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On Qualitative Difference in Learning. I - Outcome and Process

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Describes an attempt to identify different levels of processing of information among groups of Swedish university students who were asked to read substantial passages of prose. Ss were asked questions about the meaning of the passages and also about how they set about reading the passages, thus allowing for the examination of processes and strategies of learning and the outcomes in terms of what is understood and remembered. It was posited that learning has to be described in terms of its content. From this point differences in what is learned, rather than differences in how much is learned, are described. It was found that in each study a number of categories (levels of outcome) containing basically different conceptions of the content of the learning task could be identified. The corresponding differences in level of processing are described in terms of whether the learner is engaged in surface-level or deep-level processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Deep learning embraces dynamic and versatile theoretical definitions in the education domain. It is conceptualized as a learning method opposite to surface learning (Marton and Säljö, 1976). Subsequently, it is described as a learning process, in which individuals apply learned knowledge in a new context (NRC, 2012). ...
... The concept of deep learning As previous studies suggest, deep learning is originally conceptualized as a learning method. The concept of deep learning is first proposed by Marton and Säljö (1976), which is the opposite of surface learning. It has been noted that students who adopted deep learning methods tend to extract meaning, connect prior knowledge, and think critically. ...
... As Marton and Säljö (1976) argue, learning strategy in deep learning is not mechanical processing in surface learning, but Jiang . ...
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This study aims to (1) develop and validate the four-dimension model hypothesis of deep learning to better understand deep learning in language education; (2) investigate and promote deep learning by conducting a survey involving 533 college students in the online learning English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching context in China. Concretely, this study initially synthesized theoretical insights from deep learning in the education domain and related theories in the second language acquisition and thus proposed the four-dimension model hypothesis of deep learning involving the motivation of deep learning, the engagement of deep learning, the strategy of deep learning, and the directional competence of deep learning. This study subsequently undertook a questionnaire survey utilizing a standardized instrument to confirm the model hypothesis and further investigate the current status and salient differences in students' deep learning in online EFL teaching. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmation factor analysis (CFA), and Pearson's correlation test validated a positively correlated four-dimension model of deep learning with high composite reliability and good convergent validity. Moreover, the descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that the level of students' deep learning marginally reached the median, with the lowest mean of directional competence and the highest mean of motivation; students manifested more instructional motives, neglect of deploying skilled-based cognitive strategies, and deficiency of language application skills, etc.; there existed some significant differences between deep learning and four sub-dimensions across the grade, English proficiency, EFL course, and vision groups. Eventually, this study proffered primary reasons and five appropriate strategies to scaffold and promote students' deep learning in online EFL teaching. Hopefully, this study will be a pioneering effort to clear away the theoretical muddle of deep learning construct in language education and be illuminating to further improve effectiveness in the online EFL teaching context.
... It is anticipated that this critical realist approach will enable closer scrutiny of individual participants' aspirations and expectations of online learning without privileging voices beliefs and values to identify how these may impact on online practices. The extensive research studies on learning and teaching in conventional environments suggest student's and tutor's conceptions of learning will impact on learning and teaching strategies and the potential for achieving effective learning (Marton and Saljo 1976a, 1976b, Gibbs 1992, Ramsden 1992, Entwistle 1997, Prosser & Trigwell 1999, Biggs 2003). ...
... While Marton and Saljo's conceptions of learning can be criticised for privileging discourse over practice, nevertheless their work (1976a( , 1976b( , Saljo 1979) is useful in attempting to answer the question of why some students achieve effective learning while others do not. However given the conceptual pitfalls identified here and being cognisant of challenges to the reliability of diagnostic instruments as predictors of learning behaviour, it seems inappropriate to utilise the ASI as a diagnostic instrument in this study (Richardson (1996). ...
... Acquaintance with a changing world The two domains have resonance with the dualistic concepts of deep and surface approaches to learning (Marton and Saljo 1976a, 1976b and the teacher-centred/ student-centred focus in teaching (Prosser and Trigwell 1999) discussed earlier, and they firmly situate the challenges of how to educate within the social order. However ...
