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Piaget's Mountains Revisited: Changes in the Egocentric Landscape

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Re-examined the theoretical question of early childhood egocentrism in relation to characteristics of the task and the method used to communicate the response. Variations were introduced in Piaget and B. Inhelder's (1956) mountain experiment to insure the age appropriateness of the task for 3- and 4-yr-olds (N = 22). When presented with a perceptual role-taking task within their response capabilities, Ss were capable of understanding another person's perspective. This suggests that previous conclusions regarding early egocentrism resulted from young children's inability to perform on tasks which were too difficult for them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Atkinson et al., 2018;Hitch et al., 2018;Hu et al., 2014;2016), it might not be sufficiently motivating for children. Indeed, it has been suggested that children may need more motivation to engage fully in psychological experiments compared to adults (Brewer et al., 2013), and that tasks may underestimate children's abilities when they do not sufficiently engage the child or are not presented in an age-appropriate context (Borke, 1975;McGarrigle & Donaldson, 1974;Rose & Blank, 1974). For instance, based on his three-mountains task, Piaget concluded that children younger than 7 years of age were egocentric, and therefore unable to understand that others had a different view of the world (Piaget & Inhelder, 1956). ...
... For instance, based on his three-mountains task, Piaget concluded that children younger than 7 years of age were egocentric, and therefore unable to understand that others had a different view of the world (Piaget & Inhelder, 1956). Borke (1975) then developed a more 'child-friendly' version of this task by using a toy model village and introducing a narrative that gave meaning and context to the requests for children to indicate another person's viewpoint. Using this version, it was found that children as young as 3 years were able to pass the task and therefore were not classified as egocentric. ...
... The disparate outcomes between the current experiments and Berry et al. (2018) are in line with previous research which has demonstrated that children may show cognitive abilities earlier if the task is engaging and the context is age-appropriate (Borke, 1975;McGarrigle & Donaldson, 1974;Rose & Blank, 1974;Light et al., 1979). It also suggests that children may need more motivation to complete experimental studies to the best of their ability (Brewer et al., 2013), and that researchers should exert caution when extending experimental paradigms used in adults to a developmental context. ...
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Recent research found no evidence that children aged 7-10 years are able to direct their attention to more valuable information in working memory. The current experiments examined whether children demonstrate this ability when the reward system used to motivate participants is engaging and age-appropriate. This was explored across different memory loads (3 vs 4 item arrays) and modes of presentation (sequential vs simultaneous). Younger (7-8 years) and older children (9-10 years) were shown three or four colored shapes and asked to recall the color of one probed item following a brief delay. Items were either presented sequentially (Experiment 1) or simultaneously (Experiment 2). Children completed a differential probe value condition, in which the first shape (Experiment 1) or the top-left shape (Experiment 2) was worth more ‘points’ than the other items, and an equal probe value condition, in which all shapes were equally valuable. Children were told they could use the points collected to play a specially-designed game at the end of the session, and that they would be given a prize if they collected enough points. When items were presented sequentially, significant probe value effects emerged, with children showing higher accuracy for the first item when this serial position was more valuable. This effect was consistent across age group and memory load. When items were encountered simultaneously, both groups showed probe value effects in the higher (4 item) memory load condition. This indicates that children can prioritize more valuable information in working memory when sufficiently motivated to do so.
... Deux groupes d'enfants non retardés (8 et 5 ans) et deux groupes d'adolescents retardés mentaux (culturels/familiaux et organiques) ont été soumis à une épreuve classique de coordination des perspectives spatiales et une épreuve modifiée (Borkes, 1975). Les résultats à l'épreuve classique révèlent un important retard de développement des adolescents retardés mentaux, qui ont un niveau de performance nettement inférieur à celui des enfants non retardés d'âge mental équivalent (enfants de 8 ans). ...
... Cette situation expérimentale a été utilisée à plusieurs reprises et les résultats obtenus ont amené les auteurs à remettre en question le modèle de développement proposé par Piaget et Inhelder (1948). Il s'est avéré, en effet, que la réussite (ou l'échec) à l'épreuve de coordination des perspectives dépendait fortement des caractéristiques de la tâche (voir Beaudichon et Bideaud, 1978;Bideaud, 1980;Newcombe, 1989) et que, dans certaines conditions, l'identification correcte du point de vue de l'observateur pouvait être observée dès 4 ans (Borkes, 1975, Rosser, 1983. En ce qui concerne l'égocentrisme, Pêcheux (1980) et Samurçay (1984) font remarquer que ce terme est polysémique puisqu'il renvoie à la fois à un mode d'organisation mentale caractéristique du jeune enfant (cf. ...
... Piaget, 1923) et à un référentiel qui sert au codage des relations spatiales. Le premier point n'a guère résisté à l'épreuve de données expérimentales qui révèlent des conduites non égocentriques précoces chez l'enfant ou des conduites égocentriques persistantes chez les adolescents (Beaudichon et Bideaud, 1978;Borkes;1975;Flavell, 1992 ;Flavell, Botkin, Fry, Wright et Jarvis, 1968 ;Liben, 1978 ;Newcombe, 1989). L'idée d'un référentiel égocentré semble aussi ne pas être compatible avec certaines données expérimentales qui tendent à montrer que, quel que soit l'âge du sujet, le codage des relations spatiales s'effectue dans un cadre de référence environnemental : la position des différents éléments de la scène étant codée en référence à des points de repère situés dans l'environnement immédiat procuré par la salle d'expérimentation , Presson, 1980. ...
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A classical perspective taking task and a modified one (Borkes, 1974) were administered to two groups of nonretarded children (8 year old and 5 year old) and two groups of teenagers with mental retardation ( cultural/ familial and organic). Results from the classical task revealed a low level of development in teenagers with mental retardation who performed much lower than nonretarded children with comparable mental age (eight-year-olds). These new data about spatial perspective taking are not congruent with the similar structure hypothesis (Zigler, 1982).
... Yapılan çok sayıda çalışma sonucunda araştırmacılar (Masangkay vd. 1974, Borke 1975, Walker ve Gollin 1977, Calam 1983, Piaget'nin benmerkezcilik seviyelerini gözünde çok fazla büyüttüğü, benmerkezciliğin Piaget'nin düşündüğü kadar yaygın olmadığı ve çocukların iki-üç yaşından itibaren başkasının bakış açısını anlayabildikleri sonucuna ulaşmışlardır. ...
... 2016 Öte yandan, daha sonraki dönemde çocukların algısal bakış açısını inceleyen çok sayıda araştırmacı (Masangkay vd. 1974, Borke, 1975, Walker ve Gollin 1977, Calam 1983 Flavell (1974Flavell ( , 1992, küçük çocuklarda görsel bakış açısı almanın varlığına dair bulgular ortaya koyan çeşitli araştırmaları temel alarak, okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının algısal bakış açısı alma becerilerinin gelişimininin dört aşamadan meydana geldiği sonucuna varmıştır. Sıfır aşamasında, çocuklar perspektifteki değişiklikleri kavrayamamaktadırlar, fakat fiziki ortamda yolunu değiştirirken konum değişikliklerini dikkate almasını sağlayan duyu -motor becerilere sahiptirler (Liben 1975 (Liben 1975). ...
