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Attention in Delay of Gratification

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Abstract

Explored the role of attentional processes in voluntary delay of reward by manipulating children's attention to the rewards for which they were waiting in a delay-of-gratification paradigm. 32 preschool children waited for a preferred but delayed reward while facing either the delayed reward, a less preferred but immediately available reward, both rewards, or no rewards. The dependent measure was the amount of time they waited for the preferred outcome before forfeiting it for the sake of the less desired but immediately available one. Results contradict predictions from psychodynamic theory and from speculations concerning self-instructions during time binding. Unexpectedly, but in accord with frustrative nonreward theory, voluntary waiting time was substantially increased when Ss could not attend to rewards during the waiting period. Implications are discussed for a theory of the development of delay of gratification. (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Within this paradigm, the experimental manipulations usually involved either altering the task instructions or the stimuli present during the choice interval. For example, Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) questioned whether the actual physical presence of reward was a factor in how long a child will wait for a more preferred, but delayed reward. In their study, that follows the basic procedural outline described above, one group of children had the food alternatives left on the table in the room during the delay period and another group did not. ...
... After examining the delay of gratification studies, Grosch and Neuringer (1981) questioned whether pigeons might not show similar behaviour to that shown by children under analogous conditions. To this end, they conducted a series of experiments, the two that relate directly to the studies of Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) and Mischel, Ebbesen and Zeiss (1972) will be described here. ...
... Each bird typically experienced 30 trials in a session. Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) found that children were more impulsive when they could see both rewards. Grosch and Neuringer's (1981) equivalent study, adopted an ABA design. ...
Thesis
p>Recently, Rachlin (1995a) has criticised the traditional smaller-sooner vs. larger-later model of self-control on the grounds that it fails to capture many of the essential characteristics of the situations to which the everyday language sense of self-control is usually applied. Rachlin's alternative model sees self-control as choosing to act in ways that deliver relatively small immediate (local) rewards but that contribute to a larger overall (global) pattern of reward. The choice procedure of Herrnstein, Loewenstein, Prelec, and Vaughan (1993) offers a laboratory-based instantiation of these conditions. This thesis is concerned with the examination of factors that may affect human choice between local and global rewards. The thesis reports four experiments that used the Herrnstein et al. (1993) paradigm to examine how cognitive and motivational factors may affect human choice. Overall, participants were found to be relatively insensitive to the global contingency. In Experiment 1, rewards were based on accumulating points. Participants preferred local reward when the difference in local rates was larger, but the provision of prospective and social comparative information reduced local choice. In Experiments 2 to 4, rewards were based on minimising delay. Experiment 2 manipulated the difference in local rates but the results were inconclusive. Experiment 3 found that global choice was increased by the provision of explicit delay information but that the rate at which the rewards changed between trials had no effect within the parameters studied. Experiment 4 found that the provision of a written description of the contingencies increased global choice relative to a control group but that a forced-choice training procedure did not. Generally, global strategies increased with awareness of the global contingency. Results are discussed in relation to Skinner's (1969) distinction between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behaviour.</p
... Predominantly, researchers have used two paradigms to measure delayed gratification ability in humans and other animals, specifically delay maintenance and delay choice tasks. In the classic delay maintenance paradigm, the marshmallow test, children were given a single trial to decide whether to have one marshmallow now or wait for more marshmallows later (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970;Mischel, Ebbesen, & Raskoff Zeiss, 1972 Mischel & Metzner, 1962), whereas older children can sustain a delay of more than 20 minutes (Evans & English, 2002;Sargent, 2014). Recently, emerging evidence has revealed a cohort effect; over the past 50 years, there has been an increase of children's performance in the delay maintenance task, with children born in 2000s waiting on average 2 minutes longer than children in the 1960s (Carlson et al., 2018;Protzko, 2020). ...
... Children waited longer for non-visible rewards (Mischel & Ayduk, 2002;Mischel & Mischel, 1987). The strategy of directing attention away from the reward and decreasing its consummatory nature facilitated delayed gratification performance (Metcalfe & Mischel, 1999;Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970). ...
... With the rotating tray paradigm, the significant age effect in Experiment 1 and interaction between age and country in Experiment 2 was consistent with previous findings employing standardised delay choice and delay maintenance paradigms measuring children's delay of gratification, including the marshmallow test (Mischel et al., 1972;Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970;Imuta et al., 2014;Prencipe & Zelazo, 2005;Thompson et al., 1997). An increased ability in older children to delay gratification suggests that they may be more future-oriented and better at projecting themselves to evaluate different outcomes associated with immediate and delayed actions and understanding the connection between their present actions and future outcomes (Boyer, 2008;Bulley et al., 2016;Lemmon & Moore, 2007). ...
Thesis
The capacity to understand, construct, imagine and plan for the future goes hand in hand to scaffold and support future-oriented cognition. The development of future-oriented cognition undergoes critical changes during the preschool period and an emerging theme in developmental psychology is to elucidate its cognitive correlates. A significant oversight, however, is that the existing body of literature is reliant almost exclusively on data drawn from children from Western societies, with little evidence on children growing up in Eastern countries. The overarching aim of my thesis is to further our understanding of cognitive correlates and potential cultural contrast of future-oriented cognition. To this end I report four empirical studies testing and comparing pre- schoolers from Britain and mainland China on an array of future-oriented cognition tasks. In Chapter 2, I test Chinese pre-schoolers with a comprehensive and standardised task battery and they show age-related performance and developmental trajectory across different components of future-oriented cognition, which resembles that found for Western children. Performance on some tasks is significantly linked to children’s executive function ability but not with theory of mind competency. In Chapter 3, I utilise a delay choice paradigm modified from comparative research and Chinese pre-schoolers demonstrate greater capacity of delay of gratification compared to British counterparts when reward visibility is manipulated (though it has no significant effect on performance). Across both countries, pre-schoolers perform better when rewards vary in quality than in quantity and Chinese pre-schoolers’ delay of gratification is related to their inhibition ability. In Chapter 4, I focus on children’s understanding of changes in future preferences, finding that the developmental trajectories are universal between British and Chinese pre-schoolers. Children’s prediction of future preferences is more accurate for a peer than for themselves and performance is improved when children have first identified their current preferences before anticipating the future. Furthermore, inhibition and cognitive flexibility are associated with the prediction of children’s own, though not peers’ future preferences. In Chapter 5, I adopt a flexible future planning task in tool use context while addressing existing methodological critiques. British children show standard age-related developmental patterns with the novel task and their performance is unrelated to executive function and language competency. I conclude by discussing the implications of my findings and future directions for the research of future-oriented cognition in young children.
... Self-regulation in early childhood is typically assessed through Walter Mischel's delayed gratification procedures (2016;Mischel and Ebbesen, 1970;Schlam et al., 2013;Mischel et al., 1989). The skill of delaying gratification develops as children get mature and learn to pursue valuable, long-term pleasures rather than less valuable, short-term pleasures. ...
... Delay of gratification was assessed through the Marshmallow Test (Ayduk et al., 2000;Mischel, 2016;Mischel and Ebbesen, 1970;Mischel et al., 1989). There were no toys, books, pictures or distracting objects in the room, but a table, chair and video camera, which were placed in a box not to distract children, and positioned opposite to the chair where the children were to sit. ...
... These codes were averaged at intervals and used as global ratings along with the assessor report. Visual codes regarding delay of gratification were based on previous research (Mischel and Ebbesen, 1970;Mischel et al., 1989). The delay of gratification was calculated as 15 minutes (900 seconds). ...
