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Abstract

Factor analysis of R. Hogan's Empathy Scale, scored in Likert format, yielded 4 factors: Social Self-Confidence, Even Temperedness, Sensitivity, and Nonconformity. Data for the analysis were obtained from 168 undergraduates and from the 45 research scientists and 66 student engineers in Hogan's (1969) study; 65 males and 45 females also completed a battery of personality measures (e.g., 2 scales of the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, the Survey of Ethical Attitudes, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index). Correlations with the 16 personality measures and a set of 12 adjective rating scales confirmed the factors' unique psychological meanings. Empathy subscales, created from items loading primarily on 1 factor, accounted for roughly equal amounts of variance in Hogan's original Q-set empathy criterion, although the Sensitivity and Nonconformity factors appeared to be slightly more important. Implications include ways to improve the scoring of the Empathy Scale for future research and several broader measurement issues: the costs and benefits of using sophisticated statistics, the importance of manifest item content, and the importance of scale homogeneity. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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... In addition to the two dimensions of appropriate accommodation and socializing style, HES also has sensitivity and other orientations. Therefore, HES is not a pure empathy scale, but more like a social skills scale (Johnson et al., 1983). The controversy over QMEE argues that it is related to the ability to evoke emotions in the overall environment, rather than specifically targeting human emotions (Mehrabian et al., 1988). ...
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This study aimed to revise the Chinese version of the Basic Empathy Scale for college students. The cluster random sampling method was used to select 805 college students from two universities to conduct confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, reliability analysis, and an independent samples t -test. The confirmatory factor analysis model illustrated that the two-factor model failed to fit the data, and the two-factor model with methodological effect was finally accepted. Therefore, the questionnaire exhibits a strong methodological effect among Chinese college students which requires further study. Emotional and cognitive empathy had a significant positive correlation with gratitude and Internet altruism behavior, which showed good convergent validity. The gender difference test revealed that the emotional empathy level of girls was significantly higher than that of boys. The revised Basic Empathy Scale showed acceptable reliability and validity.
... We believe the HES can be a valid and appropriate empathy scale to use for questions concerning face-to-face interaction outcomes such as those in counseling, health care delivery, education, family systems, etc. We acknowledge this directly contradicts the conclusions made by others who have assessed its validity and psychometric properties (Cross & Sharpley, 1982;Froman & Peloquin, 2001;Johnson et al., 1983). It is true that this 64-item scale has a problematic T/F response format and lacks unidimensionality. ...
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Recent reviews of the emapthy literature have) revealed that nearly half of the published studies on empathy employed an empathy measure that did not align precisely with the theoretical definition the author provided. This may occur because researchers might not know what each published empathy scale actually measures. The present research begins to address this problem by reporting a large set of correlates for five different empathy scales to enable researchers to review the interpersonal traits and abilities each scale predicted. Participants (N = 182) completed the Davis IRI and the empirically derived Hogan Empathy Scale (HES). Each empathy scale produced its own unique pattern of correlates with empathy related traits that more or less supported each scale’s description. However, none of the five scales reliably predicted empathy related abilities. We discuss the importance of examining a scale’s predictive validity over its reliability, face-validity, popularity, or name.
... Besides, empathy could be a necessary ingredient in the development of ethical behaviour (Mencl and May, 2009), because this area of human nature allows us to understand and sympathise with the actions and needs of other persons (Johnson et al., 1983) and plays an important role in helping behaviour (Mencl and May, 2009). Empathy could be affected by the education received and cultural context (Wang and Juslin, 2012) as well as by other aspects such as gender (Wang and Calvano, 2015). ...
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Purpose Society in general demands ethical behaviour in the business world. The research aim of the paper is to analyse whether higher education institutions of business contribute to ethical decision-making in students through a specific training approach based on practical methodologies that take into account students' personal characteristics, which may affect ethical decision-making. The acquisition of knowledge should be more effective when it is based on personal characteristics. Design/methodology/approach Case method, discussion and self-learning methodology were used, and at the end of the term, the students were evaluated and asked to complete a 48 closed-question questionnaire. A linear regression model is performed to analyse to what extent the results are associated to the variables proposed. Findings The results show that knowledge is an explanatory variable, but personal characteristics such as gender or empathy reinforce the learning. Gender difference affects the ethical decisions made and empathy, showing that training based on emotions is effective. Besides, the results show that students integrate family influence in their training process. Research limitations/implications In this paper, the authors have selected empathy, gender and instruction. They have taken into account the incidence of age and family education. In addition, other contextual factors can have an incidence on training and the model could be improved. Practical implications The results show that it is necessary to take into account the students' personal characteristics and select an appropriate training methodology to teach ethics and obtain success. Social implications The students graduating from these courses will be future managers and entrepreneurs and will make decisions in which ethical questions must be taken into account, hence the need for training in this respect. Originality/value The teaching of business ethics in business faculties is not an easy subject. It is necessary to select the approach of ethic and an effective methodology to achieve the learning objective. This learning methodology must take into account students' characteristics to be effective. The business students are future managers and entrepreneurs who will make decisions in which ethical questions must be considered, hence the need for training in this respect.
