process. Nineteen women, who had previously experienced abuse from an intimate partner, participated in semi-structured interviews. Despite the experience of violence, an idealized vision of the couple relationship persists among the majority of respondents and conflicts with their experience of violence. This gap between an ideal and lived experience appears to be a major source of suffering for the participants who thus develop different strategies to preserve their ideal. These strategies appear to have the effect of minimizing and concealing violence.
... Olulise tähtsusega on inimese varasematest teadmistest, kogemustest ja väärtustest tulenev vaatenurk. Moscovici (2008Moscovici ( /1961 Common sense mõjukust ajakirjanike tegevusele võib illustreerida ka van Ginnekeni (1996) poolt toodud näitega Lääne ajakirjanikest, kes on arengumaale välkreportaaži tegema läinud. Kokkupuutel kohaliku administratsiooni esindajatega kaldutakse tajuma seda bürokraatliku (aeglane, palju jändamist dokumentidega) ja autoritaarsena (ülemustega kooskõlastamine). ...
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Kaasaegses ühiskonnas hinnatakse kõrgelt inimeste igapäevast toimetulekut lihtsustanud teaduslik-tehnilist progressi. Uute tehnoloogiate väljatöötamiseni viinud teadmised omandatakse koolisüsteemis eesmärgiga anda õpetust teaduslikust maailmapildist. Samal ajal on ühiskonnas levinud teaduslike teadmiste kõrval ka nende põhjal mitteteadlastest tavainimeste seas väljakujunenud narratiivset iseloomu konsensuaalsed arusaamad, mille tõepärasusse nende tajutud konsensuslikkuse tõttu üldjuhul ei süüvita. Seetõttu saab neid käsitleda argitarkusena (common sense).
... In his seminal work in which he developed the concept of SR, Moscovici (1961Moscovici ( , 2008 tackled the question of their emergence as a consequence of a new object emerging in the social field. Moscovici identified two processes involved in this phenomenon. ...
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A number of authors consider that exploring the interconnections between social representations and emotions is essential. However, both empirical and theoretical contributions have focused on specific aspects of these concepts and thus offer a narrow view of their articulation. Moreover, these are published in different languages, making it difficult to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the subject. Consequently, this article adopts a broader approach through a literature review articulating social representations and emotions. This is based on a search of various databases, conducted between March and April 2020 and using the terms “social representation” and “emotion” (or affect, mood, or feeling) in their singular and plural forms, both in French and in English. As a result, 41 references explicitly mentioned both terms and were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were collected. This brought to light two lines of inquiry that structure this field of research: the first focuses on the role of emotions in the emergence, dynamics, and functioning of social representations, while the second explores how social representations determine emotions or emotional processes. These perspectives will be discussed from both a theoretical and methodological standpoint with the aim of highlighting new avenues for research.
... The theoretical outlook of the dissertation is social constructionism, according to which humans actively construct their social environment through social interactions that are used for describing, explaining, and accounting for the world. This outlook is bolstered by the study's theoretical framework: social representations theory (e.g., Moscovici, 2008) and modalities of agency theory (Jyrkämä, 2008). Through these theories, the study looks at older people's Internet (non)use and digital competences as a complex phenomenon co-constructed by social actors and their wider social, structural, and societal contexts. ...
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This material provides inputs on the measures used to conduct face-to-face interviews in a safe setting during the exceptional situation of COVID-19 pandemic. More info: pp.24-28
... As Zuckerman (2019) shows, such a domain may in fact be unmoored from empirical reality yet still maintain an internal coherence as a kind of reality, and this paradox is essential to understand why QAnon resisted efforts to debunk and delegitimize it. This corresponds to what Moscovici (2008) has diagnosed as social representation within global society: "we are witnessing the emergence of very heterogeneous political, philosophical, religious, and artistic practices" (p. 5). ...