Thesis
p>The contribution of online learning environments to learning in higher education is examined by investigating what pedagogib approaches work and under what conditions, through comparative analysis of students' and tutors' experiences in six online learning initiatives selected as case studies, using interviews with tutors (N=7), and focus groups, nominal group technique and a questionnaire with students (N=121), to illuminate congruence and disjuncture associated with agential, practical and structural factors. A synergy between two distinct theoretical fields, Dewey's (1933, 1938) classical pragmatist approach to education and Archer's (1982, 2000a,) more contemporary critical realist approach in social theory is combined, to propose a theory of learning as transformation of experience through praxis and reflexivity, addressing the wholeness of human beings operating with their senses, emotions and cognitions in real and challenging situations. b Findings highlight praxis differences between learning as discursive knowledge and transformational learning through experience, between ontological security and risk, reflection and reflexivity, time-space distanciation and time-space compression, and between learning as product or process (Bruner 1966, Giddens 1984, 1991, Harvey 1990, Lash 2002). The scope of online learning is challenged by the tension between learning as a "quick fix" information commodity (Lash 2002) and as a purposeful human process (Dewey 1933) with structural implications through the radicalisation of time and space. The study reveals the significance of Archer's work as a powerful methodological framework for understanding the complexities of e-learning but also contends it is a model for understanding the learning process and enhancing educational practice. Archer's approach provides the ontological foundation for learning theories situated in practical action and reflexivity, with practice placed at the centre of learning supported by reflexivity as a key component of learning. This stance acknowledges the influence of prior experiences, situating learning in its social context and suggesting benefits of a systems approach to understanding learning where significant natural, practical and social order factors interplay, giving equal precedence to individual and structural enablements and constraints influencing morphostasis and morphogenesis in pedagogical praxis.</p
... Categories of description attempt to discover the range of relational and often hierarchical categories of experience in commonality and then variation within categories. Initially a methodology specifically orientated toward formal classroom type learning (Marton & Säljö, 1976in Svensson, 1997, it has expanded to include other fields, such as learning with technology (Souleles et al., 2014) and user experience of digital applications (Kaapu & Tiainen, 2010). Phenomenography is a non-dualist (Reed, 2006), second order analysis perspective (Sjöström & Dahlgren, 2002, p. 340), attempting to see from the perspective of the interviewees themselves by only looking at manifest transcript content, rather than make any latent assumptions about why interviewees say things, described by Bowden as "if it is not in the transcript, then it is not evidence" (Bowden, 2005, p. 15). ...
... These conceptual and cognitive domain equivalence mechanisms offer possible ways to describe levels and types of learning and may assist in developing criteria to evaluate implicit smart learning according to relevance and nature of activity. Lister Smart Learning Environments (2022) & Säljö, 1976& Säljö, , 2005Säljö, 1979b); • Hounsell's (1984• Hounsell's ( , 2005 'arrangement, viewpoint, argument'; • Bloom's Revised (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) and SOLO (Biggs & Collis, 1982) learning taxonomies. Figure 1 shows an overview of pedagogical alignment for PECSL experience CoD, levels of complexity and related pedagogies, along with concepts of surface to deep learning, supplemented by 'arrangement, viewpoint and argument' terms as ways to think about levels of learning and experience complexity. ...
... In relation to smart learning and autonomous learning environments, context is argued here as highly significant, impacting many aspects of potential experience complexity and depth of learning that might be possible. It is useful to note that Säljö's seminal work on conceptions of surface/deep learning (noting also Säljö's work with Marton, 1976 has continued to be featured in numerous pedagogical discourses (e.g. Biggs & Collis, 1982;Schmeck, 1988 (various);Biggs, 1995;Selwyn, 2011). ...
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This paper explores potential ways of evaluating the implicit learning that may be present in autonomous smart learning activities and environments, reflecting on prior phenomenographic research into smart learning activities positioned as local journeys in urban connected public spaces. Implicit learning is considered as intrinsic motivation, value and richer engagement by participants, demonstrating levels of experience complexity, interpreted as levels of implicit learning. The paper reflects on ideas for evaluating implicit smart learning through planning for experience complexity in the context of a pedagogical model, the Pedagogy of Experience Complexity for Smart Learning (PECSL), developed from the research. By supplementing this model with further conceptual mechanisms to describe experience complexity as surface to deep learning alongside cognitive domain taxonomy equivalences, implicit smart learning might be evaluated in broad flexible ways to support the design of more effective and engaging activities. Examples are outlined placing emphasis on learner generated content, learner-directed creative learning and supporting dialogue and reflection, attempting to illustrate how implicit learning might manifest and be evaluated.