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In the early childhood period, self-regulation and delay of gratification are important skills. The lack of these skills may have a negative impact on children's development and learning. In this study, the relationship between preschool children's delay of gratification and self-regulation skills was examined. Fifty-seven preschool children from Ankara, the capital of Turkey, aged between four and five, participated in this study. Delay of gratification was measured with Marshmallow Test, whereas self-regulation skills were assessed with Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the variables that predict the delay of gratification. The results indicated that self-regulation, particularly in terms of impulse control and effortful control, affects the delay of gratification, and that gender is not a determining factor in the delay of gratification. Besides, children's success, particularly in impulse control and effortful control, was found to increase the delay of gratification. Identifying children with extreme difficulty in the delay of gratification may help to detect those with poor self-regulation skills. Accordingly, various tasks could be designed to improve self-regulation skills in early childhood, and potential problems regarding delay of gratification and self-regulation could be minimized. This is likely to have a positive impact on society as a whole.
... The delay of gratification paradigm developed by Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) measures the ability of a child to delay gratification. A modified version of this paradigm was conducted in this study at T4. ...
... Third, the children in the present study were about three years and nine months old. The marshmallow test by Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) can be considered the golden standard for measuring DoG during childhood. However, children in the original study of Mischel were about four and a half years old (Mischel et al. 1972;Mischel and Ebbesen 1970). ...
... The marshmallow test by Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) can be considered the golden standard for measuring DoG during childhood. However, children in the original study of Mischel were about four and a half years old (Mischel et al. 1972;Mischel and Ebbesen 1970). Since the children in the present study were younger, the results of the marshmallow test might have been influenced more strongly by other factors, e.g., by how long the child can be separated from its mother. ...
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The ability to delay gratification is related to success in school and other aspects of life. Genetic as well as environmental factors such as parenting style partly explain the development of delay of gratification (DoG). However, it is unclear whether parental personality impacts children’s DoG, and how maternal and paternal personalities contribute to this relationship. The present study investigates the relationship between parental personality and 45-month-old children’s DoG ( N = 329). Personality was measured using the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory-30, DoG was operationalized through waiting time in the marshmallow test. In model 1, using only maternal data to predict DoG, maternal openness to experience was associated with shorter waiting time of the child in the marshmallow test, whereas maternal agreeableness was associated with longer waiting time. In model 2, using only paternal data to predict DoG, paternal agreeableness was related to longer waiting time. In model 3, combining maternal and paternal data to predict DoG, maternal openness to experience as well as paternal agreeableness remained significant predictors of DoG. The present study underlines the influence of both parents’ personalities on the development of children’s DoG and indicates differential maternal and paternal effects. Future studies should investigate the relationship between parental personality and children’s DoG in detail and take further factors into account, such as genetic factors, other environmental factors and the personality of the child.
... Inhibitory control in dogs is usually measured using simplified versions of tests developed for humans [e.g., (16)] and nonhuman primates [e.g., (17)]. Using different tests, both human (18) and canine (13,19,20) researchers found that the tests did not correlate with each other, but appeared to be context-specific. ...
... The dog is approached by the same tester as in subtest 14 and petted with an artificial hand 16 The dog is approached by the owner or handler and petted with a doll an accessible but low-quality reward (LQR) and wait for an inaccessible but high-quality reward (HQR). The test consisted of three parts: food preference test, training trials, and test sessions. ...
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Inhibitory control describes a multitude of cognitive processes that prevents an impulsive response and enables a more appropriate behavior in a given situation. The ability to inhibit undesirable behaviors, such as aggression, is particularly important in dogs for safe and successful interspecific interaction and cooperation. The present study investigated the associations between two aspects of inhibitory control in dogs, self-control and cognitive inhibition, and the tendency to respond aggressively when provoked. Sixteen police and fourteen privately owned dogs of the same sex, breed group and similar age participated. Self-control, often described as impulsivity, was measured with an exchange paradigm themed the delay of gratification test, and cognitive inhibition with an object discrimination paradigm called the reversal learning test. Aggressive reactivity was assessed with a standardized aggression-eliciting behavior test. When comparing police and privately owned dogs, police dogs showed higher aggression levels and poorer self-control, while the two groups did not differ in cognitive inhibition. Regardless of the dog group, the main results indicated impairments in self-control in dogs with high levels of aggressive reactivity. Dogs showing biting behavior had worse self-control abilities compared to dogs with no signs of aggression. No association between cognitive inhibition and aggression was found. We conclude that self-control, measured as the ability to tolerate delayed rewards, appears to be an important aspect of inhibitory control involved in the tendency to respond aggressively, particularly in police dogs.
... Situational strategies are not always readily available; for example, in the Stanford experiments in delayed gratification (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970), children placed in a room with a treat did not have the option of leaving the room or otherwise altering the physical or social setup of the experiment. This leaves room for intrapsychic strategies of self-control (Duckworth et al., 2016). ...
... Intrapsychic strategies have been documented to be effective in delayed gratification tasks. For example, Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) observed that self-distraction was a predictor of success in delayed gratification. In addition to self-distraction, later work suggested that construal plays a similar key role. ...
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Self-control is that which is enacted to align our behaviour with intentions, motives, or better judgment in the face of conflicting impulses of motives. In this paper, I ask, what explains interpersonal differences in self-control? After defending a functionalist conception of self-control, I argue that differences in self-control are analogous to differences in mobility: they are modulated by inherent traits and environmental supports and constraints in interaction. This joint effect of individual (neuro)biology and environmental factors is best understood in terms of access to self-control behaviours. I sketch an account of access as including the three criteria of means, awareness, and non-excessive effort. I further demonstrate that people with disorders such as ADHD have limited access to self-control behaviours and stand therefore at a disadvantage with regard to self-control.
... After obtaining informed consent, the experimenter asked the parents to move to another space (i.e., another observation room in the United States, a chair outside of the testing room in Japan) and complete survey measures of their children's habits of waiting to eat (Habits of Waiting to Eat Questionnaire) and behaviors outside of the lab (four subscales of the Child Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart et al., 2001). All children first engaged in coloring a child-friendly sheet as a warm-up for approximately 8 min, followed by the delay-of-gratification task with either a food reward (food condition; Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) or a nonfood reward (gift condition; similar to the methodology of Kochanska et al., 1996), Social Conventions Questionnaire, and Reward Liking Questionnaire. Marshmallows were used as the foodbased reward in the food condition. ...
Article
Resisting immediate temptations in favor of larger later rewards predicts academic success, socioemotional competence, and health. These links with delaying gratification appear from early childhood and have been explained by cognitive and social factors that help override tendencies toward immediate gratification. However, some tendencies may actually promote delaying gratification. We assessed children’s delaying gratification for different rewards across two cultures that differ in customs around waiting. Consistent with our preregistered prediction, results showed that children in Japan ( n = 80) delayed gratification longer for food than for gifts, whereas children in the United States ( n = 58) delayed longer for gifts than for food. This interaction may reflect cultural differences: Waiting to eat is emphasized more in Japan than in the United States, whereas waiting to open gifts is emphasized more in the United States than in Japan. These findings suggest that culturally specific habits support delaying gratification, providing a new way to understand why individuals delay gratification and why this behavior predicts life success.
... Its reward model reflects that, giving the agent a large positive or negative reward at the end of the episode, depending on the outcome. However, in order to lower the difficulty of the simulator (delayed gratification makes training significantly harder (Mischel and EbbesenEbbesen, 1970;Gulwani et al., 2017)) an additional reward is provided during the episode, based on the evolution of the patient's SOFA score (Lambden et al., 2019)-a commonly used measure of sepsis severity: ...
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In this paper we give an overview of the field of patient simulators and provide qualitative and quantitative comparison of different modeling and simulation approaches. Simulators can be used to train human caregivers but also to develop and optimize algorithms for clinical decision support applications and test and validate interventions. In this paper we introduce three novel patient simulators with different levels of representational accuracy: HeartPole, a simplistic transparent rule-based system, GraphSim, a graph-based model trained on intensive care data, and Auto-ALS—an adjusted version of an educational software package used for training junior healthcare professionals. We provide a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the previously existing as well as proposed simulators.