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Seeing is believing, so goes the cliché. In our extremely online world, the particular nexus between visual information and political belief has become one of the thorniest challenges to truth. We live in an extremely visual world in which we navigate social media, search engines, platforms, interfaces, icons, memes, and smartphones. Despite the fact that we navigate visual information at an astounding rate, we have not nationally developed literacies to debunk bad information. I argue that we are witnessing a confluence between extremely online, crowd-sourced conspiracies, whose adherents possess a high capacity for online information gathering, and visualization, meant to communicate data about our world effectively and accurately through optical means which has been co-opted for information warfare. Deploying such informatics further legitimates bizarre, unhinged theories about political reality. QAnon, the extremely online conspiracy theory that has cast its shadow over the Internet, relies exclusively on information visualization to communicate its message and is symptomatic of our inability to combat misinformation that mimics the methods of data analysis and information literacy. I argue that QAnon’s success—indeed, its very existence—relies on (at least) two principal factors: (1) QAnon relies, intentionally or no, on a slippage between data and information that obscures the interventions by Q and Q’s anons in leveraging information warfare, and (2) QAnon supports such a slippage with complex and interactive visualizations of bad information, thereby accelerating apophenia, the tendency to see linkages between random events and data points.
... The press environment has been considered to be a privileged space for the emergence of differences in communication styles, in types of engagement with the public and more broadly of ideological orientations Moscovici, 2008). The dialogical nature of social communications in general (Billig et al., 1988;1991) and particularly of the press environment (e.g. ...
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Storm Xynthia (2010) brought to the fore marine submersion as a great concern to French authorities and communities. This storm illustrates how a single major event can have long lasting effects on climate risk management. To discern this effect, we conduct two studies analysing the emergence and evolution of concerns related to marine submersion in French national and regional newspapers prior to and after the storm (2005-2018). In Study 1, we examine trends in issue coverage and how ‘marine submersion’ was appropriated by French media discourse over the selected period, identifying and segmenting specific topical sequences. In Study 2, a computer-assisted content analysis of 260 articles highlights a dichotomy of themes before and after Storm Xynthia. Articles published prior to Xynthia (2005-2009) warned of marine submersion among the expected impacts of climate change. Those published just after Xynthia (2010-2013) present highly structured and technical descriptions of national risk management policies. In recent years (2014-2018), articles focus on local stakeholders’ challenge to national risk management policies, described as too far removed from local dynamics. Our studies reveal the emergence and amplification, via public debate in French newspaper media, of ‘marine submersion’ as a hazard, and the objectification of the risk through Storm Xynthia.
... The theoretical outlook of the dissertation is social constructionism, according to which humans actively construct their social environment through social interactions that are used for describing, explaining, and accounting for the world. This outlook is bolstered by the study's theoretical framework: social representations theory (e.g., Moscovici, 2008) and modalities of agency theory (Jyrkämä, 2008). Through these theories, the study looks at older people's Internet (non)use and digital competences as a complex phenomenon co-constructed by social actors and their wider social, structural, and societal contexts. ...
Chapter
The chapter examines the outbreak of COVID-19 and its effect on communal religious practices, public perceptions of the disease and attitudes of believers across Africa to the containment measures. The physical distancing rule to contain the virus was at variance with the communal practices of close contact in fellowship, shaking of hands and large gatherings for joint worship. The outbreak also coincided with two important events in the Christian and Islamic calendars: the Lent and Ramadan respectively, both periods dedicated to fasting and communal prayers, thus raising tension between science and religious beliefs, and between scientists, public administrators, religious leaders and believers. The containment measures again brought to the fore the relationship between religion and public health; religion, science and society; debates about the cultural authority of science and epistemological claims as to a conflict. Initial resistance by leaders and followers soon gave way to compliance as the need to follow scientific advice became more urgent and important. Accommodation psychology provides plausible explanations for the relationship between science and religion during this outbreak as religious leaders and followers adopted scientific findings rather than its rejection or blanket adoption.