... (Masangkay vd. 1974, Borke 1975, Walker ve Gollin 1977, Calam 1983, uygun ölçme yöntem ve teknikleri kullanıldığında, 2-2,5 yaş gibi erken bir dönemde bile çocuklar bakış açısı almanın basit biçimlerini ortaya koyabilmektedirler. ...
Thesis
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Bu araştırma, okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının bakış açısı alma becerilerine empati eğitim programının etkisinin belirlenmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, 2016-2017 eğitim öğretim yılında Adana il merkezinde bulunan iki farklı resmi ilkokulun anasınıfına devam çocuklar oluşturmaktadır. Çalışma grubu deney grubundan 17 çocuk ve kontrol grubundan 17 çocuk olmak üzere 34 çocuktan meydana gelmektedir. Araştırmada, ön test - son test ve kalıcılık testi kontrol gruplu deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak “Genel Bilgi Formu” ile Aslan ve Köksal-Akyol (2016) tarafından geliştirilen “Çocuklar İçin Bakış Açısı Alma Testi (ÇBT)” kullanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler, betimsel istatistikler ve normallik testi sonuçları dikkate alınarak analiz edilmiştir. Normallik testi sonuçlarının değerlendirilmesinde Shapiro-wilk Testi kullanılmıştır. Gruplar arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılık olup olmadığını belirlemek için bağımsız gruplar t testi ve iki faktörlü anova analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, empati eğitim programının çocukların bakış açısı alma becerisi üzerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olduğu saptanmıştır. Ön test sonuçlarına göre, deney ve kontrol grubundaki çocukların ÇBT ön test puanları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılık bulunmazken, deney grubuna uygulanan empati eğitimi sonrasında deney grubundaki çocukların ÇBT son test puanlarının kontrol grubundaki çocukların son test puanlarından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir şekilde daha yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, deney grubundaki çocukların ÇBT ön test ve kalıcılık testi puanları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılığın bulunmadığı saptanmıştır. This research was conducted to determine the effect of empathy training programme on preschoolers’ perspective taking skills. The study sample was composed of 34 children who were attending kindergarten at two different public elementary schools in the center of Adana, during the 2016-2017 academic year. The sample included 17 children from the experimental group and 17 children from the control group. In the study pre-test - post-test - permanence test control group design was used. A “General Information Form” and “Perspective Taking Test for Children (PTC)” which was developed by Aslan And Köksal-Akyol (2016) were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and normality test results were considered during data analysis. Shapiro-wilk Test was used to evaluate the result of normality. Independent sample test and two-way anowa was utilized to assess whether there was a significant difference between two groups. At the end of the research, it was determined that empathy training program had a statistically significant effect on children’s perspective taking skills. According to the pretest results there wasn’t a statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups’ scores of PTC. But it was found that after empathy training program, experimental group had significantly higher score than control group in postest of PTC. Furthermore, there was no statically significant difference in experimental group’s scores between posttest and permanence test scores in PTC.
... Here, the dependent measure is generally the correctness of the response rather than response latency (Borke, 1975;Laurendau & Pinard, 197~). ...
... Kapadia (1974) Piaget and Inhelder (1956) to measure proximity, enclosure, and continuity. Kapadia (1974) Both the transition from topological to Euclidean space (Geeslin & Shar, 1979, Martin, 1976b and from topological to projective space (Borke, 1975, Salatas & Flavell, 1976, Shantz & Watson, 1970) have been studied with no clear resolution as to the interpretation of the findings. ...
... Studies which include alteration of task demands in an attempt to bring the tasks to a level simplistic enough to elicit even the youngest child's spatial knowledge yield findings at var iance with the or iginal Piagetia.'n conclusions (Borke, 1975;Shkantz & Watson, 197~). ...
... According to Piaget, children's thoughts and communications in the preoperational stage are egocentric [11]. However, the following researchers have found that children have largely lost their egocentric thinking by four years of age because they can think from others' perspectives [12,13]. From the view of psycholinguistics, Levelt stressed that thought and language are directly related since the message represents the speaker's prepositional language of thought [14]. ...
... 'CQs' are classified as a higher level of thinking than 'IQs', since the 'CQs' require more logic and further thinking processes. The following are the examples of 'IQs' as in (13) and 'CQs' as in (14). ...
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Critical thinking in children is a growing concern for early childhood educators; however, few studies have examined children's critical thinking in an out-of-class context. This case study aimed toward filling this research gap by examining the critical thinking of a Mandarin-speaking child aged 5 years and 8 months in an out-of-class context. The child's natural utterances produced in free conversation and story-readings have been audio-and video-taped twice a week over two months. The recordings have been transcribed and analyzed according to the Delphi Report and 'level of questions' to examine the child's critical thinking level. Findings revealed that the child demonstrated critical thinking, and two indicators, 'spontaneous statements' and 'continuous questions,' reflected children's critical thinking level. It also found that these categories were reasonable and practical to identify young children's critical thinking levels.
... After Piaget and Inhelder, several researchers like Laurendeau and Pinard (1970); Wimmer and Perner (1983) utilized similar methods and found that preschoolers could not take any other perspective. On the other hand, some researchers like Borke (1975); Kurdek and Rodgon (1975) ;Masangkay, et al. (1974) and Taylor (1988) claimed that Piaget's method was inadequate and investigated perspective-taking skills in children by simplifying the method and questions used by Piaget. They found that preschool children were not as self-centered as Piaget conceived and could take the perspective of others. ...
... They found that preschool children were not as self-centered as Piaget conceived and could take the perspective of others. For instance, Borke (1975) suggested that young children could respond with answers that are more accurate when familiar toys are used instead of the mountain experiment. ...
... Certainly,thepioneerofanewmethodofdoingresearchisJeanPiagetwho,throughconversation, observation,theclinicalmethodandreagents,managestoclassifyintomacrocategoriestheanswers obtainedfromthetesters (Piaget,1948;ontheseanswers,sometimes,thescholarbuildsrealtestsfor thedevelopmentormonitoringofcertainskills.AlimitationofPiaget'stheorywasthathedidnot considerPerspectiveTakingtobetrainableinpre-schoolchildren,morespecificallybeforetheage ofseven.TheharshestcriticismofPiaget'sstudiesisthatheconstructedteststhatweretoocomplex fortheagegroupinquestion.Infact, Borke(1975)suggeststhatthedifficultyinnotabandoningan egocentricperspectivestemfromchildren'sinabilitytoperformtasksthataretoodifficult (Borke, 1975). ...
... Certainly,thepioneerofanewmethodofdoingresearchisJeanPiagetwho,throughconversation, observation,theclinicalmethodandreagents,managestoclassifyintomacrocategoriestheanswers obtainedfromthetesters (Piaget,1948;ontheseanswers,sometimes,thescholarbuildsrealtestsfor thedevelopmentormonitoringofcertainskills.AlimitationofPiaget'stheorywasthathedidnot considerPerspectiveTakingtobetrainableinpre-schoolchildren,morespecificallybeforetheage ofseven.TheharshestcriticismofPiaget'sstudiesisthatheconstructedteststhatweretoocomplex fortheagegroupinquestion.Infact, Borke(1975)suggeststhatthedifficultyinnotabandoningan egocentricperspectivestemfromchildren'sinabilitytoperformtasksthataretoodifficult (Borke, 1975). ...