... The IGT and ChGT use cards where people evaluate those that have something advantageous such as smiley faces. [81]). Two rewards are presented, a small one (2 pieces) and a large one (10 pieces), the child being evaluated must wait to obtain the larger reward. ...
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The study aimed to systematically analyze the empirical evidence that is available concerning batteries, tests or instruments that assess hot executive functions (EFs) in preschoolers, identifying which are the most used instruments, as well as the most evaluated hot EFs. For the review and selection of articles, the systematic review methodology PRISMA was used. The article search considered the EBSCO, Web of Science (WoS), SciELO and PubMed databases, with the keywords “Hot executive function”, “Assessment”, “test”, “evaluation”, using the Boolean operators AND and OR indistinctly, between 2000 and April 2021. Twenty-four articles were selected and analyzed. The most commonly used instruments to assess hot EFs in preschool children were the Delayed Gratification Task, the Child’s Play Task, and the Delayed Reward Task. Amongst those analyzed, 17 instruments were found to assess hot EFs in preschoolers. The accuracy and conceptual clarity between the assessment of cognitive and emotional components in EFs is still debatable. Nevertheless, the consideration of affective temperature and reward stimulus type, could be an important influence when assessing EFs in this age range. Evidence of the possible involvement of cortical and subcortical structures, as well as the limbic system, in preschool executive functioning assessment has also been incorporated.
... As in the previous experiment (Koepke et al., 2015), he also engaged in a number of possible coping mechanisms while waiting. Unlike the corvids (Hillemann et al., 2014) who-given the paradigm of holding the reward in their beak-would often either drop or cache the smaller reward in their exchange task, Griffin exhibited behavior patterns more similar to those of children (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970). He would move the cup just out of reach, squawk or talk to himself, move away from the cup, preen extensively, and, similar to children, try to fall asleep while waiting. ...
Article
Delay of gratification, the ability to forgo an immediate reward and wait to gain a reward better in either quality or quantity, has been used as a metric for temporal discounting, self-control, and the ability to plan for the future in both humans (particularly children) and nonhumans. Several avian species have been able to wait for a better quality reward for up to 15 min, but none seem able to wait for a better quantity reward for any significant period of time. Using a token system (where each wooden heart represents 1 nut piece), we demonstrated that a Grey parrot-who had previously waited up to 15 min for better quality-would now wait for better quantity, again for up to 15 min. Thus, symbolic distancing-that is, removal of the immediate presence of the hedonic item-enabled him to perform at levels comparable with young children on the classic test and might be a viable method for training executive function. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Besides, individuals' level of self-control has an impact on their performance or results in environments like school, the workplace, and relationships (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990). On the other hand, the Hot/Cool System Approach was developed relying on the delay of gratification perspective to understand the mechanism of self-control or willpower (Metcalfe & Mischel, 1999;Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970). Self-control is seen as a component of the cool-cognitive system, which directs goal-directed actions and depends on people's volitional control to perform. ...
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Self-control is always crucial in many areas of life. Therefore, self-control failure is the source of many of the difficulties people face in their lives and also at the center of several problems, especially among adolescents. In this regard, the purpose of the study was to examine the mediating role of multi-screen addiction (MSA) in the relationship between self-control and procrastination among adolescents by using structural equation modeling (SEM). A cross-sectional design and an online questionnaire was used in this study. The study group composed of 390 adolescents studying at various high schools in Turkey. The results of correlation analysis showed that self-control was negatively correlated with MSA and procrastination. MSA also positively correlated with procrastination. Furthermore, the findings showed that MSA mediated the relationship between self-control and procrastination. The fit index of the SEM was found to be satisfactory. The results of the study were addressed in the context of the existing literature, and then suggestions were presented. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02472-2.
... The ability to delay gratification (also: delay of need and delay of gratification; Mischel and Ebbesen, 1970;Mischel et al., 1989;Forstmeier et al., 2011) proves to be a reliable predictor of a successful life in many studies. Self-imposed delay of gratification is regarded as an early indicator of a stable personality trait and reliably predicts the development of cognitive and social competence of adults (e.g., Mischel et al., 1989). ...
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The current economic landscape is complex and globalized, and it imposes on individuals the responsibility for their own financial security. This situation has been intensified by the COVID-19 crisis, since short-time work and layoffs significantly limit the availability of financial resources for individuals. Due to the long duration of the lockdown, these challenges will have a long-term impact and affect the financial well-being of many citizens. Moreover, it can be assumed that the consequences of this crisis will once again particularly affect groups of people who have already frequently been identified as having low financial literacy. Financial literacy is therefore an important target for educational measures and interventions. However, it cannot be considered in isolation but must take into account the many potential factors that influence financial literacy alone or in combination. These include personality traits and socio-demographic factors as well as the (in)ability to defer gratification. Against this background, individualized support offers can be made. With this in mind, in the first step of this study, we analyze the complex interaction of personality traits, socio-demographic factors, the (in-)ability to delay gratification, and financial literacy. In the second step, we differentiate the identified effects regarding different groups to identify moderating effects, which, in turn, allow conclusions to be drawn about the need for individualized interventions. The results show that gender and educational background moderate the effects occurring between self-reported financial literacy, financial learning opportunities, delay of gratification, and financial literacy.
... As such, the strategy effectively removes the player from the control of the game's immediate consequences. In Mischel and Ebbesen's (1970) classic study of delayed gratification, the child who buries his head in his arms or who turns and faces away from the very tempting marshmallow, in order that he may receive two marshmallows a short while later, isin a rudimentary manner -displaying just such a strategy. ...
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A unique approach to the experimental analysis of interactive choice behavior is described. Pairs of subjects were coupled in such a manner that each subject’s choice determined either the probability of reinforcement or the points awarded to the other subject’s choice. In this manner, several of game theory’s familiar games, like Prisoner’s Dilemma, were created. With pigeons as subjects, with humans playing against pigeons or humans playing each other (either in the laboratory or on the Internet), and even with a simple computer simulation, the results were clear. In every instance, players’ choices gravitated to the game’s pure strategy Nash equilibrium in games that have them and to a near equality of responding in the game Rock-Paper-Scissors, which does not. The principle of positive reinforcement entirely accounts for the results. There is no need for appeal to complex mathematical models or higher-order concepts of strategy, optimality, rational expectations and the like.
... A child's behavior in a task may also shift how hot or cool the task is. For example, past research using delay of gratification paradigms has shown that excessive anticipation of the reward leads to decreased success in delaying and to increased emotional distress (making the task more "hot"), whereas turning attention away from the reward leads to improved delay time (and potentially makes the task more "cool") [27,28]. No prior study to our knowledge has examined the associations between anticipatory behavior (attentional focus on the treat) in a reward delay task and child symptomatology. ...
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The current study examined concurrent relationships between children’s self-regulation, measured behaviorally and by parent-report, and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The aim was to distinguish which components of self-regulation (attention vs. inhibitory control, “hot” vs. “cool” regulation) best predict dimensional symptomatology and clinical disorders in young children. The participants were 120 children, ages 4–8 years old. Results showed that greater parent-reported attention was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Behaviorally-measured hot inhibitory control related to fewer internalizing symptoms, whereas parent-reported inhibitory control related to fewer externalizing symptoms. Similar patterns emerged for clinical diagnoses, with parent-rated attention most strongly predicting disorders across domains. Results support prior evidence implicating self-regulatory deficits in externalizing problems, while also demonstrating that components of self-regulation are impaired with internalizing symptoms. Further, different sub-components of self-regulation relate to different dimensions of psychopathology in children. Interventions should target these areas in children at-risk for disorders.