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YTM, KT Päivi Rasi-Heikkisen (ent. Rasi) sosiaalipsykologian alaan kuuluva väitöskirja On the margins of digitalization. The social construction of older people and the Internet tarkastettiin Itä-Suomen yliopiston yhteiskuntatieteiden ja kauppatieteiden tiedekunnassa 11.6.2021.
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This study examines newspaper photographs related to the COVID‐19 pandemic in Finland. Drawing on social representations theory and positioning theory, we explore social representations and identities related to COVID‐19 in mass media using a visual rhetoric analysis. More specifically, we focus on how newspaper photographs construct subjects' positions for different age groups. The data consisted of 4,506 photographs of people published in the two largest Finnish newspapers between 1 January and 31 August 2020. The study identified the following subject positions for the different age groups: (a) children as controlled pupils and joyful players; (b) youth as future‐oriented graduates and reckless partygoers; (c) adults as authoritative experts, adaptive professionals, responsible caretakers and active recreationists and (d) elderly people as isolated loners. In addition to echoing the positions of villains, heroes and victims identified in previous studies, the photographs seemed to construct an intergroup divide between adults and the other age groups. Methodologically, this study elaborates the usefulness of the analysis of visual rhetoric in social representations research. Theoretically, we seek to advance the understanding of the role of media, particularly images, in the social construction of knowledge.
Article
This article investigates how Belgian participants’ implicit temporal trajectories regarding the history of Belgian colonialism in the Congo vary as a function of their attitudes towards colonialism and thus create different collective memories. We reasoned that, depending on their attitudes towards Belgian colonialism, individuals may draw on different schematic narrative templates to structure their own implicit temporal trajectory of colonial history. Consequently, we predicted that the shape of individual implicit temporal trajectories should vary according to their attitudes. Specifically, we expected that positive attitudes towards colonialism would be associated with implicit temporal trajectories in which the colonial period is seen as more positive than before and after colonialism, creating an inverted U-shaped implicit temporal trajectory, while negative attitudes towards colonialism should be associated with the opposite trend – U-shaped implicit trajectories. We measured the attitudes towards colonialism of Belgian participants (n = 129), then their social representations of three historical periods: before, during and after Belgian colonialism. Overall, results supported these hypotheses. This study complements previous narrative psychology investigations by bringing quantitative evidence according to which collective memories are structured as implicit temporal trajectories that are in line with people’s attitudes.
Article
In this article, we argue that certain behaviour connected to the attempt to attain contemporary female body ideals in Denmark can be understood as an act of achievement and, thus, as an embodiment of the culture of achievement, as it is characterised in Præstationssamfundet, written by the Danish sociologist Anders Petersen (2016) Hans Reitzels Forlag . Arguing from cultural psychological and sociological standpoints, this article examines how the human body functions as a mediational tool in different ways from which the individual communicates both moral and aesthetic sociocultural ideals and values. Complex processes of embodiment, we argue, can be described with different levels of internalisation, externalisation and materialisation, where the body functions as a central mediator. Analysing the findings from a qualitative experimental study on contemporary body ideals carried out by the Danish psychologists Josefine Dilling and Maja Trillingsgaard, this article seeks to anchor such theoretical claims in central empirical findings. The main conclusions from the study are used to structure the article and build arguments on how expectations and ideals expressed in an achievement society become embodied.
Article
This article draws from a social representations approach (SRA) to present a qualitative inquiry of identity construction in interaction and as part of the social context. We argue that the concept of positioning, inherent to our understanding of SRA, provides a bridge between social representations and identities. Focusing on societally marginalised groups and with illustrative interview samples gathered from two different studies in Finland, this article aims to show how people who use hard drugs position themselves within dominating social representations of ‘addict’, ‘junkie’ and ‘polydrug user’. Two ways of positioning are employed to negotiate with negative social representations: resistance and partial acceptance. ‘Distancing from the worst’ as a way of positioning characterises resistance and illustrates how a positive identity is constructed by describing the ‘ingroup other’ in negative ways, enabling justification of why the responded is not like that. In contrast, ‘facing the inescapable’ as a way of positioning illustrates partial acceptance that is engaged when people feel they cannot control their use or their lives more generally and cannot justify another position than that of a prototypical user. Our article advances the literature on the role of positioning within representational fields as enabling individuals to reject, challenge or accept the dominating social representations, while at the same time serving as a resource to cope with identity threats and maintain a positive identity.