... Learning strategy largely involves surface and deep learning. Surface learning refers to rote learning of isolated facts without true understanding of the content at hand (Marton & Säljö, 1976). In contrast, deep learning is characterized by active learning, such as relating the information to one's own experience, thereby leading to a genuine comprehension of the content and proper application of the information (Marton & Säljö, 1976). ...
... Surface learning refers to rote learning of isolated facts without true understanding of the content at hand (Marton & Säljö, 1976). In contrast, deep learning is characterized by active learning, such as relating the information to one's own experience, thereby leading to a genuine comprehension of the content and proper application of the information (Marton & Säljö, 1976). Simply put, surface learn-ing involves the mere transference of knowledge from the medium to the individual while deep learning involves one's discovery and exploration in the content (Platow et al., 2013). ...
... Applying this to learning strategies including surface learning and deep learning, surface learning is an efficient method to enhance grades in comparison to deep learning. Surface learning refers to rote learning of isolated facts without true understanding of the content at hand (Marton & Säljö, 1976). In comparison, deep learning is characterized by active learning, such as relating the information to one's own experience, thereby leading to a genuine comprehension of the content and proper application of the information (Marton & Säljö, 1976). ...
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The current research investigated the influence of the Fear of Losing Out (FoLO) mindset on learning strategy via performance goal orientation and its interaction with social comparison amongst Singaporean college students. In Study 1, a positive relationship between FoLO and performance goal orientations (i.e., avoidance and approach) was found. Study 2 replicated this finding and further revealed a downstream effect of FoLO on surface learning via performance goal orientations. In addition, social comparison moderated the link between performance goal orientation and surface learning in the mediation model. Specifically, in downward social comparison conditions, FoLO facilitated high performance-avoidance goal orientation, which in turn led to higher surface learning. Comparatively, in upward social comparison conditions, FoLO incited high performance-approach goal orientation, which in turn led to lower surface learning. Taken together, the findings yield significant theoretical and practical implications of FoLO on college students’ goal orientations and learning outcomes.
... Approaches to learning describe students' general intentions and strategies for approaching their studies (Entwistle, 1991(Entwistle, , 2000Marton & Säljö, 1976). Originally, a surface and deep learning approach were identified. ...
... The interview data of this study indicate which educational experiences and pedagogical approaches contributed to participants' development. Additionally, previous research has identified strategies to develop students' epistemic beliefs (Eastwood et al., 2017;Perry, 1968;Sandoval et al., 2016;Schommer, 1994) and influence their approaches to learning (Entwistle, 1991(Entwistle, , 2000Marton & Säljö, 1976). As demonstrated in this study, student appreciation of small-group active learning changed little and as a consequence of many experiences over the course of three years. ...
Article
Background Differences in students’ epistemic beliefs and approaches to learning influence how they appreciate small-group active learning methods. As students develop and advance through their study program, it is likely that their epistemic beliefs and approaches to learning change. However, it is unclear how these changes influence their appreciation of small-group active learning, and what this means for teachers who want to motivate and engage students at various stages of their study program. In a previous paper, we published findings of first-year medical students. In the present study, we followed up on the original student sample as they entered their fourth year. Methods We repeated the Q-methodological study procedure from the previous study to explore change in appreciation of small-group active learning. Participants rank-ordered 54 statements, answered open-ended questions about their rank-ordering, and completed a demographic questionnaire. We also invited participants to take part in a subsequent interview to reflect on changes in their beliefs about small-group active learning since their start of medical training. Results Twenty students participated (38.5% of the original sample). We decided on a 2-profile solution. Profile 1 students were ‘success-oriented’, while profile 2 students were ‘development-oriented’. Students’ appreciation of small-group active learning remained fairly stable over time, although key aspects related to students’ epistemic beliefs and approaches to learning developed. Seven students took part in the subsequent interview and reported personal, group, tutor, and medical program reasons for changes in their appreciation of small-group active learning. Discussion This study showed how and why medical students’ appreciation of small-group active learning changed over time along with development of their epistemic beliefs and approaches to learning. These findings contribute to the study of active learning in (medical) education because they highlight the development of students as they advance through their studies. What motivates and engages first-year students is not necessarily motivating and engaging for students in later stages. Our findings support the development of interventions that can help teachers to teach in active learning settings.