... Results consistently showed children were more hkely to wait for the preferred reward, were less likely to wait when the waiting periods increased, and were less likely to wait if the reward options were physically present (Mischel, Ebbesen & Zeiss, 1972;Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970). The surprising finding in these studies is the length of time the preschool child will wait under optimal conditions. ...
Thesis
p>The traditional view of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) as an executive dysfunction (EDF) disorder underpinned by a failure of the inhibition system (Barkley, 1997) is to some extent challenged by evidence that suggests EF deficits are context-dependent. In seeking to address this issue Somuga-Barke has proposed an alternative model that implicates delay aversion (DA) as the core feature of AD/HD. The aim of this thesis was to explore the relationship between AD/HD, EF and DA in a preschool population where maturation is less likely to obscure relationships between early emerging skills. Before this was possible it was necessary to examine normal task performance in the preschool years. Therefore, this thesis contains two studies. The first explored the properties of the task measures and age-related changes in task performance. The second examined the role of hyperactivity in task performance. In the first study preschool children (N=60) were tested on a range of EF and delay measures. Age-related changes in task performance were explored using multivariate statistical procedures. Age-related increments in task performance were observed for EF, but not delay, tasks. The findings also suggested preschool EFs are similar in structure to that found in school-age children (i.e., are fractionated). In the second the modified task battery was applied to preschool children (N=157). Within this community sample hyperactive symptoms were assessed using both rating scales and a clinical interview. The relationship between hyperactivity, EP and DA was explored using both median split and clinical cutoffs on the behavioural measures. Results indicated that hyperactivity is associated with delay task performance. This association was evident for both males and females at age 3 and age 5, and was independent of IQ and conduct problems. This robust finding supported the DA hypothesis. In contrast, hyperactivity was not associated with EF performance, but was associated with disinhibition at age 5 years. This finding offered only partial support for the EDF model.</p
... To tame the curse of dimensionality, typical of unconstrained naturalistic behavior, a promising approach is to control for the lexical variability in behavioral sequences and design a naturalistic task with a single behavioral sequence, though retaining its temporal variability. The authors of (Murakami et al., 2014(Murakami et al., , 2017Recanatesi et al., 2022) adopted this strategy and to train freely moving rats to perform a self-initiated task (the rodent version of the "Marshmallow task," (Mischel and Ebbesen, 1970), Fig. 3A) where a specific set of actions had to be performed in a fixed order to obtain a reward. The many repetitions of the same behavioral sequence yielded a large sample size to elucidate the source of temporal variability across trials. ...
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Naturalistic animal behavior exhibits a strikingly complex organization in the temporal domain, whose variability stems from at least three sources: hierarchical, contextual, and stochastic. What are the neural mechanisms and computational principles generating such complex temporal features? In this review, we provide a critical assessment of the existing behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for these sources of temporal variability in naturalistic behavior. We crystallize recent studies which converge on an emergent mechanistic theory of temporal variability based on attractor neural networks and metastable dynamics, arising from the coordinated interactions between mesoscopic neural circuits. We highlight the crucial role played by structural heterogeneities and by noise arising in mesoscopic circuits. We assess the shortcomings and missing links in the current theoretical and experimental literature and propose new directions of investigations to fill these gaps.
... In such tasks, once an initial decision is made to wait for a large reward, individuals are permitted to abandon the decision at any instant in favor of the small immediate reward. For example, in the classic marshmallow test [9], children are seated at a table with a single marshmallow. They are allowed to eat the marshmallow, but if they wait while the experimenter steps out of the room, they will be offered a second marshmallow when the experimenter returns. ...
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Individuals are often faced with temptations that can lead them astray from long-term goals. We're interested in developing interventions that steer individuals toward making good initial decisions and then maintaining those decisions over time. In the realm of financial decision making, a particularly successful approach is the prize-linked savings account: individuals are incentivized to make deposits by tying deposits to a periodic lottery that awards bonuses to the savers. Although these lotteries have been very effective in motivating savers across the globe, they are a one-size-fits-all solution. We investigate whether customized bonuses can be more effective. We formalize a delayed-gratification task as a Markov decision problem and characterize individuals as rational agents subject to temporal discounting, a cost associated with effort, and fluctuations in willpower. Our theory is able to explain key behavioral findings in intertemporal choice. We created an online delayed-gratification game in which the player scores points by selecting a queue to wait in and then performing a series of actions to advance to the front. Data collected from the game is fit to the model, and the instantiated model is then used to optimize predicted player performance over a space of incentives. We demonstrate that customized incentive structures can improve an individual's goal-directed decision making.
... Some behaviors are driven by immediate rewards and some are driven by future rewards. In an infamous experiment with children and marshmallows at Stanford, Michel and his colleagues investigated the different ability to delay gratification (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970). The conclusions from this study were later refuted, including by the same author (Benjamin et al., 2020). ...
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In the economical context of tight labor markets, “the great resignation” and “the battle for talent” and within the philosophical zeitgeist based on utilitarian and existential beliefs, we explore the value of work, that is, the value experienced by the employee. We follow a cross disciplinary approach integrating both recent and not so recent insights in organizational and behavioral psychology in an economic model of cardinal utility. The extensive literature review led to the conceptually clustering of the types of needs that are addressed, material needs, social needs, and identity related needs. We distance ourselves from a needs satisfaction perspective following the economic assumption of non satiation. We develop the subsequent utility categories: material utility, social utility, and transformational utility. The theory and the random utility model created is a cross disciplinary integration effort. A survey is created and validated following DeVellis (2016) scale development method. The study confirms, via the methods of factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) at least 3 and possibly 4 dimensions of job utility. Further refinement of the scale with SEM leads to the compact and robust Simple Present Job Utility Scale supporting the three factor model. Post-hoc we look for mediators and moderators in the effects of job utility on job satisfaction and turnover intention, we find that all but material utility are mediated by job satisfaction in their relationship to turnover intentions. We did not find evidence of the utility factors moderating each other's relationships to the behavioral outcomes looked at. This together with the limitations outlined from the study form the segway into our recommendations for future research. Special attention is paid to the ethical implementation of the study and the broader impact the development of models for data-driven HR practices have on society, equality, privacy and justice.
... Children wait longer before indulging when the reward is hidden or removed (vs. when it is visible; Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970). And reducing one's exposure to environmental cues plays an important role in the treatment of drug addiction (e.g. ...
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Some people report encountering fewer obstacles during goal pursuit than others, but why is this the case? Seven pre-registered studies examine the role of goal motivation (want-to and have-to) and trait self-control in how individuals set up and perceive obstacles to goal pursuit in their environment. Findings show that want-to motivation and trait self-control were associated with reduced experiences of obstacles; have-to motivation was associated with a preference for greater proximity to obstacles. Have-to motivation was also related to stronger perceptions of obstacles as problematic, and trait self-control was related to the perception of obstacles as less problematic. Discussion centers on nuances regarding these relations and their existence in different contexts, and on implications for self-regulation and motivation.
... Ability to delay gratification (ADG) refers to individual's willingness to defer or postpone a small instant pleasure for a larger distant pleasure (Bembenutty et al. 1998). The concept of ADG got its popularity from the famous psychological experiments 'Marshmallow tests' conducted by Mischel and Ebbesen (1970) and Mischel et al. (1989). In these experiments, Mischel and his fellow associates put one marshmallow (candy) on the desk in front of each and every kid. ...
