Article

The Use of the Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotation Test in Children

Journal of Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.22). 01/2012; 33(1):62-67. DOI: 10.1027/1614-0001/a000063

ABSTRACT

Previous studies found that children are able to perform mental rotation (MR) tasks with a gender difference from the age of 4. More recently, gender differences in MR were also reported in infancy. However, different kinds of paradigms and stimuli were used. The present study investigates whether the Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotation Test (VMRT; Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978) as well as another similar 2-dimensional stimuli test may be used with elementary and middle-school children, and whether gender differences are evidenced. Results show that boys outperform girls in the middle-school group only. Elementary school children encountered difficulties solving both the VMRT and 2D MR tests. The data confirmed recent results showing that gender differences in the VMRT performance were found at age 10. We further concluded that the VMRT and 2D MR tests may not be well-designed for elementary-school children. Further investigations should focus on gender differences in MR for children younger than 9 years old as well as on the underlying causes of such difference, using other experimental paradigms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Aymeric Guillot
  • Source
    • "The cube figures were similar to those used in mental rotation tasks designed for adults where the figures are images—not real objects. Children demonstrated good performance with the first two types of tasks but children performed only at chance with the 3D cubes task (see also Hoyek et al., 2012). On the other hand, some studies are finding that engaging with cubes as real objects may be within reach for young children. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability to mentally rotate objects in space has been singled out by cognitive scientists as a central metric of spatial reasoning (see Jansen, Schmelter, Quaiser-Pohl, Neuburger, & Heil, 2013; Shepard & Metzler, 1971 for example). However, this is a particularly undeveloped area of current mathematics curricula, especially in North America. In this article we discuss what we mean by mental rotation, why it is important, and how it can be developed with young children in classrooms. We feature results from one team of teacher-researchers in Canada engaged in Lesson Study to develop enhanced theoretical understandings as well as practical applications in a geometry program that incorporates 2D and 3D mental rotations. Children in the Lesson Study classrooms (ages 4–8 years) demonstrated large gains in their mental rotation skills during 4 months of Lesson Study intervention in the Math for Young Children research program. The results of this study suggest that young children from a wide range of ability levels can engage in, and benefit from, classroom-based mental rotation activities. The study contributes to bridging a gap between cognitive science and mathematics education literature.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
  • Source
    • "Recently, it has been suggested that prior to testing, children should be asked to distinguish pairs of stimuli as the ''same'' or ''different'' (Hoyek et al., 2012), providing an opportunity for the child to recognize the mirror image as distinct from the target. We designed a new measure of 3D mental rotation by considering these task features and tested whether it was sensitive to the development of 3D mental rotation in early elementary school children. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking is fundamental to later success in math and science. The goals of this study were to design and evaluate a novel test of three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation for 4- to 8-year-old children (N = 165) that uses tangible 3D objects. Results revealed that the measure was both valid and reliable and indicated steady growth in 3D mental rotation between the ages of 4 and 8. Performance on the measure was highly related to success on a measure of two-dimensional (2D) mental rotation, even after controlling for executive functioning. Although children as young as 5 years old performed above chance, 3D mental rotation appears to be a difficult skill for most children under the age of 7, as indicated by frequent guessing and difficulty with mirror objects. The test is a useful new tool for studying the development of 3D mental rotation in young children.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Mind Brain and Education
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying numbers of spectral channels. A dual-task paradigm combining an intelligibility task with either a linguistic or nonlinguistic visual response-time (RT) task measured intelligibility and listening effort. The simultaneously performed tasks compete for limited cognitive resources; changes in effort associated with the intelligibility task are reflected in changes in RT on the visual task. A separate self-report scale provided a subjective measure of listening effort. Results: All measures showed significant improvements with increasing spectral resolution up to 6 channels. However, only the RT measure of listening effort continued improving up to 8 channels. The effects were stronger for RTs recorded during listening than for RTs recorded between listening. Conclusion: The results suggest that listening effort decreases with increased spectral resolution. Moreover, these improvements are best reflected in objective measures of listening effort, such as RTs on a secondary task, rather than intelligibility scores or subjective effort measures.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research
Show more