... Students' learn in qualitatively different ways, and student learning has been the focus of many studies (Marton and Saljo, 1976;Biggs, 1978;Entwistle and Ramsden, 1983). Saljo (1982) has pointed out that once the learner defines the situation as a 'learning situation' their perception of it is contingent on what learning in general means to them. ...
... Research into the process has also found the development of higher order intellectual skills. Studies by Collier (1983), Ruddock (1978), Entwistle et al, (1979), Marton and Saljo (1976) have all noted an increase in the 'deep processing' of the material studied. A further point is the identification of an enhanced sense of the personal meaningfulness of the material (Collier, 1983). ...
Thesis
p>The research illuminates current practice and the potential of higher education to educate the individual with regard to their awareness and understanding of their own learning through exploration of the tutor-student relationship. Within conventional tutor-student relations the tutor holds the authority. The research has explored that for students to increase responsibility for their learning, an 'adjustment of authority' needs to occur. Case study data has been explored in line with a critically reflective action research approach with tutor as researcher in order to gain insight to the student experience of the 'adjustment of authority'. Examination of the data has resulted in the emergence of principles to practice that recognise the relational nature of authority and responsibility and which indicate the need for the development of an appropriate context in order that students are able to increase responsibility for their learning. The research has also resulted in the nature of the practitioner being challenged and reconstructed through the continual exploration of practice. The practitioner is able to learn about their practice, whilst remaining open to further learning and whilst mindful of their situatedness. Through critical reflexivity this research attempts to move beyond the limitations of practice and focus on the personal research journey which provides a dynamic structure for understanding the experiences offered within the research.</p
... Approaches to learning were initially studied via a phenomenographic approach by Marton and Säljö (1976). Approaches to learning refer to the ways in which students deal with the academic learning tasks which correlate with their learning outcomes (Marton & Säljö, 1976). ...
... Approaches to learning were initially studied via a phenomenographic approach by Marton and Säljö (1976). Approaches to learning refer to the ways in which students deal with the academic learning tasks which correlate with their learning outcomes (Marton & Säljö, 1976). Then, Lee et al. (2008) focused on science learning and revised the Approaches to Learning Science (ALS) survey. ...
Article
Past studies have shown that students' conceptions of learning science (CLS) are related to their approaches to learning science (ALS) and to their self-efficacy for learning science (SELS), but it has not yet been studied whether parents' CLS play a role in children's ALS and SELS. This research investigated 472 pairs of Chinese high school students and their parents to identify the new predictive relationships among parents' CLS and students' ALS and SELS. In this study parents' CLS was divided into reproductive and constructivist conceptions. Students' ALS consisted of four factors, whereas SELS only extracted one factor. We found that (1) parents' constructivist CLS was positively associated with students' deep approaches; (2) parental reproductive CLS could positively predict students' surface strategies, while it was likely that the more constructive conceptions that parents held, the less their children would adopt surface strategies; (3) parental constructivist and reproductive CLS were both significant positive predictors of students' surface motive; and (4) parental CLS could make an indirect prediction through students' ALS. The findings indicate that parents should be cautious about the CLS they are portraying in their words and deeds to help foster their children's deep learning motive and strategies.
... Recently, DAL has received more and more attention from scholars in higher education research. Most research on DAL originated from Marton and Säljö (1976). The main argument is that students can use different methods to learn, and learning methods are closely related to learning outcomes (Ramsden, 2003;Duff and McKinstry, 2007). ...