Article
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The aim of the following research is the validation of educational tools, called “3D Dice,” created to foster perspective taking skills in primary school children. Perspective taking can be considered a socio-cognitive capacity that enables people to see, imagine, perceive, or think what others see, imagine, perceive, or think. Before acquiring this capacity, children have an egocentric interpretation of the world, and only from the age of seven onwards do they begin to acquire cognitive decentralisation faculties that enable them to simultaneously consider and coordinate between alternative perspectives. This ability is not innate but can be trained through specific training. For this reason, in the Lab-H of the Department of Human, Philosophical, and Educational Sciences at the University of Salerno, “3D Dice” has been designed and physically produced using the Sharebot One 3D printer.
... Early researchers in cognitive development noticed that some of the most rapid cognitive development in human children happens during pre-or earlylinguistic periods of life (Piaget, 1954). Although many of the stages of development outlined in these early works have been shown to be inaccurate (Gelman, 1972;Borke, 1975;Baillargeon, 1987), the foundations and observations of rapid development during this time in early childhood remain (Carey, 2009;Zelazo & Frye, 1998). During this period of development there are dramatic changes in memory ability (Bauer, 1997), executive function (Zelazo & Frye, 1998;Zelazo et al., 2003), concept learning (Carey, 2009), and language (Brown, 1973). ...
Thesis
Across cognitive domains, evolutionarily primitive mechanisms and cultural innovations combine to form complex human thought. However, the precise role of each of these factors as well as how and when they are combined are less well understood. Comparisons of how human children, adults from various backgrounds, and non-human animals think and understand the world can provide insight into how humans develop, how they evolved, and which aspects of human cognition are fundamental (common across all humans and shared with other species), uniquely human, or cultural specific. This thesis takes a comparative and developmental approach to test whether number logic (Chapter 2), recursive sequencing (Chapter 3), logical inference (Chapter 4), and metacognition (Chapter 5), are present in non-human primates as well as humans with different ages, education levels, and cultural backgrounds. The data provides evidence that the foundations for complex human logic and thought have early developing and evolutionarily primitive origins. Additionally, the results show that uniquely human factors like language, education, and human culture affect and build upon the basic foundations present in non-human primates and young children to form complex, uniquely human thought.
... On the other hand, several researchers claimed that the failure of young children in perspective-taking was largely due to Piaget's method. Researchers, who attempted to simplify the method used by Piaget and to render it more appropriate for the development level of children ( [6], [7]), established different tests to measure children's perspective-taking skills. Studies conducted by using these tests indicated that preschool children had an understanding of other individuals' perspectives, contrary to the initial assumptions of Piaget and Inhelder [8]. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of I Can Problem Solve Program (ICPS) on preschool children’s perspective taking skills. Participants were 51 children who were attending two public preschools. In the study, pretest – posttest – retention test control group desing was used. There were an experimental group and two control groups in the study. As data collection tool, “Perspective Taking Test for Children (PTC)” was utilized. Firstly, PTC was applied to children as pretest. Then “I Can Problem Solve Program” was applied to children in experimental group. Children in control groups were attend the regular program. After the completing the program application PTC was implemented to experimental group and control groups as posttest. Finally, PTC was applied to experimental group as retention test after a month of posttest. At the end of the study, it was determined that I Can Problem Solve Program had a significant impact on children’s perspective taking skills. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental group and control groups in posttest, while there was no difference between the groups in prettest. Children in experimental group performed better than children in control groups in posttest. Moreover, there was no significant difference in experimental group’s scores between posttest and retention test scores.
... Yet first evidence shows that mindful learning benefits when materials are familiar and simple, thus presumably decreasing cognitive load. This is illustrated by a study on perspective taking (Borke, 1975), a capacity that is essential for mindful learning. In studies on the ability of children to take the perspective of others, as measured by the Three Mountains Test (Piaget, 1970), young children usually perform badly. ...
Chapter
Mindfulness is an overarching concept for guiding research in education and psychology. After providing examples of learned mindlessness, introducing the distinction between situational and dispositional mindfulness and summarizing some classical studies, the main body of the chapter discusses research that did not explicitly test mindfulness theory but could be subsumed under this concept. A selective review of findings from research on variability of learning materials, problem-based learning, effects of rendering learning materials difficult, and three different interventions to increase interest (relevance intervention, example choice, personalization) demonstrate the wide-ranging applications of the concept of mindfulness. An apparent challenge to mindfulness theory is cognitive load theory. However, research has found that cognitive load harms learning when it does not contribute to the integration of materials. By contrast, when cognitive load opens opportunities to connect contents and to process them mindfully, learning benefits outweigh the costs of higher processing load. A final section shows that the mindfulness concept is relevant not only for traditional school subjects but also for political education, art education, and creativity.
... Afin d'évaluer les étapes d'acquisition de ces représentations spatiales chez l'enfant, Piaget et Inhelder (1948) ont créé un paradigme expérimental qui a été adapté par la suite par d'autres chercheurs (par exemple Borke, 1975). Ce paradigme, appelé « l'expérience des trois montagnes » permet l'étude des connaissances des positions relatives des objets les unes par rapport aux autres selon l'emplacement des observateurs. ...
Thesis
Si de nombreux travaux ont été consacrés aux représentations spatiales chez le jeune adulte, la nature des modèles spatiaux, les processus qui président à leur construction et la façon dont ils se développent sont encore loin d'être compris. L'originalité de cette thèse tient au fait d'étudier conjointement les composantes cognitives et langagières dans l'acquisition des représentations d'itinéraires virtuels par des enfants (de 5 à 11 ans) et des adultes, ainsi que les différences individuelles liées à des capacités générales variées. Dans une première partie, la thèse présente les principaux concepts de la cognition spatiale issus des travaux menés chez l'adulte ainsi que l'état des connaissances théoriques et empiriques actuelles sur le développement des représentations spatiales chez l'enfant. Un chapitre s'intéresse ensuite au rôle du langage dans la construction des représentations spatiales et un autre à celui de la mémoire de travail. Afin de mieux comprendre le type de représentation qu'un enfant élabore au cours de son développement, une deuxième partie de la thèse présente trois expériences étudiant le développement des connaissances sur les repères et la route. Les deux premières études ont permis d'observer une augmentation qualitative et quantitative de la connaissance des repères, c'est-à-dire des entités spécifiques qui jalonnent un itinéraire, mais également de la connaissance de la succession de ces repères et des directions empruntées. Le rôle particulier des repères situés à un changement de direction est attesté chez l'adulte comme chez l'enfant. L'augmentation de ces connaissances avec l'âge est observée avec des tâches de production et de reconnaissance, aussi bien verbales que non-verbales. Ces résultats suggèrent l'existence d'une seule représentation commune ou de deux formats de représentations fortement reliés. Le lien important entre les informations verbales et non-verbales dans les représentations est attesté par l'observation d'un biais de type sémantique dans la reconnaissance visuelle de repères. Cependant, l'analyse des différences interindividuelles a mis en évidence le rôle de capacités visuo-spatiales telles que la perception des directions, mais pas d'influence des capacités langagières sur la capacité de représentation d'itinéraire. Une troisième étude explore le rôle des composantes verbales et visuo-spatiales de la mémoire de travail dans le développement des représentations spatiales au moyen d'un paradigme de double tâche lors de la mémorisation d'itinéraires. L'implication, notamment de la composante spatiale de la mémoire de travail au cours de la mémorisation d'itinéraire, est mise en évidence chez l'enfant. Ce résultat renforce l'idée de la dominance d'une forme de codage visuo-spatial dans le développement de la représentation qui évoluerait au profit de codages plus verbaux ou mixtes. En conclusion, cette thèse montre le développement de la capacité à se représenter un itinéraire au cours de l'enfance, attesté par des tâches de nature et de format variés. Si cette représentation semble impliquer à la fois des composantes verbales et non-verbales, ces dernières semblent être plus importantes chez l'enfant. La dernière partie de la thèse propose une discussion des implications de ces résultats pour le développement de la cognition spatiale chez l'enfant, ainsi que des perspectives pour les recherches futures.