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Objective: A considerable amount of research identified socio-economic status and cognitive ability as robust predictors, the influence of student’s ability to delay gratification (ADG) on their educational transition choice doesn’t received researcher’s attention. To address this gap, the present study examined the incremental power of students ADG in predicting the dichotomous choice i.e. the choice of general or vocational education after successful completion of compulsory schooling. Methods: Amid Covid-19 pandemic, cross sectional survey via an online mode was found feasible for the data collection process in our study. An online link of survey questionnaire was created in the Google forms and administered to (N = 1024) grade 8 students in the Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir, India. Multiple binary logistic regressions were conducted to predict the students’ choice, and odds ratios and average marginal effects were reported for better interpretation of results. Results: Our results showed that students tracking choice differed significantly with respect to their gender and locale (smaller effect), ADG (medium effect), and cognitive ability and socio-economic status (larger effect). The probability of choosing the track of vocational education (with general education track as a baseline category) increases as students ADG decreases, and vice versa. This association of student’s ADG with the choice of vocational education track held same over and above the covariates – socio-economic status, cognitive ability, gender and locale. Key words: Ability to Delay Gratification, Educational Transition, Tracking choice, Vocational education, General education, Cognitive Ability & Socio-economic Status
... This behavior pattern implies that individuals' punishment attitudes are internally inconsistent across informational contexts, placing more weight on whatever information happens to be most readily available in the moment. This tendency may be rooted in a more general tendency to discount distant future rewards relative to immediate ones (Loewenstein and Thaler, 1989;Metcalfe and Mischel, 1999;Mischel and Ebbesen, 1970). Placing greater importance on the here and now might have been adaptive for people in need of quick results under conditions of very limited information (see Daly and Wilson, 2005), but such features do not necessarily promote the careful, disinterested, and judicious decision-making that we expect of modern criminal justice decisions. ...
... une guimauve) que de faire preuve de patience pour en obtenir une plus grande quantité plus tard (ex : deux guimauves ; Mischel et Ebbesen, 1970 ;Mischel, Ebbesen, et Zeiss, 1972). Les produits qui stimulent fortement les sens et les affects des consommateurs (c.-àd. ...
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La distance psychologique est omniprésente dans l’esprit du consommateur et influence ses attitudes et son comportement envers les produits hédoniques. Cependant, des contradictions sont présentes dans la littérature quant à la direction (positive ou négative) des effets de la distance psychologique sur les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. En effet, certaines recherches avancent que l’augmentation de la distance psychologique influence positivement les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. Alors que d’autres suggèrent l’effet inverse, à savoir une influence négative de l’augmentation de la distance psychologique sur les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. L’objectif de cette recherche est de réconcilier ces contradictions en examinant sous quelles conditions la distance peut avoir un effet positif ou négatif. Sur la base d’un état de l’art de la littérature et d’une étude qualitative, nous proposons que le degré de proéminence du besoin de justification (non saillant vs saillant) du consommateur au moment où il évalue le produit hédonique modère ses effets et constitue une condition sous laquelle la distance psychologique peut avoir un effet positif ou négatif sur les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. Trois expérimentations ont été conduites pour le test de nos hypothèses. Les deux premières suggèrent qu’en condition de besoin de justification non saillant, l’augmentation de la distance psychologique a une influence négative sur les réponses attitudinales et comportementales du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. La troisième expérimentation, quant à elle, propose qu’en condition de besoin de justification saillant, l’augmentation de la distance psychologique a un effet positif sur la réponse comportementale du consommateur envers le produit hédonique. Cette recherche contribue à la littérature sur le concept de distance psychologique en précisant sous quelles conditions (c.-à-d. besoin de justification saillant vs non saillant) la distance peut avoir un effet positif ou négatif sur les réponses des consommateurs envers les produits hédoniques.
... Devaluation of future outcomes is per se a rational choice strategy as time comes at a cost (2,(4)(5)(6), however, some forms of temporal discounting as well as overly steep discounting may result in non-optimal and potentially harmful choices. For instance, it has been argued that steeper (hyperbolic) delay discounting may explain why individuals choose a cigarette now over a long-term healthy life, that is, why they prefer a smaller immediate over a delayed larger reward [ (7)(8)(9); for overviews see (10,11)]. ...
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Background The tendency to devaluate future options as a function of time, known as delay discounting, is associated with various factors such as psychiatric illness and personality. Under identical experimental conditions, individuals may therefore strongly differ in the degree to which they discount future options. In delay discounting tasks, this inter-individual variability inevitably results in an unequal number of discounted trials per subject, generating difficulties in linking delay discounting to psychophysiological and neural correlates. Many studies have therefore focused on assessing delay discounting adaptively. Here, we extend these approaches by developing an adaptive paradigm which aims at inducing more comparable and homogeneous discounting frequencies across participants on a dimensional scale.Method The proposed approach probabilistically links a (common) discounting function to behavior to obtain a probabilistic model, and then exploits the model to obtain a formal condition which defines how to construe experimental trials so as to induce any desired discounting probability. We first infer subject-level models on behavior on a non-adaptive delay discounting task and then use these models to generate adaptive trials designed to evoke graded relative discounting frequencies of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 in each participant. We further compare and evaluate common models in the field through out-of-sample prediction error estimates, to iteratively improve the trial-generating model and paradigm.ResultsThe developed paradigm successfully increases discounting behavior during both reward and loss discounting. Moreover, it evokes graded relative choice frequencies in line with model-based expectations (i.e., 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) suggesting that we can successfully homogenize behavior. Our model comparison analyses indicate that hyperboloid models are superior in predicting unseen discounting behavior to more conventional hyperbolic and exponential models. We report out-of-sample error estimates as well as commonalities and differences between reward and loss discounting, demonstrating for instance lower discounting rates, as well as differences in delay perception in loss discounting.Conclusion The present work proposes a model-based framework to evoke graded responses linked to cognitive function at a single subject level. Such a framework may be used in the future to measure cognitive functions on a dimensional rather than dichotomous scale.
... Es fällt Kindern und generell Personen leichter, eine Belohnung aufzuschieben, wenn -der Belohnungsreiz nicht in Sichtweite ist (Mischel & Ebbesen 1970), -man sich mit etwas anderem beschäftigen (Mischel et al. 1972 (Rodriguez et al. 1989). ...
... Inhibition capabilities are essential in human development and are strong predictors of social and educational life outcomes (Mischel and Ebbesen 1970;Shoda et al. 1990). Although many other factors can impact one's ability to delay gratification, it remains an important contributor to attentional skills as well as impulsive behaviors (Bari and Robbins 2013). ...
Article
Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have suggested a neuroanatomical basis that may underly attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the anatomical ground truth remains unknown. In addition, the role of the white matter (WM) microstructure related to attention and impulsivity in a general pediatric population is still not well understood. Using a state-of-the-art structural connectivity pipeline based on the Brainnetome atlas extracting WM connections and its subsections, we applied dimensionality reduction techniques to obtain biologically interpretable WM measures. We selected the top 10 connections-of-interests (located in frontal, parietal, occipital, and basal ganglia regions) with robust anatomical and statistical criteria. We correlated WM measures with psychometric test metrics (Conner’s Continuous Performance Test 3) in 171 children (27 Dx ADHD, 3Dx ASD, 9–13 years old) from the population-based GESTation and Environment cohort. We found that children with lower microstructural complexity and lower axonal density show a higher impulsive behavior on these connections. When segmenting each connection in subsections, we report WM alterations localized in one or both endpoints reflecting a specific localization of WM alterations along each connection. These results provide new insight in understanding the neurophysiology of attention and impulsivity in a general population.
Chapter
Prudent temporal discounting has been conceptualized as a direct indicator of rational thinking in adult samples. The paradigms used to study temporal discounting have used psychophysical methods involving choices between smaller immediate rewards and larger delayed rewards. These paradigms have demonstrated that individuals tend to be more hyperbolic than exponential in their choice patterns on these tasks. That is, most individuals tend to temporally discount the value of delayed rewards too steeply. From the perspective of rational thinking, overriding the salience of the immediate reward in favor of the larger delayed reward requires resistance to miserly information processing. Studies conducted in developmental samples have indicated that older children and youth tend to favor the larger delayed reward over the smaller immediate reward relative to younger children and youth. Individual differences in cognitive abilities, thinking dispositions, knowledge and resistance to miserly information processing are also correlated with prudent temporal discounting in child and youth samples. These findings are consistent with data patterns in adult samples. Prudent temporal discounting is measurable in developmental samples as a measure of rational thinking.