... Deep approach to learning emphasize the purpose of understanding and applying critical thinking; surface approach to learning emphasize memory and fragmented knowledge. surface approach to learning is a learning goal achieved through rote learning (Marton and Säljö, 1976;Asikainen and Gijbels, 2017). Under DLA, students actively participate in the learning process, connect their ideas and find learning models and principles, and ensure that they understand the concepts they have learned (Bobe and Cooper, 2018). ...
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Higher education plays the role of cultivating talents in national development and meets the talent sources needed by the development of the state, industries and enterprises. Besides, for students, higher education can provide stimuli to improve the development of family and personal career. Especially for socioeconomically disadvantaged Students, higher education means the main factor for turning over the Socio- Economic Status. Universities endow students with abundant employment skills, so as to make them more confident in contending with the challenges in the job market. However, innate pessimism or negative attitudes and cognition may exist in socioeconomically disadvantaged Students, thereby providing effective learning context to improve their learning engagement. This study explores the influence on students’ career decision status from deep approach to learning, problem-based learning, self-efficacy and employability. A total of 627 valid questionnaires are collected in this study. PLS-SEM was adopted to verify the structural relationship in data analysis via SmartPLS. The results indicate that deep approach to learning and problem-based learning have significant impacts on students’ self-efficacy and employability; self-efficacy has significant impacts on employability and career decision status; employability has significant impact on career decision status; and that self-efficacy and employability play significant mediating roles in the research framework.
... In their research set in a non-fee-paying context in Romania, they examined this hypothesis by considering the extent to which psychology students adopted deep or surface approaches to learning. These approaches to learning have been well established in the literature following their introduction by Marton and Säljö (1976) and development by Entwistle and Ramsden (1983) and Biggs (1987). Deep approaches to learning involve enjoying searching for meaning and engaging with ideas with the intention of understanding, whereas surface approaches involve superficial engagement with a focus on simply reproducing knowledge to avoid failure. ...
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Social-psychological dimensions of learning are under-researched, but they affect student achievement. Within a marketized higher education context in England, United Kingdom, this study examined whether the relation between students’ social identities as members of their discipline and academic achievement could be further understood by considering the mediating roles of approaches to learning and frequency of making course complaints. Undergraduates ( N = 679) completed a questionnaire to assess these constructs. As expected, approaches to learning and course complaining both acted as serial mediators of the link between discipline identification and academic achievement: stronger discipline identification was related to more deep approaches to learning, less complaining, and higher achievement, whereas weaker discipline identification was related to more surface approaches to learning, more complaining, and lower achievement. The findings suggest that addressing these social-psychological aspects of learning could improve students’ academic achievement.
... In a seminal study on learning strategy use conducted by Marton and Säljö (1976), the authors interviewed university Frontiers in Education 02 frontiersin.org students to understand their learning processes and discovered two types: surface-level processing and deep-level processing. ...
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Many previous studies related to self-regulated learning have demonstrated that students with higher academic achievement tend to use varied and effective learning strategies. However, they cannot acquire these strategies in a short period. If learning strategies are acquired and used gradually, it may help specify individual levels of use and teach its usage in a reasonable order. Therefore, this study analyzed data on strategy use with item response theory (IRT) to specify students’ level of strategy acquisition and determine how they are ordered. Questionnaire data on the frequency of learning strategy use were obtained from students in five universities ( N = 472) and analyzed using the IRT model. It was shown that the average levels of students’ strategy acquisition were related to their universities’ academic achievement rankings.
... In brief, active and self-regulated learning deals with how students learn. One aspect of this is the surface versus the deep-level approach to learning [1]. The surface approach involves more descriptive accounts of action versus the deep-level approach that involves more understanding the basics and applying them in a certain context. ...
... The student's approach to learning was developed by Marton and Säljö [1], [2], and later developed by other authors like Entwistle or Biggs [3], [4]. Although it can be classified in several ways, two approaches are usually identified: Deep approach (DA) and Surface approach (SA) [2], [5]. ...
... The engagement of students is related to the student's approach to learning, a concept developed by Marton and Säljö [4], [5], and has two main approaches: deep approach (DA) and surface approach (SA) [6], [7]. However, other approaches have been also identified [6], [8]. ...