... According to Piaget, this egocentricity permeates all areas of children's cognitive lives, influencing their perceptions, their language, and their social interactions. Research over the past two decades has indicated that young children are not as egocentric as Piaget had initially proposed (e.g., Borke, 1975;Gzesh & Surber, 1985;Flavell, Everett, Croft, & Flavell, 1981); yet their abilities to take the perspective of another certainly improve with age, egocentric accurately describing many of the cognitions of preschool children. ...
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The prolonged cognitive immaturity characteristic of human youth is described as adaptive in and of itself. The adaptive nature of cognitive immaturity is examined in developmental research in the areas of metacognition, egocentricity, plasticity and the speed of information processing, and language acquisition. Some of the consequences of viewing children's immature cognition as adaptive for cognitive development and education are discussed.
... Dwulatki pokazując obrazek drugiej osobie, czynią go widocznym dla niej, a niewidocznym dla siebie (Klemchuk, Bond, Howell 1990). Trzylatki potrafią przewidzieć cudzy punkt widzenia, gdy w eksperymencie konstruowanym na wzór eksperymentu J. Piageta z trzema górami, zamiast gór -pojawią się znane dziecku zabawki (Borke 1975). ...
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Publikacja stanowi przykład teoretycznej i metodologicznej konceptualizacji badań nad rozwojem człowieka oraz ich egzemplifikacji w postaci badań nad dziecięcym konstruowaniem wiedzy. W pracy szczegółowo przedstawiono sposób pozyskiwania jakościowych danych, odsłaniających wewnętrzne zróżnicowanie pojedynczych interakcji (wieloetapowa mikroanaliza ich filmowych zapisów), by na postawie analiz przypadków (case study) rekonstruować empiryczne wielościeżkowe modele zjawiska (graficznie przedstawiane „mapy” transformacji). Przejścia od analizy przypadków do budowania uogólnień dokonano z stosując autorską adaptację metody sztucznej inteligencji (algorytm C4.5 Quinlana). Teoretyczną podstawę badań dziecięcej współpracy stanowiły teorie J.Piageta i L.S. Wygotskiego. Wyniki odsłaniające mechanizmy i genezę różnych postaci dziecięcego konstruowania wiedzy mogą znaleźć zastosowanie w diagnostyce psychologicznej oraz projektowaniu zindywidualizowanych ścieżek edukacji dzieci na przełomie wieku przedszkolnego i szkolnego. This publication presents the theoretical and methodological conceptualization of a study on human development and its practical application in investigating knowledge construction by children. It describes in detail the process for obtaining qualitative data reflecting the internal diversity of single interactions (a multi-stage microanalysis of the video recordings) and the analysis of case studies to construct empirical multi-path models of the phenomenon under consideration (presented graphically as “maps”). The transition from the analysis of case stud-ies to generalizations is carried out in the framework of an artificial intelligence method (Quinlan's C4.5 algorithm) adapted by the author. The theoretical foundation for studying chil-dren’s collaboration is J.Piaget’s and L.S. Vygotsky’s theories. The findings of the study pro-vide an insight into the mechanisms and genesis of the different ways used by children to construct knowledge, which makes them useful in establishing psychological diagnoses and designing individualized educational paths for children entering school age.
... These data have led investigators to examine the effects of nonconceptual constraints on the demonstration of conceptual understanding. One such constraint is that of task and research (see for e.g., Borke, 1975;Rosser, 1983). ...
... In this case, the task was performed by 90% of examined children, although two points of view had to be adopted. Helen Borke (1975), who replicated Piaget's studies, demonstrated that 3-4-year-olds (N = 22) can be non-egocentric and understand the different point of view of another person. Two dolls were used in her trials, first one looked at the model first, and then the second one was introduced. ...
... Since young children of age four to five are genuinely self-centered (Borke, 1975), it is considered challenging for them to use metacognition, i.e. knowing what others think, from a developmental point of view. However, some scholars have argued that children have some knowledge about their own thinking and can project that knowledge onto others to explain how others think and know things (Kuhn, 2000;Larkin, 2010). ...
Article
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This qualitative study examined a class of 20 five-year-old Korean children’s literary sessions that were composed of whole-group read-alouds of fairy/folk tales and their parodies, including discussion and follow-up activities based on critical literacy practices. Over a 15-week period, multiple sources of data including observations, open-ended interviews, written materials, and children’s artifacts were collected. We found that these literary sessions based on a critical literacy approach helped the children (1) perceive the stories from different/multiple perspectives, (2) challenge stereotypes, and (3) confront the dominant social ideology/norms. The findings of the study add several important implications for implementing critical literacy in early childhood classrooms, which apply to the teachers’ questions and selection of books, as well as the system and consistency of instruction.
... four-year-olds are allowed to rotate a second array, mounted on a lazy-susan device, they can accurately judge perspective (Borke, 1975), and if they are allowed to view the test array from all possible perspectives, they make fewer errors than if they make perspective judgments without having first viewed all aspects of the array (Eiser, 1974). In addition, Nigl and Fishbein (1974) found that children are better able to coordinate perspectives when three-rather two-dimensional choice stimuli are used. ...
... Piaget's Mountain Task (cf. Borke, 1975), which asks children to take a perspective other than their own, illustrates perspective taking well. While sitting at a table in front of an asymmetric diorama, children describe how the scene would appear to a person sitting across from them (usually represented by a doll). ...
Article
A survey with nine meteorological charts, maps, and images from a 2015 significant weather event was administered to meteorologists (N = 93) to identify which spatial thinking skills they report using with each chart, map, and image. Results reveal high reported use of mental animation (74.6%), disembedding (72.4%), and perspective taking (71.6%) with the meteorological charts, maps, and images. Lower rates accompany reported use of object location memory, visual penetrative ability, and mental rotation, contrasting with the prominence of these skills in geology. Analysis of response patterns reveals significant independence between student and professional groups. The majority (70.2%) of student meteorologists reported they do not use mental animation when working with a surface analysis chart; however, 67.9% of professional meteorologists reported that they do. This striking finding likely results from professionals’ extensive mental catalogs of weather scenarios that allow predicting future scenarios, which student meteorologists lack. Similarly, student meteorologists reported using disembedding with the surface analysis chart at much lower rates (56.8%) than professional meteorologists (82.1%), suggesting that students focus on interpreting the chart's superficial features and less on disembedding deeper patterns. These results provide intriguing contrasts to comparable investigations in geologic thinking, contribute to a growing understanding of the application of spatial skills in STEM, and will inform further investigation into spatial thinking in meteorology.