Article
Over the last decade, longitudinal research has shown that children's general, top-down self-regulation during early childhood is negatively associated with children's weight status in elementary school. The samples in these previous studies have been primarily White, and no study to date has examined this issue in a sample of Hispanic children from low-income families—a population at high risk for childhood obesity. The present study followed 130 Hispanic children over a time period of three to just under five years, examining the degree to which multiple measures of general, top-down self-regulation, along with a measure of appetite regulation (eating in the absence of hunger), predicted children's BMI z-scores in the early elementary school years. Results showed that children's ability to delay gratification in the preschool years was negatively associated with later BMI z-scores and that children's eating in the absence of hunger was positively associated. In separate models by gender, these relationships were significant only for girls. Moreover, analyses run separately for children of mothers low or high on acculturation showed that the relationship between delay of gratification and later BMI z-scores was significant only for children whose mothers were low on acculturation. Possible socialization and environmental factors contributing to these findings are considered.
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The transdisciplinary importance of Distinctions is well-established as foundational to such diverse phenomena as recognition, identification, individual and social identity, marginalization, externalities, boundaries, concept formation, etc. and synonymous general ideas such as thingness, concepts, nodes, objects, etc. Cabrera provides a formal description of and predictions for identity-other Distinctions(D) or "D-rule" as one of four universals for the organization of information that is foundational to systems and systems thinking as well as the consilience of knowledge. This paper presents 7 empirical studies in which (unless otherwise noted) software was used to create an experiment for subjects to complete a task and/or answer a question. The samples vary for each study (ranging from N=407 to N=34,398) and are generalizeable to a normal distribution of the US population. These studies support—with high statistical significance—the predictions made by DSRPTheory regarding identity-other Distinctions including its: universality as an observable phenomenon in both mind (cognitive complexity) and nature (ontological complexity) (i.e., parallelism); internal structures and dynamics; mutual dependencies on other universals (i.e., Relationships, Systems, andPerspectives); role in structural predictions; and, efficacy as a metacognitive skill. In conclusion, these data suggest the observable and empirical existence, universality, efficacy, and parallelism (between cognitive and ontological complexity) of identity-other Distinctions(D).
Chapter
The collection, capture, storage, sharing, and interpretation of data are essential to all research and practice in mental health. A wide range of informatics technologies and tools have been developed to facilitate data use across the full knowledge acquisition lifecycle. In this chapter, we focus on data acquisition. We introduce the field of psychometrics—the science of measurement in psychology. We discuss the unique challenges of data acquisition in mental health by exploring the nature of psychological, behavioral, interpersonal, social, and environmental data in the context of mental health. Finally, we discuss some current challenges in the use of informatics technologies for data in these domains and how those challenges might be addressed in the future.
Chapter
Judgment and decision-making paradigms have been relatively well-studied in developmental samples. The measurement of these competencies in developmental samples has been of scientific interest. They have been recognized as having important implications for defining rational thinking in children and youth but also for teaching and training (such as, critical thinking in education). The origin of the theories and paradigms come from the adult literature, which has also undergone considerable progress in theoretical advancements and empirical studies over the last several years. The integration of our understanding from the work conducted in adults with consideration of developmental factors provides a way to advance our understanding of judgment and decision-making in children and youth. To accomplish this, establishing stimulus equivalence will be important given that these paradigms were first designed for adult samples. In addition, taking into account the rapid growth and change in cognitive capacities, that happen in development, are central for understanding performance on these paradigms. Using a working taxonomy of rational thinking based on adult samples, data from a longitudinal developmental study were used to empirically examine performance patterns on these paradigms.
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The transdisciplinary importance of Relationships is well-established as foundational to such diverse phenomena as feedback, interconnectedness, causality, network dynamics, complexity, etc. and synonymous with connections, links, edges, interconnections, etc. Cabrera provides a formal description of and predictions action-reaction Relationships (R) or "R-rule" as one of four universals for the organization of information that is foundational to systems and systems thinking as well as the consilience of knowledge. This paper presents 7 empirical studies in which (unless otherwise noted) software was used to create an experiment for subjects to complete a task and/or answer a question. The samples vary for each study (ranging from N=407 to N=34,398) and are generalizeable to a normal distribution of the US population. These studies support—with high statistical significance—the predictions made by DSRP Theory regarding action-reaction Relationships including its: universality as an observable phenomenon in both mind (cognitive complexity) and nature (ontological complexity) (i.e., parallelism); internal structures and dynamics; mutual dependencies on other universals (i.e., Distinctions, Systems, and Perspectives); role in structural predictions; and, efficacy as a metacognitive skill. In conclusion, these data suggest the observable and empirical existence, universality, efficacy, and parallelism (between cognitive and ontological complexity) of action-reaction Relationships (R).
Article
Emotion regulation (ER), the ability to flexibly monitor and modify emotions, is related to positive adjustment throughout the lifespan. Biological indexes of ER in childhood that predict behavior are valuable for clinical applications and our understanding of affective neurodevelopment. Delta-beta correlation (DBC), or the coupling between resting state slow-wave (delta) and fast-wave (beta) neural oscillations derived from EEG, may be a metric of the functional coherence between subcortical and cortical neural circuitry implicated in ER. Yet, little is understood about how DBC corresponds to observed ER during emotional challenges. To address this question, in the present study, resting-state EEG was recorded to generate DBC when children were 5 to 7 years old (T1) and again two years later (T2). Children also completed two emotionally challenging behavioral tasks [delay of gratification (DoG) task and waiting task (WT)] from which observed ER strategies were subsequently coded. Results showed that higher DBC was associated with greater use of adaptive, and relatively active, ER strategies. Specifically, higher frontal DBC at T1 longitudinally predicted greater use of the ER strategy alternative activity engagement and greater parent-reported positive ER at T2. These findings add to growing evidence supporting the use of resting state DBC as a neurophysiological index of ER with clinically and developmentally relevant predictive power.
Article
Cognitive and physical effort are typically regarded as costly, but demands for effort also seemingly boost the appeal of prospects under certain conditions. One contextual factor that might influence choices for or against effort is the mix of different types of demand a decision maker encounters in a given environment. In two foraging experiments, participants encountered prospective rewards that required equally long intervals of cognitive effort, physical effort, or unfilled delay. Monetary offers varied per trial, and the two experiments differed in whether the type of effort or delay cost was the same on every trial, or varied across trials. When each participant faced only one type of cost, cognitive effort persistently produced the highest acceptance rate compared to trials with an equivalent period of either physical effort or unfilled delay. We theorized that if cognitive effort were intrinsically rewarding, we would observe the same pattern of preferences when participants foraged for varying cost types in addition to rewards. Contrary to this prediction, in the second experiment, an initially higher acceptance rate for cognitive effort trials disappeared over time amid an overall decline in acceptance rates as participants gained experience with all three conditions. Our results indicate that cognitive demands may reduce the discounting effect of delays, but not because decision makers assign intrinsic value to cognitive effort. Rather, the results suggest that a cognitive effort requirement might influence contextual factors such as subjective delay duration estimates, which can be recalibrated if multiple forms of demand are interleaved.