... The utilization of the theme of empathy in an objective way, that can be measured, has been present in American literature since the 1950s. Johnson, Cheek & Smither (1982), based on studies from the area of the psychology of social behavior, concluded that the construction of a psychometric instrument to measure people's empathy, must begin by encompassing the following factors: social self-confidence, constant moderation, sensibility and non-conformism. Therefore, these will be the factors to be analyzed to quantify people's structures of empathy by way of an instrument with close-ended questions on a Likert scale (with answers Complimentary Contributor Copy to affirmations that vary from, totally agree, an item with the highest score, to totally disagree, an item with the lowest score). ...
Chapter
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Andrea Kloß geht vor dem Hintergrund der zunehmenden gesellschaftlichen Polarisierung der Frage nach, welchen Beitrag fiktionale Unterhaltungsmedien leisten können, um bei ihrem Publikum Empathie und deliberative Offenheit im Diskurs mit Andersdenkenden zu fördern.In zwei experimentellen Studien mit Teilnehmern unterschiedlicher Bildungsniveaus kann die Autorin zeigen, dass Transformationsgeschichten, die eine versöhnliche Annäherung zwischen zwei Filmcharakteren mit gegensätzlichen Überzeugungen darstellen, bei den Rezipienten das gleichzeitige Erleben von Empathie für beide Charaktere begünstigen und dadurch ihre Offenheit für andere Ansichten stärken. Die Autorin Andrea Kloß ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft der Universität Leipzig. Ihre Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen in den Bereichen Medienrezeptions- und Medienwirkungsforschung sowie Unterhaltung und politische Kommunikation.
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Approaches to measuring empathy and component skills include self-assessment, as well as structured observer ratings quantifying the opportunities for empathy offered by patients during medical encounters and the health-care providers’ responses to these opportunities. In this chapter, we highlight validated self-rated instruments like the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy and the Individual Reactivity Index, as well as patient-rated empathy measurement tools like the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure. In addition, we will describe expert-rated empathy measurement tools like the Empathic Communication Coding System. We will emphasize the potential benefits of these tools as well as areas of further research needed to optimize measurement of empathy.
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To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of these 4 subscales. Hypothesized relationships among the IRI subscales between the subscales and measures of other psychological constructs (social functioning self-esteem emotionality and sensitivity to others) and between the subscales and extant empathy measures were examined. Study subjects included 677 male and 667 female students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at the University of Texas. The IRI scales not only exhibited the predicted relationships among themselves but also were related in the expected manner to other measures. Higher PT scores were consistently associated with better social functioning and higher self-esteem; in contrast Fantasy scores were unrelated to these 2 characteristics. High EC scores were positively associated with shyness and anxiety but negatively linked to egotism. The most substantial relationships in the study involved the PD scale. PD scores were strongly linked with low self-esteem and poor interpersonal functioning as well as a constellation of vulnerability uncertainty and fearfulness. These findings support a multidimensional approach to empathy by providing evidence that the 4 qualities tapped by the IRI are indeed separate constructs each related in specific ways to other psychological measures.
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• In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • In the last half-generation or so there has been increased emphasis on an understanding of personality functioning. It is asked what, if anything, is known or agreed to in this field. Is there a typical mother of schizophrenics, for example? In all the talk about the "creative personality" or the "authoritarian personality" just what is meant by these terms? What really is "hysteria"? Doctor Jack Block's monograph introduces the California Q-set—a method for describing comprehensively in contemporary psychodynamic terms an individual's personality. This method for encoding personality evaluation will prove highly useful in research applications by psychiatrists, psychologists, and sociologists, for it permits quantitative comparisons and calibrations of their evaluations of patients. He compares the Q-sort procedure with conventional rating methods and adjective check lists. He considers in detail the various forms of application of Q-sort procedure and appropriate statistical procedures to employ for these applications. Included in the Appendices are conversion tables for calculation of Q-sort correlations, California Q-set descriptions of various clinical concepts to be employed for calibration purposes, and an adjective Q-set for use by non-professional sorters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)