... Initialement étudiée par Piaget et Inhelder (1947), cette habileté spatiale évolue au travers de différents stades et s'achève vers l'âge de 8-9 ans, lorsque les enfants comprennent que les rapports de placement (avant/arrière ; gauche/droite) entre les objets se modifient selon la position du sujet. Les travaux portant sur la décentration spatiale montrent l'émergence d'un niveau simple de cette aptitude avant l'âge de 4 ans : les enfants de 2 à 3 ans sont capables de juger si un objet serait vu ou non en adoptant un autre point de vue (Marvin, Greenberg & Mossler, 1976 ;Borke, 1975, Rosser, 1983Sodian, Thoermer & Metz, 2007) ; un second niveau plus complexe qui implique d'élaborer une représentation équivalente au point de vue d'autrui émerge au cours de l'école élémentaire (Flavell, 1992 ;Frik, Mohring & Newcombe, 2014). Ce n'est pas avant l'âge de 8-9 ans que l'enfant parvient à coordonner les perspectives, c'est-à-dire qu'il devient capable de considérer l'ensemble des rapports entre les éléments de la scène et leur transformation en fonction du point de vue de l'observateur, ce qui correspond à la décentration spatiale (Piaget & Inhelder, 1947 ;Laurendau & Pinard, 1968). ...
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The aim of this study consisted in the assesment of the self-regulatory strategies in a playful learning situation, used by pupils stemed from ordinary primary school and specialized secondary school, matched by develomental age. During four sessions of play, entirely filmed, self-regulation strategies about the perspective taking process were observed in the two groups. The self-regulation strategies analyzed using Nader-Grosbois' self-regulatory strategies analysis grid (2007a) and Observer XT software. The results showed a comparable overall self-regulation scores between the two groups of pupils and that the different strategies used by the two groups of matched participants according to their age of development are all equivalent level of proficiency. In addition, the results highlighted the advantages and drawbacks of the game made available to pupils and present suggestions for research for future work. Cet article présente une recherche qui évalue les stratégies autorégulatrices mises en œuvre par des élèves de l’enseignement primaire ordinaire et de l’enseignement secondaire spécialisé (N=26) lors d’une situation d’apprentissage ludique. Cette situation porte sur le processus de décentration spatiale et est composée de quatre séances de jeu. Ces séances ont été entièrement filmées. Les stratégies d’autorégulation mobilisées par les enfants et adolescents au cours des séances de jeu sont analysées à l’aide de la grille d’analyse des stratégies autorégulatrices de Nader-Grosbois (2007a) et du logiciel Observer XT. Les résultats montrent qu’il existe peu de différences en termes de scores moyens d’autorégulation globale entre les deux groupes d’élèves, et que les différentes stratégies convoquées par les deux groupes de participants appariés en fonction de leur âge de développement présentent toutes un niveau de maîtrise équivalent. En outre, les résultats permettent de mettre en évidence les avantages et les lacunes du jeu mis à disposition des élèves et de présenter des pistes de recherches pour des travaux ultérieurs.
... Research does not support this view. First, Borke (1975) showed that young children only appeared incapable of shifting their perspective to another because the situation with which they were presented was outside their experience. In familiar situations, they can make the shift. ...
Article
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Hundreds of examples of childhood spiritual experiences have been collected by researchers in England and the United States. Oddly enough, they have been missed by the mainstream of transpersonal psychology. Three kinds of childhood experiences contradict the theoretical positions of Wilber and Washburn in regard to early stages of development: (1) when on the basis of their own experience children realize that the adults around them are spiritually ignorant, (2) when children become aware of their identity beyond the physical self and beyond one lifetime, and (3) when they know or discover methods of achieving on their own a state of nonordinary consciousness.
... Piaget claimed that young children are egocentric and are unable to take the point of view of another person. However, research has shown that, in some tasks, rather young sighted children are capable of recognizing the existence of an external viewpoint and engaging in role-taking (Borke, 1975). The term perspective taking refers to the ability of an individual to understand the viewpoint of another person; it does not necessarily imply linear perspective. ...
... L'expérience dite « des trois montagnes » de Piaget et Inhelder (1948), dans laquelle l'enfant assis devant une maquette figurant trois montagnes de formes et de dimensions différentes devait choisir, parmi plusieurs dessins, celui correspondant au point de vue d'une poupée placée autour de la maquette, a donné lieu à de nombreuses répliques. Certains chercheurs (Beaudichon et Bideaud, 1979;Borke, 1975;Cox, 1986;Donaldson, 1978;Fishbein, Lewis et Keiffer, 1976;Hugues, 1978) ont tenté de réexaminer la question théorique de l'égocentrisme piagétien en fonction du type de tâche demandé et des méthodes d'investigation utilisées; ils ont montré que des erreurs égocentriques se manifestaient à tous les âges et que de jeunes enfants, quatre ans, étaient capables de tenir compte du point de vue d'autrui (Liben, 1978). ...
Article
The aim of this work is to show that if concrete processes are mobilized in children in a actuel space, the perspective representation, recognized as very difficult, becomes possible. To this purpose, we have tried to lead, under precise training conditions, 6-7 years old subjects, into building differentiated and coordinated viewpoints on one object. A training method has been established for facilitating there levels of consciousness in the making of perspective representation. This method uses a situation generating cognitive conflict and permits a real rotation in a three dimensional space. This experience concerns two objects bidimensional (square and triangle) and the results show real progress. The training exercices were meant to exercise the field of perspective perception and the subjects have became not only capable of differentiating the various states of an object during a rotation but also of representing them graphically.
... En effet, plusieurs auteurs ont observé que, entre 3 et 7 ans, déjeunes enfants peuvent réussir la tâche des trois montagnes quand on leur en présente une version simplifiée (voir Fehr, 1978 ;Foorman, Leiber et Fernie, 1984 ;et Newcombe, 1989, pour des relevés de la documentation) . De ces études, il ressort que plusieurs variables sont susceptibles d' expliquer la réussite plus ou moins tardive des enfants, tels le nombre et le genre des objets utilisés (Borke, 1975 ;Fishbein, Lewis et Keiffer, 1972), le type de réponses exigées (Fishbein et al, 1972 ;Horan et Rosser, 1983 ;Newcombe et Huttenlocher, 1992), la nature de l'observateur -selon que ce dernier est une poupée ou une personne (Cox, 1980) -et enfin, la position de l'observateur (Gzesh et Surber, 1985 ;Schachter et Gollin, 1979 ;Walker et Gollin, 1977). Flavell (1974) a été l'un des premiers à contester l'interprétation que font Piaget et Inhelder de leurs données. ...
Article
According to Flavell, there are two major levels in the development of visual perspective taking ; both these levels demonstrate an already existing capacity of decentra- tion. At level 1, children can determine what object another person does or does not see. At Level 2, children can determine how the other sees the object. Each of these levels is characterized by a development of skills which lead to the following level. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the evolution of young children 's competence within Level 1 and to verify to what extent the difficulty encountered at this level is one of spatial coordination. Six tasks with different degrees of difficulty were administered to 24 subjects who were 18-month-old at the beginning of the study. The first four tasks required the capacity to take into account another person's perspective, and the last two tested the child's capacity to coordinate two points of view different from his or her own. The results revealed that the development of Level 1 skills emerges in a fixed sequence that is governed by specific rules. From the age of 2 on, this development is accompanied by a complete disappearance of egocentric responses.