... Therefore, the online-learning process of these "information porters" is decentralized and instrumental in nature, lacking critical thinking, integration, and the reconstruction of information, thus contributing less to innovation output. It is a kind of Surface Approach (Marton & Saljo, 1976) [52]. On the contrary, the Qlty-KSP is more of a Deep Approach in the traditional learning situation. ...
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Digitalization provides opportunities for sustainable development. Cultivating postgraduates’ digital skills is an important task of higher education to support sustainable development (HESD). As a crucial way of cultivating digital skills, high-quality online learning processes are of great significance to achieve “Quality Education”, in line with the 2030 sustainable development agenda. Based on Biggs’s 3P (Presage-Process-Product) learning model, this study focused on the whole learning process and explored the relationship among postgraduates’ information literacy, online platforms, online knowledge-sharing processes and their innovation performance. The analysis of a questionnaire survey of 501 Chinese postgraduates showed that (1) information literacy has a positively predictive effect on postgraduates’ innovation performance; (2) different online learning processes lead to different learning results. Compared to the quantity-oriented online knowledge sharing process (Qty-KSP), the quality-oriented online knowledge sharing process (Qlty-KSP) is related to better innovation performance, which opens onto this study’s third finding: (3) Qty-KSP and Qlty-KSP play a parallel mediating effect between postgraduates’ information literacy and their innovation performance. Compared to Qty-KSP, Qlty-KSP is a more powerful intermediary variable, which leads to this study’s fourth finding; (4) an efficient online learning environment can contribute to higher-quality online learning process, thus improving postgraduates’ innovative performance. This study suggests that policy makers should develop postgraduates’ digital skills for sustainable development in the digital age. This can be achieved by (1) cultivating postgraduates’ information literacy; (2) encouraging them to practice high-quality online learning processes; and (3) providing an efficient sharing platform for sustainability, resilience, and digitalization in higher education.
... e concept of "deep learning" was first introduced in the field of education by American scholars Marton and Saljo [5]. According to their opinion, compared to shallow learning with passive learning, mechanical memorization and lack of reflection, deep learners pursue active learning and transfer application to practice based on their understanding of what they have learned, emphasizing critical and higher-order thinking. ...
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When combined with deep learning theory and blended learning characteristics, the author develops a blended teaching mode centered on “deep learning.” A blended teaching mode centered on “deep learning” is developed, and the professional course of “Personal Finance” at a higher vocational college in Jiangsu Province is used to demonstrate and apply the method. According to studies, teachers can effectively promote students’ deep learning by utilizing information teaching resources in a blended “online + offline” mode of instruction. The research shows that teachers can create a meaningful learning environment, stimulate students’ enthusiasm for autonomous learning, guide students to complete the construction of knowledge meaning, deepen the transmission and application of knowledge, solve practical problems, effectively promote students’ in-depth learning, and design a variety of evaluation methods to assist this process. The study of learning environment can stimulate students’ enthusiasm for autonomous learning, guide students to complete the construction of knowledge significance, strengthen knowledge transfer and application to practical problems, develop a variety of evaluation methods, and help students reflect on their learning gains.
... THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK CoVAA is a web-based collaborative video annotation and formative learning analytics environment that blends time point-based video annotation and interactive comments features, with dynamic learning analytics modules aimed at stimulating students' deep socio-cognitive engagement (i.e., deep learning) and rich peer interactions and social knowledge construction (i.e., social learning) around key disciplinary concepts. We refer to deep learning as a dispositional orientation of learners to seek meaning and understanding in their learning, thus enabling them to integrate new information with previous knowledge, synthesize new materials and make connections to form wider perspectives (Kirby et al., 2003;Marton and Saljo, 1976). Social learning dispositions we refer to as orientations of students to behave in prosocial and socially responsible ways in the course of learning, including productive help-giving and help-seeking behaviors (Wentzel, 1993;Tan et al., 2017). ...
... The concept of an 'approach to learning' was originally developed in Gothenburg by Marton and Saljo (1976a). They carried out a series of experiments to examine how university students 'approached' the reading of an academic text, and found that there was a qualitative difference in the way different students carried out the task. ...