Chapter
How do societies move from magic or naïve reality to critical consciousness? Is science communication enough for healthy behaviour in African communities? The book’s collection of essays has shown some of the enablers and constrains to healthy living in the cultures they are produced and the success story of poliomyelitis in Africa highlights the long bumpy road to the eradication of communicable diseases and the substantial number of resources, local and international, often required. The chapters have shown the roles of stigma, religious and African beliefs about health and illness, social norms and traditions, social identity, empowerment, social capital and power as well as policy environments in health communication. The effectiveness of health communication is dependent on how well it can overcome these obstacles, but the authors have also shown that some of these constrains can be transformed to tools that may enable the adoption of healthy behaviour. The authors argue that no country is disease-free until all countries are free, and global approaches combined with community-level interventions present better chances of lasting success.
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Social creativity involves the weaving together of successive contributions of many people through time. The end result of this process is rarely predictable by any single individual in the group—in other words, novelty emergences at the level of a group or groups. This chapter introduces the method of serial reproduction as a research strategy to display and analyze this process. The method involves following a story, image or some other cultural material as it is passed through a group of people: as an experimental method, the first per- son shows his or her reproduction to a second, who in turn reproduces it from memory and shows it to a third, etc. like the party game ‘broken telephone’ or ‘Chinese whispers’. The original experimental method was put forward by Cambridge psychologist Frederic Bartlett (1932) to study cultural diffusion and memory but has since been used to study a wide range of phenomena (for a review see Wagoner, 2017a, 2017b). This chapter aims to adapt the method to explore social creativity as a dynamic process enfolding over time. The argument put forward here will be developed in the following steps: First, Bartlett’s theory of cultural dynamics is described as offering an approach to creativity seen as a constructive weaving together of material coming from diverse social and cultural streams; second, the chapter situates the experimental method of serial reproduction within this approach and provides concrete examples of its usefulness in the context of creativity research; and third, attention turns to using the analytic strategies of the method to investigate processes of social creativity outside the laboratory, ‘in the wild’ so to speak. Specifically, it explores examples of trans- formations in street art following the 2011 Egyptian uprising. In sum, the method of serial reproduction will be shown to be theoretically grounded in a fertile but little explored approach to creativity research and to be flexibly adaptable to different research forms and contexts, from the precision of the laboratory to the contextually rich field study.
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1) Background: The revision, discussion, modelling and specification of a model for the 7 study of reproductive choice was the objective of this paper; (2) Methods: A documentary study 8 was carried out with an intentional selection of sources indexed to Academia, Copernicus, Dialnet, 9 Ebsco, Latindex, Frontiers, Redalyc, Scielo, Scopus and WoS from 2019 to 2021; (3) Results: The re-10 lationship between the calculation of costs and benefits with risk behaviors was established, alt-11 hough the design of the investigation limited the discussion with the consulted literature; (4) Con-12 clusions: Suggesting the extension of the work from the information published in Journal Citation 13 Report (JCR).
Article
Eve Tuck and K. Wayne Yang develop the concept of “refusal” as an essential methodology for decolonizing social sciences, that I suggest provides an opening for white scholars to contribute to decolonizing projects. In this article, I reflect on my attempts at engaging with my colonial complicities, as a white European woman doing research on comprehensive sexuality education and young people's agency in Tanzania. I present this discussion as a series of refusals interspersed throughout more conceptual discussions on how feminist and social psychological theorizing, and post‐/de‐colonial problematizations of it, have advanced my understanding of agency, and shaped my approach and research design. In drawing these literatures together, along with my own practical efforts at applying them, I attempt to mark out, but also problematize, potentials for white people's anti‐colonial praxis in working across borders. I conclude with some broad thoughts on the particularities of refusals connected to whiteness and the neoliberal university.