... Another critique is that because of the limited sample of his study, his theories did not sufficiently take into account children's prior knowledge and varying social and cultural contexts (experiences, funds of knowledge, linguistic repertoires, and cultural practices), which account for variation in their development of concrete and abstract conceptual understandings (Genishi & Dyson, 2009). These critiques were based on research showing that young children do not always follow the specific stages of development identified by Piaget, which, in turn, led to an underestimation of their capabilities (e.g., Borke, 1975;Gobbo & Chi, 1986;Nunes, Schliemann, & Carraher, 1993;Pascual-Leone, 1988;Weiten, 2017). Acknowledging these limitations, subsequent research confirmed that young children's learning is active, multimodal, and develops along unique trajectories and timelines (Genishi & Dyson, 2009see also National Research Council, 2000;Shonkoff, 2017;Spodek & Saracho, 2013). ...
Article
In this review of research, we offer a meta-analysis of young children’s learning and development within and across psychology, education, and linguistics. Engaging with Soja’s concept of Thirdspace, we mapped young children’s learning and development transdisciplinarily, seeking to (re)conceptualize early childhood teaching in ways that are answerable to intersectionally minoritized children, families, and communities of color—those whose voices, values, perspectives, and knowledges have been historically and continue to be contemporarily marginalized. To do so, we identified seven principles with the potential to transform early childhood teaching practice. We posit that together these principles can shift the architecture of early childhood teaching, offering promising possibilities for fostering equity by allowing us to move toward emancipatory praxis and negotiate practical solutions to education’s long history of inequities and oppressions.
... In this case, the task was performed by 90% of examined children, although two points of view had to be adopted. Helen Borke (1975), who replicated Piaget's studies, demonstrated that 3-4-year-olds (N = 22) can be non-egocentric and understand the different point of view of another person. Two dolls were used in her trials, first one looked at the model first, and then the second one was introduced. ...
Article
The study concerns imaginary perspective taking (IPT) in six-year-olds and is a replica of the studies undertaken by the Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Elia and Robitzsch team (2015). Imaginary perspective taking comprises two components: IPT 1 refers to perception, the so-called "visibility of objects", i.e. deducing which object is visible or not from different points of view. IPT 2 (appearance, imaginary perspective taking) refers to the ability to describe what an object looks like when viewed from different points of view. The study was aimed at defining development of the six-year-olds' ability to take a different perspective and comparing it with the results of Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen's team. 74 Polish six-year-olds participated in the study: 36 children living in the urban environment (17 girls, 19 boys) and 38 children from rural areas (15 girls and 23 boys). A set of trials of Imaginary Perspective Items IPT1 Visibility items and IPT2 Appearance items constituted the research tool. The studies have shown that Polish six-year-olds demonstrate the first level of competence in taking a different perspective and a high ability to understand that different locations mean different points of view. The vast majority (71.8%) of children correctly determine whether an object is seen or not from a different perspective. The ability to properly perceive the appearance and shape of an object is at the development stage in the examined six-year-olds (45.5% of the tasks performed correctly). The study confirmed the conclusions drawn from the reports of Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Elia and Robitzsch (2015) and proved that neither gender nor local environment constitute factors differentiating six-year-olds' achievements in developing the ability to take a different perspective.
... Geoscience education researchers may notice relationships between the Bryant et al. (1992) experiments and Kozhevnikov and Hegarty (2001) Object Perspective Taking Test, as well as Piaget's Mountain Task (Borke, 1975). There are connections to other frameworks and studies as well; Newcombe et al. (2013) discuss varying perspectives as egocentric reference frames (relative to the body, such as "to my left or right") and allocentric reference frames (relative to the surrounding environment, such as "to the north or south"). ...
Article
The geosciences consist of multiple disciplines including geology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Significant work expended to understand spatial thinking skills important to teaching and learning geology has advanced our ability to support students in geology courses and to achieve increased student success, retention, and diversity in geology programs. However, as we investigate teaching and learning broadly, including oceanography and atmospheric science, an important question is how well spatial thinking frameworks previously used in geoscience education research (GER) map onto these disciplines. A cross-disciplinary exploration of spatial thinking reveals multiple frameworks that classify spatial thinking skills from different perspectives. The spatial sciences, including geographic information systems and cartography, employ frameworks that emphasize geospatial thinking related to maps and navigation. In contrast, GER highlights key spatial skills such as those necessary to visualize landforms from topographic maps, or interpret folded and overturned rock units. Intelligence theorists develop taxonomies based on measurable human intelligence factors, while some cognitive scientists distinguish between object and spatial visualizers. New typologies support categorization of spatial thinking skills by intrinsic-extrinsic and static-dynamic relationships, and recently, a heuristic framework synthesizes spatial factor literature in support of STEM education. In this commentary we recognize the landscape of spatial thinking perspectives, review various frameworks potentially applicable to thinking and learning in multiple geoscience disciplines, raise questions intended to drive forward spatial thinking research across geoscience disciplines, and reflect on how different approaches at the forefront of the field may serve to address related GER Grand Challenges.
... As a result of these studies, the researchers (e.g., Masangkay et al., 1974;Mossler, Marvin, & Greenberg, 1976;Walker & Gollin, 1977) concluded that Piaget exaggerated the level of egocentrism; it was not as prevalent as Piaget thought and children could take others' perspectives from early years. Borke (1975), for instance, used a toy that was more familiar to children than the model of mountain and found that young children were more successful in perspective taking and less egocentric than Piaget thought. Similarly to Borke, Calam (1983) determined that young children displayed perspective-taking abilities by modifying the Piaget's method. ...
Article
This study investigated the impact of an empathy training program developed by the researchers to promote perspective-taking abilities of preschool children. Participants were 34 children from two different kindergartens. Children in the treatment group attended an empathy training program that consisted of 30 activities and lasted for 10 weeks, whereas those in the nonintervention group attend the regular preschool program. Data were obtained through individual interviews with children. Perspective-Taking Test for Children, designed by the researchers, was used to assess children’s perspective-taking abilities. The results of the study demonstrated that the training program significantly improved perspective-taking performance of children in the treatment group compared to their peers in the nonintervention group, and this effect persisted one month after the intervention.
... While scholars have noted that empathy is different in adults compared to children [18], studies have demonstrated that children as young as 3 years old are able empathize with the perspectives of others [19,20]. Additionally, in a meta-analysis of studies that investigated empathy training, it was found that "age does not moderate the effect of empathy training" [21]; in other words, young children can be supported in their development of empathy through purposeful exposure and training. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we present an analysis of 123 students' (aged 9-12) digital stories created in a visual block-based programming language across three grade levels (grades 4-6). These students were all involved in the same introductory computer science curriculum. Participating students attended the same school and received computer science instruction from the same teacher within the context of the academic day. We analyzed each project for the extent of user-centered design that the student programmed. Specifically, we identified two components of user-centered design: 1) the programmed control choices students used, and 2) if/how they communicated those mechanisms of control to the user. Our work indicates that students in fifth and sixth grade (aged 10-12) used higher diversity of event blocks and coordinated action across multiple sprites at a higher rate compared to fourth grade students (aged 9-10). In contrast, fourth grade students tended to create more simplistic programs, rarely coordinating actions across multiple sprites. This work suggests that the construct of user-centered design within visual block-based programming languages is more complex than previously indicated. Additionally, explicit instruction about user-centered design is necessary, but may be more effective when a student reaches the age of 10 or 11 years old. CCS Concepts • Human-centered computing~ User centered design • Human-centered computing~ Graphical user interfaces • Social and professional topics~ Computing education • Social and professional topics~ K-12 education
Article
Totally blind, visually impaired, and normally sighted children were asked to determine whether an observer could see the front or back of a toy better from her position and to make it so the observer could do so. The totally blind children were older than the other children when they mastered the tasks, made the highest percentage of errors before mastery, and made different errors.