Thesis
p>‘Taking a history’, or talking to a patient to find out their medical problems, is the first clinical skill learned by medical students. It is of major importance in making diagnoses, is often done badly, and influences the outcome for patients. However, there is little agreement about what constitutes a ‘good history’. Students receive conflicting messages about how they should ‘take a history’, are rarely observed doing it and see doctors ‘taking histories’ using a method quite different from conventional teaching. This study explored medical students’ and teachers’ views on the purposes and rationale for ‘taking a history’, the influences on these and students’ approaches to learning this skill. A theoretical framework for the learning process was used to develop research questions and to inform the methodology, which comprised individual and group interviews with a sample of third and fifth year medical students and teachers. These were analysed during a constant comparative method, and this gave rise to an exploratory model for the task of learning to ‘take a history’, which conceptualises three perspectives on ‘history taking’. The doctor-practitioner perspective sees the student’s role when ‘taking a history’ as acting as a doctor to gather selective information in order to make a diagnosis and plan patient care. The student-clerk perspective sees the student’s role as a clerk, collecting comprehensive information about a patient for the purpose of reference, and as part of the traditional culture of medical education. The patient-person perspective sees the student as a person talking with another person (the patient) about their medical problems, engaging with their individual context and concerns. This three perspective model, through specific to this one skill, is in line with the work of other writers on the overall culture of medical education. Two key conclusions are reported. Firstly, the tensions between the perspectives, many of which were never made explicit, tended to encourage students to take a surface approach to learning in the early stages, and to ‘play the game’ in later stages. Secondly, the perspectives model offers a theoretical framework which could facilitate discussion of the current tensions and inform curriculum development, with the ultimate aim of improving health care of patients.</p
... This suggested discrepancy between learned routines and the understanding of underlying principles can be understood as the difference between superficial learning and deep learning in processing information. Superficial learning focuses on learning facts and details with the intention to reproduce knowledge; deep learning, by contrast, concerns underlying principles or ideas (Marton & Säljö, 1976). Learning strategies are complex, and have been suggested to be a function of the student's personal characteristics and motivation along with the teacher's attitude and enthusiasm (Beattie et al., 1997). ...
... Es una cuestión sobreelevada que incide directamente en la calidad del aprendizaje pero que no supone una condición necesaria para que algún aprendizaje suceda. Ya sabemos que hay varias formas de aprender (Marton y Säljö, 1976;Biggs y Collis, 1982). ...
... In the context of the article, perceptions refer to the specific meanings that academics (or university employees who hold academic titles and participate in teaching mission of the university) attach to good teaching. Over the past three decades, studies on the perception of good teaching in higher education by students and academics have burgeoned (Biggs 2001;Chism 1999;Kember 1997;Kember and Kwan 2000;Kuppinger and Jucks 2017;Marton and Saljo 1976;Nabaho, Oonyu and Aguti 2017;Ramsden 1992). These studies revealed that good teaching is a contested concept (Skelton 2004) and therefore defies a single definition. ...
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There is a dearth of studies on academics’ perceptions of good teaching in transitional economies such as Uganda and the degree of parity between academics’ conceptions of good teaching and the items in the student evaluation of teaching (SET) questionnaires. Against this backdrop, the article reports on a study that explored how academics at Makerere University, Uganda, perceive good teaching and compared the resultant perceptions with the items in the SET questionnaires. The study employed a qualitative approach and data was collected by using semi-structured interviews and reviewing documents. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data from the interviews while the data from the documents was analysed using content analysis. The findings showed that academics perceive good teaching as: being knowledgeable; being student-centred; demonstrating good communication skills; undertaking research-based teaching; demonstrating professionalism; being approachable; and being organised. Finally, the findings demonstrated a convergence between academics’ perceptions of good teaching and most of the items in the SET questionnaires.
... erefore, with the support of online learning space, teachers and students have the opportunity to have a personalized online environment. Applying the online learning space to the real English subject teaching not only shows the idea of combining information technology with the subject but also becomes one of the important guides for applied research in the future [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. is study takes English as the subject background. ...