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Más que un malentendido? R ecuerdo vívidamente un incidente, una conversación con un mu-sulmán conocido, refugiado de Iraq, hace unos años. De algún modo, surgió el tema de los animales y en broma mencioné de manera retórica que es gracioso pensar que los humanos son descendientes de simios. Esta declaración fue recibida inicialmente con un profundo silen-cio por parte de mi interlocutor musulmán y poco después provocó un re-chazo agresivo que me sorprendió por completo. Entonces me di cuenta de que mi mención de la evolución humana debió haber contradicho la orto-doxia musulmana de la humanidad como una creación única de Alá, a pesar de los conocimientos y la formación en ingeniería de mi interlocutor. En otras palabras, lo que experimenté en esta situación fue una colisión de ob-jetividades en una situación interpersonal. Mi compañero de conversación mantuvo la ortodoxia musulmana de la creación divina de los seres vivos, mientras que yo me suscribí, honestamente, a una cosmovisión cientí ca donde la evolución biológica guraba como un hecho objetivo, al igual que la creación del mundo de Alá en su opinión. Este episodio resume muy bien el foco del presente documen-to. Dos interlocutores mantienen representaciones sociales objetivadas e
Chapter
The chapter “Health beliefs and communication: conceptual approaches” examines both classical and modern theoretical approaches in communication studies in general and health communication. It provides brief introductions to conceptual approaches from Austin’s Speech Acts (actor) through Habermas (conditions for acceptance) and Moscovici (types of acceptance) to individual-centered models of health behavior and community-level approaches, some of which focus on the construction of psychological knowledge and practice that aim to be emancipatory and transformative of health-damaging social relations.
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The past decade has seen a shift in the way that minorities exert their influence in society. Where in previous decades the emphasis was on winning the hearts and minds of the population at large, a recent strategy has been to ignore general public discourse and only to target specific influential bodies. In this paper we use the example of transgender issues to analyse the socio-psychological dimensions of this approach. We show how some groups promoting these issues eschew a wider social discourse and debate in the mass media, and how their strategy rests on a self-construction as victims of the hetero-normative society, with a concomitant appeal to moral rather than factual argumentation. This is combined with a programme of aggressive challenge to opponents through social media, and sometimes direct action, which effectively closes discussion on the topic. We conclude that these methods have much in common with the oppressive politics of an upcoming fascist rule.
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Studies of propaganda, security, warn youth and old age; 1) the systematic dissemination of crimes Attributed to political corruption; 2) state advertising as legitimate security administrator His rectory; 3) the de-legitimation of Citizens to Consider them incapable of preventative crime Initiatives; 4) are excluded by the industries older Assuming That They are incapable of self-monitoring and self-care. Specify a model for studying the effects of advertising social security in the representations of aging, youth and old age. A non-experimental, retrospective and exploratory study with a nonrandom was Conducted selection of indexed sources the discretion of explanatory variables Between correlations paths... The model included three hypotheses to Explain the paths of correlations Between four and seven indicators constructs for each. The revised theoretical, conceptual and empirical frameworks warn the inclusion of other variables such as helplessness, self-control farsightedness, beliefs, attitudes and intentions That would complement the specified model. A comprehensive model would Explain the correlations paths from theoretical frameworks That Establish the Difference between crime prevention capabilities, systematic observation of corruption with emphasis on Impunity.