Chapter
Judgment and decision-making (JDM) skills have been implicated as additional domains of competence in individuals with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Recent cognitive science perspectives suggest that judgment and decision-making skills are conceptually and empirically separable from other domains of cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and executive function tasks. Over the last several years, there has been an increase in the empirical study of JDM tasks in ADHD, including adolescent and adult samples. Specifically, temporal discounting (or delay aversion) and risky decision making have been the most well-studied constructs in ADHD, perhaps because impulsivity and engagement in risky behaviors have been well documented in individuals with ADHD. Overall, individuals with ADHD tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards on temporal discounting paradigms and tend to display lower performance on risky choice tasks than non-clinical samples. In this chapter, we describe this literature and review the associations between judgment and decision-making paradigms and cognitive abilities in individuals with ADHD across the life span. We also review the study of judgment and decision-making skills in other intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), where these paradigms have been less well studied relative to ADHD samples. The correlations between JDM paradigms and cognitive abilities in ADHD samples are small to modest, as has been reported in non-clinical samples, reinforcing the separability of these domains of competence. JDM paradigms in ADHD offer interesting future directions for assessing the difficulties of these individuals that are often described in clinical descriptions.
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A randomized experiment among poor entrepreneurs tested the impact of exogenously inducing higher financial aspirations. In theory, raising aspirations could have positive effects by inducing higher effort, but could also reduce effort if unmet aspirations lead to frustration. Treatment resulted in more ambitious savings goals, but nearly all individuals fell far short of reaching these goals. Two years later, treated individuals had not saved more, and actually had lower borrowing and business investments. Treatment also reduced belief in the amount of control over one's life. Setting aspirations too high can lead to frustration, leading individuals to reduce their economic investments.
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Objective A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of body-oriented interventions (BOI) in educational contexts, showing positive influences on social-emotional competence. Nevertheless, there is a lack of systematization of the evidence regarding preschool years. This is a two-part systematic review. In this first part, we aim to examine the effects of BOI on preschoolers' social-emotional competence outcomes. Data Sources Searches were conducted in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, ERIC, Web of Science, Portal Regional da BVS and CINAHL. Eligibility Criteria English, French and Portuguese language articles published between January 2000 and October 2020, that evaluated the effects of BOI implemented in educational contexts on social-emotional competence of preschool children. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two reviewers independently completed data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment. The level of scientific evidence was measured through the Best Evidence Synthesis. Results Nineteen studies were included. There was strong evidence that BOI do not improve anger/aggression, delay of gratification and altruism. Nevertheless, there was moderate evidence that BOI effectively improve other social-emotional outcomes, such as empathy, social interaction, social independence, general internalizing behaviors, and general externalizing behaviors. The lack of scientific evidence was compromised by the methodological quality of the studies. Conclusion BOI effectively improve specific social-emotional competences of preschool children. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO, identifier CRD42020172248.
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Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of time out, cognitive regeneration, and cognitive diffusion techniques in children's self-control. Methods This research was a quasi-experimental study with a multi-group post-test design with a control group. The population consisted of all elementary students of Hamadan city in the academic year 2017-2018. The sample consisted of 60 children who were selected by multistage cluster random sampling and were randomly assigned to four experimental and control groups. The data collection instrument was the amount of time spent not eating sweets up to 10 minutes. Results The results of analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between groups (p < 0.01). Post hoc test results showed that time out and cognitive restructuring techniques had a significant effect on increasing self-control scores of the participants (ρ < 0.01). But the impact of cognitive diffusion on self-control was not significant (ρ = 0.08). Also, time out could increase self-control more than cognitive restructuring in the participants. Conclusion According to the results, cognitive deprivation and time out techniques can be used to increase the level of self-control in children.
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DSRP Theory is now over 25 years old with more empirical evidence supporting it than any other systems thinking framework. Yet, it is often misunderstood and described in ways that are inaccurate. DSRP Theory describes four patterns and their underlying elements—identity (i) and other (o) for Distinctions (D), part (p) and whole (w) for Systems (S), action (a) and reaction (r) for Relationships (R), and point (ρ) and view (v) for Perspectives (P)—that are universal in both cognitive complexity (mind) and material complexity (nature). DSRP Theory provides a basis for systems thinking or cognitive complexity as well as material complexity (systems science). This paper, as a relatively short primer on the theory, provides clarity to those wanting to understand DSRP and its implications.
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In the field of systems thinking, there are far too many opinioned frameworks and far too few empirical studies. This could be described as a “gap” in the research but it is more like a dearth in the research. More theory and empirical validation of theory are needed if the field and the phenomenon of systems thinking holds promise and not just popularity. This validation comes in the form of both basic (existential) and applied (efficacy) research studies. This article presents efficacy data for a set of empirical studies of DSRP Theory. According to Cabrera, Cabrera, and Midgley, DSRP Theory has equal or more empirical evidence supporting it than any existing systems theories (including frameworks, which are not theories). Four separate studies show highly statistically relevant findings for the effect of a short (less than one minute) treatment of D, S, R, and P. Subjects’ cognitive complexity and the systemic nature of their thinking increased in all four studies. These findings indicate that even a short treatment in DSRP is effective in increasing systems thinking skills. Based on these results, a longer, more in-depth treatment—such as a one hour or semester long training, such is the norm—would therefore likely garner transformative results and efficacy.
Article
Economists model self-control problems through time-inconsistent preferences. Empirical tests of these preferences largely rely on experimental elicitation using monetary rewards, with several recent studies failing to find present bias for money. In this paper, we compare estimates of present bias for money with estimates for healthy and unhealthy foods. In a within-subjects longitudinal experiment with 697 low-income Chinese high school students, we find strong present bias for both money and food, and that individual measures of present bias are moderately correlated across reward types. Our experimental measures of time preferences over both money and foods predict field behaviors including alcohol consumption and academic performance.
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The article discusses non-cognitive factors of learning, and how they can seriously affect student performance. Among the considered non-cognitive factors are: growth mindset, belonging and academic persistence and other personal qualities. Possible psychological interventions are described, which help to eliminate the influence of some negative factors. In particular, such as fixed mindset by replacing it with growth mindset. There are two ways in which teachers can solve social problems such as: belonging and stress. As well as helping to address students’ concerns about bias and unfair feedback. It is shown how the fear of students’ mistakes can significantly slow down their development process. And self-regulation skills have a strong positive correlation with learning outcomes. The approach of strengthening students’ sense of purpose by targeting their future image is considered. It is emphasized that psychological interventions will be effective only if they are implemented in ways that can significantly and effectively change the way students think about themselves, their group, their work. In addition, these interventions must be subtle and varied. And teachers should not only observe the group environment and the interactions that occur there, but also consider how these elements are interpreted by students. The most common mistakes that teachers make are highlighted and suggested how to avoid them. It encourages students to persevere because of failures only by offering to try again; psychological interventions as general, universal occupations; overestimation of students’ efforts. It is also noted that the way of thinking does not ensure academic success, so psychological interventions should be integrated with academic to improve both motivation and learning outcomes of students.
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Part-whole Systems (S) structure is foundational to a diverse array of phenomena such as belonging and containment, networks, statistics, reductionism, holism, etc. and is extremely similar if not synonymous with sets, sorts, groups, combinations and combinatorics, clusters, etc. In Cabrera (1998), part-whole Systems (S) or “S-rule” is established as one of four universals for the organization of information and thus is foundational to systems and systems thinking as well as the consilience of knowledge. In this paper, seven empirical studies are presented in which (unless otherwise noted) subjects completed a task. Ranging from n = 407 to n = 34,398, the sample sizes vary for each study but are generalizeable to a normal distribution of the US population. With high statistical significance, the results of these studies support the predictions made by DSRP Theory regarding part-whole Systems (a.k.a., “S-rule”) including: the universality of S-rule as an observable phenomenon in both mind (cognitive complexity) and nature (ontological complexity) (i.e., parallelism); the internal structures and dynamics of S-rule; S-rule’s mutual dependencies on other universals of DSRP (Distinctions, Systems, Relationships, and Perspectives (i.e., Distinctions, Relationships, and Perspectives); the role S-rule plays in making structural predictions; and, S-rule’s efficacy as a metacognitive skill. In conclusion, these data suggest the observable and empirical existence, universality, efficacy, and parallelism (between cognitive and ontological complexity) of part-whole Systems (S).