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With the comprehensive coverage of the Internet in China, the online learning space can basically cover the whole country, but in terms of the use of online learning space in education, it has not been fully used. The basic application mode of the school, namely, autonomous learning, flipped classroom learning, collaborative learning, exchange, and discussion learning, and personalized learning mode, based on flipped classroom learning and relying on network learning space, design the corresponding English teaching process based on network learning space, according to the teaching process, the specific design of the platform, content, organization, implementation, and evaluation. From the research results, the students in the experimental class are more active and active in class than in the control class, their work scores are generally higher than those in the control class, and their interest in English has been significantly improved. The ability has also been significantly improved. After long-term practical research, it has been shown that the performance of the experimental class students in the online learning space has also been significantly improved. Therefore, it can be shown that the English course based on the network learning space has a certain positive influence and promotion effect on the teaching effect.
... The Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) questionnaire has been used to explore three main constructs of learning approaches; deep, strategic and surface [35][36][37]. Students adopting a deep approach to learning tend to be intrinsically motivated to seek meaning from the topic, draw their own conclusions and are able to monitor the effectiveness of their own learning. In contrast, students adopting a strategic approach to learning tend to be organized with good time management skills and are normally motivated to achieve high scores in assessments. ...
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Introduction The approaches to learning students adopt when learning anatomy online could yield important lessons for educators. Dissection room teaching can encourage students to adopt a deep approach to learning anatomy. It was therefore hypothesized that the proportion of students adopting a deep approach to learning would be lower in a population learning anatomy online. This research aims to investigate the experiences of students learning anatomy online during the COVID-19 pandemic and the approaches to learning they adopted. Methods A survey was distributed to medical students at 7 universities across the UK and Ireland. The survey included two previously validated questionnaires: Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students and Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire. Results The analysis included 224 unique student responses. Students’ approach to learning mirrored reports from previous studies conducted during face-to-face tuition with 44.3% adopting deep, 40.7% strategic, 11.4% surface, and 3.6% combined learning approaches. The university (p = 0.019) and changes to formative (p = 0.016) and summative (p = 0.009) assessments significantly impacted approach to learning. Students reported that online resources were effective but highlighted the need for clearer guidance on how to find and use them successfully. Conclusion It is important to highlight that students value in-person opportunities to learn from human cadaveric material and hence dissection room sessions should remain at the forefront of anatomical education. It is recommended that future online and/or blended provisions of anatomy teaching include varied resources that maximize engagement with media featuring cadaveric specimens.
... Characteristics of students' learning approaches (reconstructedEntwistle, McCune, & Walker, 2001;Marton & Säljö, 1976) ...
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In this chapter, we conceptualize design thinking by examining two dominant discourses, which we call descriptive and prescriptive perspectives. The descriptive perspective aims to understand the way designers think and work but has been criticized for its absence of a clear definition of design thinking. On the other hand, the prescriptive perspective considers design thinking as a method to innovate and create value. The prescriptive design thinking perspective has been criticized for presenting a simplistic vision of design, which people without any previous training, knowledge, and skills in relevant disciplines may use out of context. This chapter attempts to provide a look “inside the box” by re-conceptualizing design thinking, not as a “doer method” but a cognitive process with a long research tradition. We argue for a synthesis of both perspectives in teaching and learning practices. In doing so, we present a pedagogical approach grounded in game-based learning to mediate an integrative perspective to design thinking, using an example from a higher education business class.KeywordsDesign-thinkingDesign cognitionGame-based learningIntegrative design-thinkingBusiness studies
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p>This research examines the impact of the dyslexic cognitive profile on the writing process. Seven undergraduate and postgraduate students from a University have participated in this study. The research records writing behaviours which occurred during the production of a written assignment. The task environment is naturalistic and embedded in the student’s coursework. Real time sampling data are used in conjunction with semi-structured interviews, drafts of written work and final text products to examine how the dyslexic students meet the demands placed upon them in the writing process in a Higher Education environment. The data show that, despite very individual cognitive profiles, a combination of working memory capacity and speed of processing deficits combined with weak literacy scores results in a disproportionate percentage of time being spent upon the translation component of the writing process. Thus, text generation and time and task are affected. The findings also demonstrate that these students have developed compensatory strategies, adapted to the cognitive deficits, to cope with the demand of this discourse community.</p
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