Chapter
Science communication addresses a diversity of social groups within and across nation-states. Some of those groups are manifest, while others do not exist as real groups but can explain the probability of individuals constituting themselves as ‘practical groups’ in what Pierre Bourdieu describes as a ‘symbolic’ social space. This chapter uses data from the World Values Survey (Wave 6) to construct the social space of attitudes to science in Nigeria and South Africa. It also uses case studies from across Africa to highlight the role of beliefs and social groups in the diffusion of science and the diversity of science communication activities in both countries. The case studies show that religion can have an initial influence on the take-up of science, evidencing the impact of prior beliefs and a defence of the group in the adoption of the unfamiliar, but that influence is not permanent. The differences in the composition of the three factors in the reduction of the attitude variables for both countries and the different levels of coexistence of social groups with science and ‘progress’ are indicative of cultural differences in the public understanding of science in both countries. The bi-plot of social space also shows the proximity of different manifest and ‘practical’ groups to increasing levels of attitudes to science as ‘progress’ and is indicative of the coexistence of science and religion. These differences in the two countries and across social groups indicate the need to vary science communication approaches to meet local peculiarities and needs.
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Patient and public involvement is widely thought to be important in the improvement of health care delivery and in health equity.Purpose: The article examines the role of experiential knowledge in service co-production in order to develop opiate substitution treatment services (OST) for high-risk opioid users.Method: Drawing on social representations theory and the concept of social identity, we explore how experts’ by experience and registered nurses’ understandings of OST contain discourses about the social representations, identity, and citizenship of the participants and the effects these may have on developing or hindering inclusive and bottom-up forms of patient and public involvement.Results: The meeting sessions that potentially offer room for creativity and problem-solving fail to provide any new propositions for fixing the system. The health care professionals primarily identify themselves as regulators who protect the correctness of their actions and show little interest in considering experiential knowledge on opioid addiction. Conclusion: The participation of patients has been one of the prominent reforms implemented in health care. The goal of client-centered thinking is often emphasised; however, the implementation is not simple due to the strongly institutionalised knowledge and related working patterns and practices in health care.
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1) Background: The revision, discussion, modelling and specification of a model for the 7 study of reproductive choice was the objective of this paper; (2) Methods: A documentary study 8 was carried out with an intentional selection of sources indexed to Academia, Copernicus, Dialnet, 9 Ebsco, Latindex, Frontiers, Redalyc, Scielo, Scopus and WoS from 2019 to 2021; (3) Results: The re-10 lationship between the calculation of costs and benefits with risk behaviors was established, alt-11 hough the design of the investigation limited the discussion with the consulted literature; (4) Con-12 clusions: Suggesting the extension of the work from the information published in Journal Citation 13 Report (JCR).
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This chapter explores a key facet of liminal situations, namely the temporary modification, inversion, or suspension of conventional moral standards in circumstances deemed exceptional. Borrowing from William James, we refer to this state or process as “moral holidays,” a concept that we use in combination with Émile Durkheim’s notion of “collective representations” and Serge Moscovici’s notion of “social representations.” The chapter’s empirical foundation comes from an ethnographic study of Danish expatriates in Delhi and a mixed-methods study of young Danish guides and tourists in Sunny Beach. The chapter is organized in four parts. First, it reviews the research literature on sojourners and the moral changes they undergo during their travels or stays away from home. Second, it presents the theoretical framework. Third, it applies this framework in an analysis of the moral behaviors of Danish travelers in, respectively, Delhi and Sunny Beach. Finally, it offers some conclusions.
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This book sets out to dismantle the idea that social movements, crises and other phenomena produced in society must be explained by exclusively social causes, without recourse to psychological explanations. The author argues that we should reassess the significance of psychological causes in human affairs. While psychological causes are undoubtedly distinct from social causes, all social phenomena are events or facts brought about by human beings: it is their passions and ideas which stimulate their great political, religious and cultural creations. The author focuses on three types of social phenomena—religion, innovation and money—and shows how they provide individuals with the possibility of living and thinking as a collectivity. He discusses the work of Durkheim, Mauss, Weber and Simmel, and argues that only a productive interplay between psychology and sociology will do justice to the interdisciplinary character of their thought. This book will be welcomed by students and researchers in sociology, social psychology, and the social sciences generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)