Chapter
Significant age-related influences on visual cognitive abilities are commonly reported. It is argued that methods derived from developmental theory and findings may be useful for the study of these influences. Such "age-by-task" methods involve the systematic and simultaneous manipulation of task-related and subject-related variables. Examples of the utility of these methods are drawn from the spatial perspective-taking and spatial memory literature. The application of this approach to problems of mental imagery, within a mental image rotation framework, is also demonstrated. A review of literature on mental image rotation and aging indicates that performance may depend upon a variety of subject- and task-related factors, including stimulus characteristics. A new experiment addressing some of these factors is reported. Subject age is shown to interact significantly with specific characteristics of the stimulus items employed. The results indicate that an age-by-task approach to problems of aging and mental imagery may lead to more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing performance than would otherwise be possible.
Article
The behavior of peers toward a child may have a powerful influence on that child's self-concept and academic achievement. For this reason, educators are particularly concerned with the social interactions of handicapped children, who often face rejection by their nonhandicapped peers. As a first step in increasing understanding of the social problems experienced by exceptional youngsters, this article reviews theoretical and empirical literature which links social behavior to role- or perspective-taking ability. Implications point to a need to investigate handicapped and nonhandicapped children's ability to take each other's role.
Article
Children from 4 to 7 years of age were tested on two visual perspective-taking tasks. In one of these, they were asked to generate their own view of a toy house for a puppet “observer.” In the other task, a simple strategy was employed: respondents were asked first to generate their own view of the house for themselves, and then to generate that view for the observer. This strategy reduced the frequency of egocentric errors, to the degree that the performance of the 4-year-old children did not differ from that of the 7-year-olds. Results indicate that nonegocentric visual perspective-taking can be instantiated in young children without physical alteration of the task apparatus employed or of the child’s spatial relation to it.
Chapter
Ludwig Wittgenstein is indisputably one of the most important and influential philosophers of the 20th century. Generally known as a philosopher of language, he is remembered among other things for his dictum that the meaning of a word is to be sought in its use, for his argument against the possibility of a private language, and for his ideas on family-resemblance concepts. His contributions to the philosophy of psychology have also been widely recognized, although not, for the most part, among psychologists. Aside from references to family resemblances in research on concept formation (Rosch, 1978, this volume), and some comparisons with behaviorism (Day, 1969; Costell, 1980), the relevance of Wittgenstein’s work for psychology as a science has gone largely unnoticed within the profession. The publication of his Remarks on the philosophy of psychology in 1980, however, has made this aspect of his thinking more accessible (Baker & Hacker, 1982).
Article
The importance of internal representations of a large-scale environment has long been recognized (Trowbridge, 1913), but only recently has the nature and use of such representations been the subject of intensive experimental study (for review, see Hart & Moore, 1973; Siegel & White, 1975). These reviews focus on issues raised within the context of environmental psychology. However, investigations of spatial knowledge also encompass concerns basic to the understanding of human memory and problem solving. The construction of internal, spatial arrays as mediators of semantic organization and logical inferences is under investigation in both children (Trabasso & Riley, 1973; Trabasso, Rilesy, & Wilson, 1975; Huttenlocher, 1967) and adults (Potts, 1972, 1975). It appears that in some instances a spatial dimension is added to information in order for certain relationships to be more easily perceived, remembered, or utilized. Likewise the current trend in data analysis involving scaling techniques highlights the usefulness of superimposing a spatial dimension onto information involving complex relationships.
Chapter
The notion of conscious awareness as the clinical summum bonum dates from Freud and can be summed up succinctly in his famous “Wo Es war, soll Ich werden” (Where the Id was, the Ego shall be); (Freud, 1923). The idea of an “observing ego” is still very much alive in contemporary thinking about child psychotherapy. This can be seen in several examples from two child psychiatry tests.
Chapter
A decade ago, Sheldon White (1965) reviewed some of the “behavior changes” in children in the 5-year to 7-year age range. In that chapter, he examined the evidence for a hierarchical organization of learning processes in children. He compiled an impressive list of important changes in learning processes, transitions in orientation and localization abilities, changes in performance on intellective measures, and other changes that appeared either to begin or to complete themselves between 5 and 7 years. Although some of the evidence for these changes was acknowledged as weak and requiring further follow-up work, White made the point that the changes occurring in this age range are part of a broad spectrum of change in the child’s learning processes.
Thesis
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Okul öncesi matematik eğitimi ve programları üzerine yapılan arastırmaların sayısında son yıllarda büyük bir artıs olmustur. Öğrenme ve beyin arastırmalarında meydana gelen gelismelerle birlikte Yeni-yapılandırmacılık ve doğustancılık gibi yaklasımlar, çocukların okul öncesinde matematik öğrenmesi konusunda Piagetci yaklasımdan farklı öneriler getirmistir. Okul öncesi eğitimcilerinin matematik öğretimiyle ilgili düsünce ve uygulamalarını belirlemek, okul öncesi matematik öğretiminde atılacak adımlar için önemli bir konudur. Bu çalısmanın amacı, Piagetci, doğustancı ve Yeniyapılandırmacı yaklasımlara göre okul öncesi eğitimcilerinin düsünce ve uygulamalarını sınıflandırarak açıklamaya çalısmaktır. Bu amaçla yürütülen çalısmada öncelikle bir okul öncesi öğretim kurumunda çalısan 8 eğitimcinin (5 öğretmen, 3 usta öğretici) matematik öğretimine iliskin görüslerini ortaya çıkartmak için mülakatlar yapılmıstır. Mülakatların pilot uygulaması anaokullarında çalısan 3 okul öncesi öğretmeniyle yapılmıstır. Uygulamaları belirlemek için de eğitimciler yarı yapılandırılmıs olarak sınıf içerisinde gözlenmistir. Verileri içerik analiziyle değerlendirilen bu çalısmanın sonucunda; okul öncesi eğitimcilerin matematik öğretimiyle ilgili düsüncelerinin ve uygulamalarının iliskili olduğu fakat her zaman paralel olmadığı, okul öncesi eğitimcilerinin en fazla okul öncesi matematik öğretiminin ölçülmesinde sorunlar yasadığı ve okul ortamlarında bazı idari ve fiziksel sorunlar olduğu ortaya konulmustur. Bu sonuçlar ısığında, okul öncesi matematik öğretim yöntemleri ve içeriği, ve özellikle ölçme ve değerlendirmeye yönelik bilgi ve uygulama eksiklerinin giderilmesi için farklı okul öncesi matematik öğretim yaklasımları ve uygulamaları hakkında öğretmenlere hem fakültelerde, hem de hizmetiçi eğitim seminerlerinde daha fazla bilgi verilmesi önerilmektedir. Ayrıca okul öncesi eğitimcilerinin, matematik öğretimiyle ilgili düsünce ve uygulamaları arasındaki iliskilerin ve okul öncesi matematik öğretimi üzerinde idari ve fiziksel sorunların etkilerinin, daha büyük ölçekli çalısmalarla arastırılması da bu çalısmanın sonucunda önerilmistir. --- ABSTRACT --- There has been a recent increase in the number of studies inquiring preschool mathematics and curricula in the last few decades. With the emergent developments in brain and learning sciences, various approaches such as neo-constructivism and nativism proposed new practices different from the Piagetian view. It’s essential to determine the views and practices of preschool teachers on mathematics instruction so as to make any improvements in this field. This study aims to describe the views and practices of preschool teachers regarding mathematics instruction, by classifiying them according to the views of Piagetian theory, Neo-constructivism and Nativism. For this aim, 8 educators (5 preschool teachers, 3 qualified instructors) were interviewed. The pilot study of the interviews was carried out with 3 preschool teachers working in different schools. In order to determine the practices, the participants were observed in classroom settings using a semi-structured observation form. As a consequence, it was concluded that the views of preschool educators about preschool mathematics instruction are typically associated with their practices but not necessarily parallel; they had difficulties mostly in measurement and evaluation of preschool mathematics and there are other administrative and physical obstacles in school environments. Based on these results, it was recommended to better inform pre-service and in-service preschool teachers about preschool mathematics and specifically the ways to measure and evaluate it. In addition, prospective researchers in the field are advised to further investigate in a larger scale the relationship between the views and practices of preschool teachers about preschool mathematics instruction and the effects of administrative issues and physical conditions on preschool mathematics.