Article
Some people report encountering fewer obstacles during goal pursuit than others, but why is this the case? Seven pre-registered studies examine the role of goal motivation (want-to and have-to) and trait self-control in how individuals set up and perceive obstacles to goal pursuit in their environment. Findings show that want-to motivation and trait self-control were associated with reducing the experience of obstacles; have-to motivation was associated with a preference for greater proximity to obstacles. Have-to motivation was related to stronger perceptions of obstacles as problematic, and trait self-control was related to the perception of obstacles as less problematic. Discussion centers on nuances regarding these relations and their existence in different contexts, and on implications for self-regulation and motivation.
Article
The importance of perspective-taking crosses disciplines and is foundational to diverse phenomena such as point-of-view, scale, mindset, theory of mind, opinion, belief, empathy, compassion, analysis, and problem solving, etc. This publication gives predictions for and a formal description of point-view Perspectives (P) or the “P-rule”. This makes the P-rule foundational to systems, systems thinking and the consilience of knowledge. It is one of four universals of the organization of information as a whole. This paper presents nine empirical studies in which subjects were asked to complete a task and/or answer a question. The samples vary for each study (ranging from N = 407 to N = 34,398) and are generalizable to a normal distribution of the US population. As was evident in Cabrera, “These studies support—with high statistical significance—the predictions made by DSRP Theory (Distinctions, Systems Relationships, Perspectives) point-view Perspectives including its: universality as an observable phenomenon in both mind (cognitive complexity) and nature (material complexity) (i.e., parallelism); internal structures and dynamics; mutual dependencies on other universals (i.e., Distinctions, Systems, and Relationships); role in structural predictions; and, efficacy as a metacognitive skill”. These data suggest that point-view Perspectives (P) observably and empirically exist, and that universality, efficacy, and parallelism (between cognitive and material complexity) exist as well. The impact of this paper is that it provides empirical evidence for the phenomena of point-view perspective taking (“P-rule”) as a universal pattern/structure of systems thinking, a field in which scholarly debate is often based on invalidated opinioned frameworks; this sets the stage for theory building in the field.
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Nous présentons ici la traduction d’un texte sur les aspects développementaux de la fonction exécutive chez les enfants typiques et atypiques. Il s’agit d’une synthèse, assez unique en son genre. En effet, s’appuyant sur l’expérience clinique et la recherche (plus de 400 références expérimentales), elle privilégie une approche qui intègre la multiplicité des niveaux d’analyse en abordant notamment les phénomènes de la plasticité cérébrale et les influences multiples intervenant dans le développement des fonctions exécutives. Les auteurs abordent également les influences dynamiques réciproques des processus et des contextes (notamment familial et scolaire), sans oublier les implications possibles dans le domaine de l’éducation. Ce chapitre, rédigé par des chercheurs de pointe en psychologie du développement, présente donc un intérêt majeur pour les professionnels de l’enfance, pédopsychiatres, pédiatres, psychologues et neuropsychologues, rééducateurs (psychomotriciens, orthophonistes, ergothérapeutes ou thérapeutes occupationnels), infirmiers, éducateurs et enseignants (voire les parents informés). Mais ces aspects de la trajectoire développementale jettent un éclairage singulier sur la psychopathologie adulte, ce qui n’est pas sans intérêt pour la psychiatrie. Comme le rappelait encore tout récemment Adele Diamond (2016), les fonctions exécutives sont des facteurs clés qui prédisent la réussite à l’école et la réussite professionnelle, bien mieux que le QI : la prise en compte de la trajectoire développementale des composantes de la fonction exécutive d’un individu permettra de spécifier et d’optimiser les thérapeutiques, de favoriser une prévention optimale des troubles psychosociaux psychiatriques et développementaux, d’assurer une meilleure qualité des apprentissages réalisés par les enfants. Par ailleurs, de plus en plus d’équipes oeuvrent au développement de techniques et de programmes de remédiation cognitive, susceptibles de promouvoir le rétablissement (Franck, 2016 ; Giraud-Barod & Roussel, 2012) des patients en souffrance psychique. Ces programmes validés ne sont pas des procédures standard d’application indifférenciée mais doivent s’accorder avec les attentes, les points forts et les faiblesses du sujet qui s’y engage et vis-à-vis du contexte dans lequel il vit. Il s’agit de rendre au patient la capacité d’agir, d’être et de trouver un équilibre physique et mental dans son milieu. « Les techniques de remédiation cognitive ont pris une place centrale, incontournable au sein des techniques classiques de réhabilitation psychosociale » (Giraud-Baro & Roussel, 2012). Elles visent des processus neuropsychologiques extrêmement subtils et notamment les fonctions exécutives, indispensables à la réalisation des comportements adaptés aux situations nouvelles. Elles sous-tendent la capacité de se reconnaître être humain à part entière parmi les autres, doté et responsable d’un réel pouvoir de compréhension, de décision, d’action et d’échange. Un des premiers programmes est le CRT, pour Cognitive Remediation Therapy ou thérapie par remédiation cognitive, dont les versions initiales australiennes cherchaient à lutter contre les conséquences délétères des lésions cérébrales chez l’enfant (Frontal/executive program, Delahunty et al., 1993). Développé par T. Wykes et C. Reeder en Grande-Bretagne dans le domaine de la schizophrénie (2002), il a été traduit et validé en français par l’équipe du Professeur Nicolas Franck (2009). Depuis, l’alliance de cliniciens et de chercheurs permet d’adapter ou d’utiliser ce programme (et bien d’autres), de type crayon-papier, avec des enfants ou des adolescents présentant un TSA, un TDA/H, un trouble des apprentissages non verbaux, du contrôle de soi, des troubles des conduites ou une anorexie (i.e., Doyen, 20127 ; Doyen et al., 2015 ; Lapasset et al., 2013). De nouveaux programmes sont en cours de développement, y compris dans le cadre d’une déficience intellectuelle et peuvent combiner les approches informatisée et crayon papier (Cognitus et moi, Demily et al., 2016), mais tous tirent profit de l’affinement des connaissances sur la nature et le rôle des fonctions exécutives, y compris dans le domaine des relations sociales et affectives. Bien qu’il y ait un intérêt considérable pour ces dernières et de nombreuses recherches, nous ne disposions d’aucune synthèse complète en langue française, notamment sur le développement du fonctionnement exécutif et les facteurs qui l’influencent. Nous remercions donc le professeur Nicolas Franck de nous avoir permis de collaborer pour réviser la première traduction de Jérôme Alain Lapasset (psychomotricien en pédopsychiatrie après l’avoir été en psychiatrie, et praticien en remédiation cognitive) du chapitre des professeurs Stephanie Carlson, Philip David Zelazo et Susan Faja. Au fur et à mesure, nous est apparue la portée de l’enjeu. Comprendre le développement (typique et atypique) des fonctions exécutives depuis les stades les plus primaires, où elles ne sont encore qu’un concept unitaire, à l’adolescence, en suivant leurs différenciations et leurs spécifications, ouvre bien des perspectives quant à la prévention et la réhabilitation des troubles psychiatriques et autres conditions singulières. Tout homme, et le sens de soi, étant le fruit de ses expériences, de ses capacités d’adaptation et d’intégration, il est heureux que nous commencions à disposer d’éléments fiables susceptibles de déboucher sur de nouveaux modèles de la santé et de soins, liant la réhabilitation avec les dispositifs médicaux sociaux psychiatriques dont la pédopsychiatrie. En conséquence, nous mettons à la disposition de nos collègues francophones, et des étudiants, une traduction de cette synthèse remarquable.
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