Chapter
Within this chapter I analyses the typology of participation presented in chapter four in more depth. The focus is on children’s agency within child protection interventions; that is, their capacity to act with autonomy and independence. The problem of children’s agency is probably the most significant contemporary issue in the study of childhood, but to date there is very little empirical work that attempts to analyse it theoretically. This chapter addresses this deficiency by foregrounding and interpreting the social actions of children and the effects that their actions cause. It bridges the gap between the macro and the micro; the structure (which will follow in chapters six and seven) and the actor (presented in chapters two, three and four). It connects the social conditions of childhood to the actions of children in their particular contexts and questions whether children are capable of knowing about, reflecting upon, and reconstructing the conditions of their participation in child protection interventions.
Book
Teach your students how to think like scientists. This book shows you practical ways to incorporate science thinking in your classroom using simple "Thinking Tasks" that you can insert into any lesson. What is science thinking and how can you possibly teach and assess it? How is science thinking incorporated into the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and how can it be weaved into your curriculum? This book answers these questions. This practical book provides a clear, research-verified framework for helping students develop scientific thinking as required by the NGSS. Your students will not be memorizing content but will become engaged in the real work scientists do, using critical thinking patterns such as: Recognizing patterns, Inventing new hypotheses based on observations, Separating causes from correlations, Determining relevant variables and isolating them, Testing hypotheses, and Thinking about their own thinking and the relative value of evidence. The book includes a variety of sample classroom activities and rubrics, as well as frameworks for creating your own tools. Designed for the busy teacher, this book also shows you quick and simple ways to add deep science thinking to existing lessons.
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Chapter
This chapter provides descriptions of early brain development and typical social, emotional, and cognitive development spanning childhood to emerging adulthood. In addition, because child, adolescent, and family development are influenced by contextual and interactional factors, Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory of Human Development is used to illustrate the dynamic nature of these interactions and how individuals and families are either propelled or impeded in their developmental trajectory by these factors. While prenatal brain development is largely under genetic control, it is clear that there are early environmental influences here (nutrition, hormones, exposure to toxins). Poverty as a social determinant of health is a significant factor impacting brain development. The period of infancy is characterized by remarkable strides in social and emotional development. The chapter also describes behaviors manifested by children and youth with high secure self‐esteem, high insecure self‐esteem, and low self‐esteem.
Article
Presents a theoretical framework stemming from the evolutionary psychology of Herbert Spencer. The essential aspects of the theory are: (a) coordination of perspectives is mediated by both social and cognitive factors; (b) social and cognitive development can be construed as involving the successive acquisition of modes of thinking, each mode being a differentiation of the previous mode and qualitatively different from it; and (c) the different modes of thinking are coexisting. In 2 experiments with 184 3-9 yr. olds, age, stimulus complexity, and mode of response were varied, and percentage of correct responses and percentage of egocentric errors were measured. In Exp. II, response latency was also measured. In both experiments older Ss made fewer errors, but relatively more egocentric errors than younger Ss. In Exp. II, correct responses and egocentric errors had approximately equal response latencies, both faster than that for nonegocentric errors. Results are taken as supportive of the theory. (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Administered a series of social interaction situations representing the 4 emotions of happy, afraid, sad, and angry to 288 American children and 288 Chinese children. 24 girls and 24 boys, 1/2 from middle-class families and 1/2 from disadvantaged families, were tested at 6-mo intervals between 3 and 6 yrs of age. Children from both cultural groups exhibited similar overall trends in their ability to recognize other people's emotional responses. By 3 yrs of age, the majority of American and Chinese children could differentiate between happy and unhappy reactions in other people. Perception of afraid, sad, and angry feelings developed somewhat later and appeared to be influenced by social learning. Results of a previous investigation that very young children are capable of empathic responses are confirmed. The awareness of other people's feelings by young children from very different cultural backgrounds suggests that empathy may be a basic human characteristic related to social adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presented a series of short stories to 200 3-8 yr. Olds. Ss indicated how the child in each situation felt by selecting a happy, sad, afraid, or angry face to complete the picture accompanying each story. Results support piaget's observation that social sensitivity increases with age but challenge his position that young children are egocentric and unable to understand another person's viewpoint. Children as young as age 3 showed an awareness of other people's feelings and could identify the specific situations that evoke different kinds of affective responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the age at which children become capable of relating empathically to other people. M. Chandler and S. Greenspan's (see PA, Vol. 49:Issue 1) evidence supporting Piaget's position that young children are primarily egocentric and that the ability to take the other person's perspective only emerges in early adolescence is noted. An alternate view is that empathic awareness has its origins in infancy and proceeds through a series of hierarchical stages closely related to cognitive development. The perception of young children as egocentric or as having the capacity for empathic awareness has far-reaching implications both for the growth of each individual's ability to communicate and for the society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Experiment I contrasts the difficulty of problems in which a child must anticipate the appearance of an array of objects that is rotated (rotation problems) to the difficulty of problems in which a child must anticipate the appearance of a fixed array to an observer who has been rotated with respect to it (perspective problems). Perspective problems are much more difficult and show a different error pattern. Experiment II contrasts standard perspective problems, in which a child must anticipate the appearance of the array to an observer whose position differs from his own, to “perspective-move” problems, in which a child must anticipate the appearance of the array from his own new position; i.e., he himself moves. The latter problems are much easier, and the error pattern is much like that for rotation problems. The mental operations involved in solving these various types of problems are discussed.